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1.
Thyroid ; 2020 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32746749

RESUMO

Background: Observational studies have demonstrated that variation in normal range thyroid function is associated with major cardiovascular risk factors, including dyslipidemia, hypertension, type 2 diabetes (T2D), and obesity. As observational studies are prone to residual confounding, reverse causality, and selection bias, we used a Mendelian randomization (MR) approach to investigate whether these associations are causal or not. Methods: Two-sample MR analysis using data from the largest available genome-wide association studies on normal range thyrotropin (TSH) and free thyroxine (fT4) levels, serum lipid levels, blood pressure measurements, T2D, and obesity traits (body mass index [BMI] and waist/hip ratio). Results: A one standard deviation (SD) increase in genetically predicted TSH levels was associated with a 0.037 SD increase in total cholesterol levels (p = 3.0 × 10-4). After excluding pleiotropic instruments, we also observed significant associations between TSH levels and low-density lipoprotein levels (ß = 0.026 SD, p = 1.9 × 10-3), pulse pressure (ß = -0.477 mmHg, p = 7.5 × 10-10), and T2D risk (odds ratio = 0.95, p = 2.5 × 10-3). While we found no evidence of causal associations between TSH or fT4 levels and obesity traits, we found that a one SD increase in genetically predicted BMI was associated with a 0.075 SD decrease in fT4 levels (p = 3.6 × 10-4). Conclusions: Variation in normal range thyroid function affects serum cholesterol levels, blood pressure, and T2D risk.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32612575

RESUMO

Background: The mutation frequencies of pituitary transcription factors genes in patients with combined pituitary hormone deficiencies (CPHD) vary substantially between populations. However, apart from PROP1 the mutation rate of other genes is low and for almost half of the patients with CPHD the routine sequencing of known genes is unsuccessful in the identification of genetic causes. Methods: A cohort of 66 sporadic and nine familial CPHD cases (80 patients in total) were subjected to initial testing of the genes PROP1, POU1F1, LHX3, LHX4, and HESX1 using a targeted gene panel and MLPA. In patients who tested negative, a whole exome sequencing approach was employed. Results: In nine of the familial cases and 32 of the sporadic patients mutations in the PROP1 gene were found (the common pathogenic variants included c.301_302delAG and c.150delA). Mutations were also found in genes so far not related directly to CPHD. A unique homozygous and clinically relevant variant was identified in the SEMA3A gene, which may contribute to neural development and his phenotypic spectrum including short stature and isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH). Another pathogenic variant p.A1672T was found in the IGSF10 gene reported to be responsible for delayed puberty and neuronal migration during embryogenesis. Several suspected novel but predicted benign variants were also identified for the CHD7, WDR11 and FGF17 genes. Conclusion: Although PROP1 defects account for a majority of CPHD patients, identification of rare, less frequent variants constitutes a big challenge. Multiple genetic factors responsible for CPHD are still awaiting discovery and therefore the usage of efficient genomic tools (i.e., whole exome sequencing) will further broaden our knowledge regarding pituitary development and function.

3.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(9)2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32710632

RESUMO

CONTEXT: The genetic background of young-onset Graves disease (GD) remains largely unknown. An intronic variant in human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex P5 (HCP5) has previously been associated with GD susceptibility and age of onset in a cohort of Polish patients. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the association of the HCP5 variant rs3094228 with GD susceptibility and age of onset in a UK cohort and conduct a meta-analysis of UK and Polish data. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: rs3094228 was genotyped in 469 UK patients with GD using Taqman chemistry. Genotype frequencies were compared with genotypic data available from the Wellcome Trust case-control consortium using logistic regression analysis. To determine whether rs3094228 is independently associated with age of GD onset, the HLA DRