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1.
J Bone Joint Surg Am ; 101(19): 1775-1782, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577683

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rotator cuff disease is a major medical and economic burden due to a growing aging population, but management of rotator cuff tears remains controversial. We hypothesized that there is no difference in outcomes between patients who undergo rotator cuff repair and matched patients treated nonoperatively. METHODS: After institutional review board approval, a prospective cohort of patients over 18 years of age who had a full-thickness rotator cuff tear seen on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were retrospectively evaluated. After clinical evaluation, each patient elected to undergo either rotator cuff repair or nonsurgical treatment. Demographic information was collected at enrollment, and self-reported outcome measures (the Normalized Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index [WORCnorm], American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score [ASES], Single Assessment Numerical Evaluation [SANE], and pain score on a visual analog scale [VAS]) were collected at baseline and at 6, 12, and >24 months. The Functional Comorbidity Index (FCI) was used to assess health status at enrollment. The size and degree of atrophy of the rotator cuff tear were classified on MRI. Propensity score analysis was used to create rotator cuff repair and nonsurgical groups matched by age, sex, symptom duration, FCI, tear size, injury mechanism, and atrophy. The Student t test, chi-square test, and regression analysis were used to compare the treatment groups. RESULTS: One hundred and seven patients in each group were available for analysis after propensity score matching. There were no differences between the groups with regard to demographics or rotator cuff tear characteristics. For all outcome measures at the time of final follow-up, the rotator cuff repair group had significantly better outcomes than the nonsurgical treatment group (p < 0.001). At the time of final follow-up, the mean outcome scores (and 95% confidence interval) for the surgical repair and nonsurgical treatment groups were, respectively, 81.4 (76.9, 85.9) and 68.8 (63.7, 74.0) for the WORCnorm, 86.1 (82.4, 90.3) and 76.2 (72.4, 80.9) for the ASES, 77.5 (70.6, 82.5) and 66.9 (61.0, 72.2) for the SANE, and 14.4 (10.2, 20.2) and 27.8 (22.5, 33.5) for the pain VAS. In the longitudinal regression analysis, better outcomes were independently associated with younger age, shorter symptom duration, and rotator cuff repair. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with a full-thickness rotator cuff tear reported improvement in pain and functional outcome scores with nonoperative treatment or surgical repair. However, patients who were offered and chose rotator cuff repair reported greater improvement in outcome scores and reduced pain compared with those who chose nonoperative treatment. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

2.
J Knee Surg ; 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31569256

RESUMO

Revision anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) procedures are increasing in incidence and possess markedly inferior clinical outcomes (76% satisfaction) and return-to-sports (57%) rates than their primary counterparts. Given their complexity, a universal language is required to identify and communicate the technical challenges faced with revision procedures and guide treatment strategies. The proposed REV: ision using I: maging to guide S: taging and E: valuation (REVISE) ACL (anterior cruciate ligament) Classification can serve as a foundation for this universal language that is feasible and practical with acceptable inter-rater agreement. A focus group of sports medicine fellowship-trained orthopaedic surgeons was assembled to develop a classification to assess femoral/tibial tunnel "usability" (placement, widening, overlap) and guide the revision reconstruction strategy (one-stage vs. two-stage) post-failed ACL reconstruction. Twelve board-certified sports medicine orthopaedic surgeons independently applied the classification to the de-identified computed tomographic (CT) scan data of 10 patients, randomly selected, who failed ACL reconstruction. An interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated (with 95% confidence intervals) to assess agreement among reviewers concerning the three major classifications of the proposed system. Across surgeons, and on an individual patient basis, there was high internal validity and observed agreement on treatment strategy (one-stage vs. two-stage revision). Reliability testing of the classification using CT scan data demonstrated an ICC (95% confidence interval) of 0.92 (0.80-0.98) suggesting "substantial" agreement between the surgeons across all patients for all elements of the classification. The proposed REVISE ACL Classification, which employs CT scan analysis to both identify technical issues and guide revision ACL treatment strategy (one- or two-stage), constitutes a feasible and practical system with high internal validity, high observed agreement, and substantial inter-rater agreement. Adoption of this classification, both clinically and in research, will help provide a universal language for orthopaedic surgeons to discuss these complex clinical presentations and help standardize an approach to diagnosis and treatment to improve patient outcomes. The Level of Evidence for this study is 3.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31181030

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment algorithms for the arthroscopic management of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) syndrome remain controversial because of a paucity of evidence-based guidance. Consequently, notable variability in clinical practice exists between different practitioners, necessitating expert consensus. The purpose of this study is to establish best practice guidelines (BPG) using formal techniques of consensus building among a group of experienced hip arthroscopists driven by the results of a systematic review and meta-analysis. The scope of these guidelines includes preoperative recommendations, intraoperative practices, and postoperative protocols. METHODS: The validated Delphi process and the nominal group technique (NGT), used by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the peer-reviewed orthopaedic literature, were used to formally derive consensus among 15 surgeons in North America. Participants were surveyed for current practices, presented with the results of a meta-analysis and systematic literature review, and asked to vote for or against the inclusion of nonleading, impartially phrased items during three iterative rounds while preserving the anonymity of participants' opinions. Agreement greater than 80% was considered consensus, and items near consensus (70% to 80% agreement) were further queried using the NGT in a moderated group session at the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine annual meeting. RESULTS: Participants had a mean of 12.3 years of practice (range: 1 to 29 years) and performed an annual mean of 249 (range 100 to 500+) hip arthroscopies, with a combined total of approximately 52,580 procedures. Consensus was reached for the creation of BPG consisting of 27 preoperative recommendations, 15 intraoperative practices, and 10 postoperative protocols. The final checklist was supported by 100% of participants. CONCLUSION: We developed the first national consensus-based BPG for the surgical and nonsurgical management of FAI. The resulting consensus items can serve as a tool to reduce the variability in preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative practices and guide further research for the arthroscopic management of FAI.

5.
Arthroscopy ; 35(6): 1656-1657, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31159955

RESUMO

The concept of an "anatomic" anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction remains a major focus of active research in the literature, but the true definition remains elusive. Although most authors have defined this by a tunnel position contained within the native ligament footprint, it is clear that such a description is grossly inadequate to recapitulate the form and function of the native ACL: Aperture surface area, geometry, graft bundles, collagen fiber tension, and isometry, as well as incorporation and maturation, are all critical factors that affect the final outcome. It is clear that no single- or double-bundle ACL reconstruction in 2019 is in fact anatomic; rather, it is guided by the native anatomic landmarks to more appropriately place the new graft.

6.
Arthroscopy ; 35(6): 1819-1825, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31072717

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate radiographic and clinical outcomes after arthroscopic femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) correction in symptomatic adolescent athletes with open physes. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed radiographic and clinical outcomes in patients treated with a non-physeal-sparing arthroscopic approach for symptomatic FAI with open physes and a minimum 1-year follow-up. Specific plain radiographic and computed tomography parameters were determined, and preoperative and postoperative outcomes were prospectively evaluated with modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS), 12-Item Veterans-Rand, and pain on a visual analog scale. RESULTS: Thirty-seven hips (28 patients; 75% male) with a mean age of 15.9 years (range, 12.8-18.3 years) had imaging studies consistent with open femoral neck and iliac crest physes. The ischial tuberosity and greater trochanteric physes were open in 95% and 54% of the hips, respectively. All patients participated in organized athletics, and 50% were in multiple sports year-round. Mean follow-up was 39.8 months post-arthroscopic FAI correction. There was a mean 27.7-point improvement in the mHHS (P < .001), a 4.8-point decrease in the visual analog scale for pain (P < .001), and a 15.2-point improvement in the 12-Item Veterans-Rand physical component (P < .001). Ninety-three percent of patients returned to their preinjury level of sports participation without limitations. Thirty (81.1%) patients demonstrated improvements in mHHS greater than the minimally clinically important difference (of mHHS 8 points). Two patients could not reach minimally clinically important difference because of a preoperative mHHS of > 92. There were no postoperative physeal growth arrests, growth disturbances, physeal instability, or avascular necrosis. CONCLUSIONS: A non-physeal-sparing arthroscopic approach for FAI in adolescents with open physes is safe and effective with no evidence of clinically relevant complication of growth arrest-related deformity or physeal instability in patients with a minimum of 1 year (mean, 39.8 months) of follow-up after surgery. Young, highly athletic adolescent patients with larger FAI deformities demonstrated greater outcomes improvement after arthroscopy. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV, therapeutic case series.

7.
Am J Sports Med ; 47(6): 1404-1410, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31042440

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Traumatic anterior shoulder instability is a common condition affecting sports participation among young athletes. Clinical outcomes after surgical management may vary according to patient activity level and sport involvement. Overhead athletes may experience a higher rate of recurrent instability and difficulty returning to sport postoperatively with limited previous literature to guide treatment. PURPOSE: To report the clinical outcomes of patients undergoing primary arthroscopic anterior shoulder stabilization within the Multicenter Orthopaedic Outcomes Network (MOON) Shoulder Instability Consortium and to identify prognostic factors associated with successful return to sport at 2 years postoperatively. STUDY DESIGN: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. METHODS: Overhead athletes undergoing primary arthroscopic anterior shoulder stabilization as part of the MOON Shoulder Instability Consortium were identified for analysis. Primary outcomes included the rate of recurrent instability, defined as any patient reporting recurrent dislocation or reoperation attributed to persistent instability, and return to sport at 2 years postoperatively. Secondary outcomes included the Western Ontario Shoulder Instability Index and Kerlan-Jobe Orthopaedic Clinic Shoulder and Elbow questionnaire score. Univariate regression analysis was performed to identify patient and surgical factors predictive of return to sport at short-term follow-up. RESULTS: A total of 49 athletes were identified for inclusion. At 2-year follow-up, 31 (63%) athletes reported returning to sport. Of those returning to sport, 22 athletes (45% of the study population) were able to return to their previous levels of competition (nonrefereed, refereed, or professional) in at least 1 overhead sport. Two patients (4.1%) underwent revision stabilization, although 14 (28.6%) reported subjective apprehension or looseness. Age ( P = .87), sex ( P = .82), and baseline level of competition ( P = .37) were not predictive of return to sport. No difference in range of motion in all planes ( P > .05) and Western Ontario Shoulder Instability Index scores (78.0 vs 80.1, P = .73) was noted between those who reported returning to sport and those who did not. CONCLUSION: Primary arthroscopic anterior shoulder stabilization in overhead athletes is associated with a low rate of recurrent stabilization surgery. Return to overhead athletics at short-term follow-up is lower than that previously reported for the general athletic population.

8.
Sports Health ; 11(4): 355-366, 2019 Jul/Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31136726

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Amid extensive debate, evidence surrounding the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) for musculoskeletal injuries has rapidly proliferated, and an overall assessment of efficacy of PRP across orthopaedic indications is required. OBJECTIVES: (1) Does PRP improve patient-reported pain in musculoskeletal conditions? and (2) Do PRP characteristics influence its treatment effect? DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science libraries were searched through February 8, 2017. Additional studies were identified from reviews, trial registries, and recent conferences. STUDY SELECTION: All English-language randomized trials comparing platelet-rich therapy with a control in patients 18 years or older with musculoskeletal bone, cartilage, or soft tissue injuries treated either conservatively or surgically were included. Substudies of previously reported trials or abstracts and conference proceedings that lacked sufficient information to generate estimates of effect for the primary outcome were excluded. STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 1. DATA EXTRACTION: All data were reviewed and extracted independently by 3 reviewers. Agreement was high between reviewers with regard to included studies. RESULTS: A total of 78 randomized controlled trials (5308 patients) were included. A standardized mean difference (SMD) of 0.5 was established as the minimum for a clinically significant reduction in pain. A reduction in pain was associated with PRP at 3 months (SMD, -0.34; 95% CI, -0.48 to -0.20) and sustained until 1 year (SMD, -0.60; 95% CI, -0.81 to -0.39). Low- to moderate-quality evidence supports a reduction in pain for lateral epicondylitis (SMD, -0.69; 95% CI, -1.15 to -0.23) and knee osteoarthritis (SMD, -0.91; 95% CI, -1.41 to -0.41) at 1 year. PRP characteristics did not influence results. CONCLUSION: PRP leads to a reduction in pain; however, evidence for clinically significant efficacy is limited. Available evidence supports the use of PRP in the management of lateral epicondylitis as well as knee osteoarthritis.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Ortopédicos/efeitos adversos , Dor Pós-Operatória/terapia , Plasma Rico em Plaquetas , Humanos , Osteoartrite do Joelho/cirurgia , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Cotovelo de Tenista/cirurgia
9.
Am J Sports Med ; : 363546519831010, 2019 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31013139

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several recommendations have been made regarding pitch counts and workload for baseball players of different levels, including Little League, high school, collegiate, and professional baseball. However, little consensus is found in the literature regarding the scientific basis for many of these recommendations. PURPOSE: The primary purpose of this study was to summarize the evidence regarding immediate and long-term musculoskeletal responses to increasing pitching workload in baseball pitchers of all levels. A secondary purpose of this review was to evaluate the extent to which workload influences injury and/or performance in baseball pitchers. STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review. METHODS: We performed a systematic search in accordance with PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines for studies addressing physiologic and/or pathologic musculoskeletal changes in response to a quantifiable pitching workload. We included studies examining the effects of pitching workload on performance, injury rate, and musculoskeletal changes in Little League, high school, collegiate, and professional baseball players. RESULTS: We identified 28 studies that met our inclusion and exclusion criteria: 16 studies regarding Little League and high school pitchers and 12 studies regarding collegiate and professional pitchers. The current evidence presented suggests that increased pitching workload may be associated with an increased risk of pain, injury, and arm fatigue in Little League and high school pitchers. However, little consensus was found in the literature regarding the association between pitching workload and physiologic or pathologic changes in collegiate and professional pitchers. CONCLUSION: Evidence, although limited, suggests the use of pitch counts to decrease injury rates and pain in Little League and high school baseball pitchers. However, further research must be performed to determine the appropriate number of pitches (or throws) for players of different ages. This systematic review reported conflicting evidence regarding the use of pitch counts in college and professional baseball. Future high-quality research is required to determine the role, if any, of pitch counts for collegiate and professional pitchers.

10.
Arthroscopy ; 35(5): 1385-1392, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30987906

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare the delivered radiation dose between a low-dose hip computed tomography (CT) scan protocol and traditional hip CT scan protocols (i.e., "traditional CT"). METHODS: This was a retrospective comparative cohort study. Patients who underwent hip-preservation surgery (including arthroscopy, surgical hip dislocation, or periacetabular osteotomy procedures) at our institution between 2016 and 2017 were identified. Patients were excluded if they had a body mass index (BMI) greater than 35, they underwent previous surgery, or a radiation dose report was absent. The low-dose group included patients who underwent hip CT at our institution using a standardized protocol of 100 kV (peak), 100 milliampere-seconds (mAs), and a limited scanning field. The traditional CT group included patients who had hip CT scans performed at outside institutions. The total effective dose (Ehip), effective dose per millimeter of body length scanned, patients' age, and patients' BMI were compared by univariate analysis. The correlation of Ehip to BMI was assessed. RESULTS: The study included 41 consecutive patients in the low-dose group and 18 consecutive patients in the traditional CT group. Low-dose CT resulted in a 90% reduction in radiation exposure compared with traditional CT (Ehip, 0.97 ± 0.28 mSv vs 9.68 ± 6.67 mSv; P < .0001). Age (28 ± 11 years vs 26 ± 10 years, P = .42), sex (83% female patients vs 76% female patients, P = .74), and BMI (24 ± 3 vs 24 ± 3, P = .75) were not different between the 2 groups. Ehip had a poor but significant correlation to BMI in the low-dose CT group (R2 = 0.14, slope = 0.03, P = .02) and did not correlate to BMI in the traditional CT group (R2 = 0.13, P = .14). CONCLUSIONS: A low-dose hip CT protocol for the purpose of hip-preservation surgical planning resulted in a 90% reduction in radiation exposure compared with traditional CT. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level II, diagnostic study.

11.
Sports Health ; 11(3): 218-222, 2019 May/Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31013191

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Professional basketball players are at increased risk of hip and groin pain. Epidemiologic data exist on the prevalence of hip and groin issues among players in the National Basketball Association (NBA), but little is known about how these injuries affect athletes after retirement. HYPOTHESIS: A high proportion of retired NBA athletes would have hip and/or groin pain. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 4. METHODS: A survey was developed through an interdisciplinary focus group. The survey was developed to capture data regarding demographics, collegiate and professional athletic injuries, and current quality of life and musculoskeletal health. The questionnaire was electronically distributed to all members of the National Basketball Players Association using SurveyMonkey (N = 900). RESULTS: A total of 108 (12%) retired NBA players completed the survey. More than one-third (36.3%) of athletes report currently experiencing hip and/or groin pain, and 17.6% had received injections for hip or groin conditions since retiring from the NBA. Since retiring, 14.7% of respondents had undergone total hip arthroplasty. The median Tegner activity level scale was 3 out of 10. Nearly one-third (32.4%) of athletes report moderate to severe problems with mobility, and close to half (48%) had moderate to extreme pain/discomfort. CONCLUSION: Hip and groin injuries are common among NBA athletes, affecting players throughout their careers and into retirement. A subset of athletes may exist in whom intra-articular hip pathology is not appropriately identified and treated while playing in the NBA. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Retired NBA athletes are at high risk of hip and groin pain after retirement and are more likely to require total hip arthroplasty compared with the general population.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas/epidemiologia , Basquetebol/lesões , Virilha/lesões , Lesões do Quadril/epidemiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Aposentadoria , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/epidemiologia
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30927142

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Superior capsular reconstruction (SCR) has gained attention as a potential treatment option for those with massive irreparable rotator cuff tears without significant arthritis. The aim of this systematic review is to review and evaluate the current sources and quality of SCR literature as well as reported outcomes. METHODS: Three databases (PubMed, Ovid [MEDLINE], and EMBASE) were searched independently and in duplicate to systematically screen the literature. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) checklist guided the reporting and data abstraction. The results are presented in a narrative summary fashion using descriptive statistics. RESULTS: Overall, 58 studies were identified, including 304 different patients. There was a rapid increase in the number of publications observed over the past 3 years, with the most dramatic single-year increase noted from 2017 to 2018 (175% increase). There are no level 1 studies, and 95% of the included studies were level 4 and 5 evidence. Comparing pre-operative to post-operative pooled-weighted mean outcome scores, the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score improved from 44.2 to 84.8, the Visual Analogue Scale from 5.0 to 1.5, and acromiohumeral distance from 6.5 to 8.4 mm, respectively. Range of motion in forward elevation also improved from 111° to 152°. Among studies reporting, the complication rate was 13.4% with a revision surgery rate of 4.3%. CONCLUSION: Over the past 3 years there has been considerable growth in the number of publications of publications related to SCR. Despite a lack of high-quality clinical evidence, preliminary available evidence does suggest promising results both functionally and radiographically. There is a need for future higher-quality research such as large randomized controlled trials to improve our current understanding of the benefits of SCR.

14.
Arthroscopy ; 35(4): 1243-1253, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30878327

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To systematically review and evaluate the efficacy and complication profile of superior capsular reconstruction (SCR) as a technique to address massive, irreparable rotator cuff tears (MIRCTs). METHODS: Searches of the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Embase, MEDLINE, PubMed, and conference abstracts of 4 major conferences identified clinical studies addressing SCR for MIRCTs. Two reviewers independently screened the titles, abstracts, and full texts, extracting data from eligible studies. Reported outcome measures and complications were descriptively analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 10 studies, 7 full texts and 3 conference abstracts, satisfied the inclusion criteria. The included studies examined a total of 350 shoulders with a mean patient age of 60.6 years and mean follow-up period of 20.6 months postoperatively. Only 4 studies had a minimum of 24-month follow-up data. Statistically significant improvements in pain and function were noted in all studies reporting results, with mean improvement ranging from 29.4 to 68.5 and from 2.5 to 5.9 points across the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score and visual analog scale score, respectively. Mean improvement in range of motion ranged from 21.7° to 64.0° in elevation and from 9.0° to 15.0° in external rotation. Statistically significant improvements in the postoperative acromiohumeral distance were noted in 4 of 5 reporting studies, with a mean increase ranging from 2.2 to 5.0 mm. The combined clinical and radiographic failure and/or retear rate ranged from 3.4% to 36.1%. Complications for all studies included deep infection (0%-2%), symptomatic suture anchor loosening (0%-4%), and severe shoulder contracture (0%-2%). CONCLUSIONS: Arthroscopic SCR represents an accepted surgical option for patients with MIRCTs, with short-term improvements shown in pain, range of motion, and function. Although early results are promising, further studies are necessary to determine the long-term success of this technique and to better delineate the clinical indications, survivorship, and risk factors for failure in this population. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV, systematic review of Level III and IV studies.

15.
J Bone Joint Surg Am ; 101(3): 228-238, 2019 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30730482

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fat accumulation commonly occurs in chronically torn rotator cuff muscles, and increased fat within the rotator cuff is correlated with poor clinical outcomes. The extent of lipid deposition is particularly pronounced in injured rotator cuff muscles compared with other commonly injured muscles such as the gastrocnemius. Satellite cells, which are a tissue-resident muscle stem-cell population, can differentiate into fat cells. We hypothesized that satellite cells from the rotator cuff have greater intrinsic adipogenic differentiation potential than do gastrocnemius satellite cells, and this difference is due to variations in epigenetic imprinting between the cells. METHODS: Satellite cells from gastrocnemius and rotator cuff muscles of mice were cultured in adipogenic media, and the capacity to differentiate into mature muscle cells and adipogenic cells was assessed (n ≥ 9 plates per muscle group). We also performed DNA methylation analysis of gastrocnemius and rotator cuff satellite cells to determine whether epigenetic differences were present between the 2 groups (n = 5 mice per group). RESULTS: Compared with the gastrocnemius, satellite cells from the rotator cuff had a 23% reduction in myogenic differentiation and an 87% decrease in the expression of the differentiated muscle cell marker MRF4 (myogenic regulatory factor 4). With respect to adipogenesis, rotator cuff satellite cells had a 4.3-fold increase in adipogenesis, a 12-fold increase in the adipogenic transcription factor PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma), and a 65-fold increase in the adipogenic marker FABP4 (fatty-acid binding protein 4). Epigenetic analysis identified 355 differentially methylated regions of DNA between rotator cuff and gastrocnemius satellite cells, and pathway enrichment analysis suggested that these regions were involved with lipid metabolism and adipogenesis. CONCLUSIONS: Satellite cells from rotator cuff muscles have reduced myogenic and increased adipogenic differentiation potential compared with gastrocnemius muscles. There appears to be a cellular and genetic basis behind the generally poor rates of rotator cuff muscle healing. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The reduced myogenic and increased adipogenic capacity of rotator cuff satellite cells is consistent with the increased fat content and poor muscle healing rates often observed for chronically torn rotator cuff muscles. For patients undergoing rotator cuff repair, transplantation of autologous satellite cells from other muscles less prone to fatty infiltration may improve clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Adipogenia/fisiologia , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Muscular/fisiologia , Manguito Rotador/citologia , Células-Tronco/citologia , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Metilação de DNA , Masculino , Camundongos Transgênicos , Fatores de Regulação Miogênica/metabolismo
16.
Am J Sports Med ; 47(5): 1043-1050, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30735622

RESUMO

BACKGROUND:: Opioid-related morbidity and mortality are major public health concerns, and the risk of long-term opioid use after shoulder arthroscopy is not well defined. HYPOTHESIS:: Substance abuse disorders, pain disorders, and psychiatric conditions increase the risk for prolonged opioid use. STUDY DESIGN:: Case-control study, Level of evidence, 3. METHODS:: Insurance claims data from the Truven Health MarketScan Research Databases was used to identify patients who underwent shoulder arthroscopy between January 1, 2010, and March 31, 2015. Opioid-naïve patients were included. New prolonged opioid use was defined as continued opioid use between 91 and 180 days after the index procedure. The authors used a multivariable logistic regression model to identify patient factors associated with the risk of new prolonged opioid use. RESULTS:: In this cohort of 104,154 opioid-naïve adult patients, 8686 (8.3%) developed new prolonged opioid use as defined in this study. A total of 31,768 (30.5%) filled an opioid prescription in the 30 days before surgery. Patients who had limited debridement had the highest prolonged use rate (9.0%), followed by rotator cuff repair (8.5%), anterior labrum lesion repair (8.5%), and extensive debridement (8.2%). Patient characteristics associated with the highest odds ratios (ORs) of prolonged opioid use included those who had a total opioid dose during the perioperative period that was ≥743 oral morphine equivalents (ie, at least 149 tablets of 5-mg hydrocodone) (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.9-2.1), followed by patients with a suicide and self-harm disorder (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.1-3.4), a history of alcohol dependence or abuse (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.3-1.9), a mood disorder (OR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.2-1.4), an opioid prescription filled in the 30 days before surgery (OR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.2-1.4), female sex (OR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.2-1.3), an anxiety disorder (OR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.1-1.3), and a history of a pain diagnosis (OR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.1-1.2). CONCLUSION:: The risk of prolonged opioid use after arthroscopic shoulder procedures is 8.3%, and it is higher among women and among those with greater opioid use in the early postoperative period, mental health conditions, substance dependence and abuse, and preexisting pain disorders. Patients at high risk warrant close surveillance after surgery for early recognition and management.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30502030

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hyaluronic acid (HA) is an analgesic and chondroprotective agent often used for the nonoperative treatment of osteoarthritis (OA). The effects of HA injections are well studied in the treatment of knee OA, but the effects in glenohumeral OA remain unclear. This study evaluated the efficacy of HA to reduce pain in patients with glenohumeral OA. METHODS: PubMed, MEDLINE, CENTRAL, and Embase were searched from the database inception date through January 16, 2018. Two reviewers independently screened articles for eligibility and extracted data for analysis. A methodological quality assessment was completed for all included studies, including assessment of risk of bias. The primary outcome was change in visual analog scale for pain. The secondary outcomes were functional outcome and adverse events. RESULTS: In the HA arm, the reduction of visual analog scale pain score at 3 months was 26.2 mm (95% confidence interval, 22.0-30.3 mm; I2 = 31%) and at 6 months was 29.5 mm (95% confidence interval, 25.5-33.4 mm; I2 = 19%). All studies reported an improvement in functional outcome. Similar clinical improvements were reported in the intervention and control groups, suggesting that these improvements may not be directly related to HA. Commonly reported adverse events were rare and included swelling and mild pain at the injection site, local effusion, lethargy, and face rash. CONCLUSION: Intra-articular HA injection is safe and improves pain for patients with glenohumeral OA. Pain improvements also reported in the control group suggest that a significant placebo effect may be present with respect to intra-articular shoulder injection. Further randomized controlled trials are necessary to evaluate the efficacy of HA and identify optimal dosing and route of administration.

18.
Adv Ther ; 2018 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30506407

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Kellgren-Lawrence (K-L) grade is the most commonly used measure of radiographic disease severity in knee osteoarthritis (OA). Studies suggest that intra-articular hyaluronic acid (IA-HA) should only be considered in cases of early stage knee OA. The purpose of this review was to determine if trials administering IA-HA in early-moderate knee OA patients demonstrated greater pain relief than studies that also included patients with end-stage disease. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search of the literature to identify randomized controlled trials (RCT) comparing IA-HA with saline injections and that diagnosed disease severity using the K-L grade criteria. The primary outcome was mean change in pain from baseline at 4-13 weeks and 22-27 weeks. Safety was evaluated on the total number of participants experiencing a treatment-related adverse event (AE). RESULTS: Twenty RCTs were included. In the early-moderate OA subgroup, the mean change in pain scores was statistically significant favoring IA-HA from baseline to 4-13 weeks [SMD = - 0.30, 95% CI - 0.44 to - 0.15, p < 0.0001] and within 22-27 weeks [SMD = - 0.27, 95% CI - 0.39 to - 0.16, p < 0.00001]. No significant differences were observed in the late OA subgroup. IA-HA was associated with a significantly greater risk of treatment-related AEs relative to saline in the late OA subgroup [RR = 1.76, 95% CI 1.16-2.67, p = 0.008]. CONCLUSION: IA-HA provides significant pain relief compared to saline for patients with early-moderate knee OA, compared to cohorts including patients with end-stage OA (KL grade 4), with no increase in the risk of treatment-related AEs, up to 6 months. Patients with end-stage disease had lower levels of pain relief and may be diluting study results if included in the treatment cohort. FUNDING: Ferring Pharmaceuticals.

19.
J Shoulder Elbow Surg ; 27(12): 2284-2291, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30318276

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) of the elbow is commonly injured in overhead athletes, especially baseball pitchers. UCL reconstruction has shown good outcomes regarding return to play, but revision rates are on the rise. This review was conducted to determine the effect of elbow flexion angle during graft fixation on outcomes and complications after UCL reconstruction. METHODS: MEDLINE, Embase, and PubMed were searched from database inception to November 16, 2017. Patient demographics, surgical technique, graft selection, outcomes, and complications were extracted from the included studies. The quality of each study was assessed in duplicate with the Methodological Index for Non-Randomized Studies criteria. Descriptive statistics are presented. RESULTS: Six studies, with a total of 1168 patients, were included, and all were case series. Excellent Conway scores were present in 83.8% of patients for the 0° to 30° group and in 91.1% of patients for the 45° to 70° group, with no significant differences in return to play between the groups. The rate of revision UCL reconstruction was significantly higher with graft fixation at 0° to 30° (1.4%) compared with fixation at 45° to 70° (0%; P < .01). CONCLUSIONS: Elbow flexion angle during graft fixation may not influence return to the same or higher level of competition but appears to influence the need for a revision after UCL reconstruction. However, the available current evidence possesses a high degree of fragility, and further studies are needed with objective measurements to determine the optimal elbow flexion angle for graft fixation.

20.
Am J Sports Med ; : 363546518798768, 2018 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30289275

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Injury to the ulnar collateral ligament of the elbow is relatively common among baseball pitchers. Ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction (UCLR) has revolutionized the management of this injury, allowing a greater proportion of pitchers to return to play. PURPOSE: To assess the return to play and in-game performance specific to baseball pitchers who have undergone primary UCLR. STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review. METHODS: This review was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses). The electronic databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PubMed were searched for relevant studies, and pertinent data were abstracted. Only studies reporting in-game performance statistics (earned run average [ERA], pitching velocity, innings pitched per season, etc) of pitchers after UCLR were included. The methodological index for nonrandomized studies (MINORS) was used to assess study quality. RESULTS: A total of 14 studies and 1520 pitchers were included in this systematic review. All studies were of level 3 or 4 evidence, and the mean ± SD MINORS score was 14.4 ± 3.0, which indicates fair quality of evidence for nonrandomized studies. The rates of return to any level of pitching after UCLR ranged from 79% to 100%. Subgroup analysis revealed that 79% to 87% of Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers returned to preinjury levels of pitching. The mean time to return to play was 19.8 ± 13.5 months, and the mean time to return to competition for MLB pitchers was 17.3 ± 2.4 months. Of the 5 studies reporting ERA, 2 cited a significant increase after UCLR, and 1 indicated a significant decrease. Of the 4 studies reporting fastball velocity, 3 cited decreased pitching velocities after UCLR. All studies found that pitchers pitched, on average, fewer innings per game or season after UCLR. CONCLUSION: There was a high rate of return to pitching after UCLR. However, most studies showed that UCLR was associated with a prolonged recovery and significant decline in pitching performance as objectively measured by in-game statistics. The strength of these conclusions is limited by the quality of the available literature and inconsistencies in the reporting of outcomes.

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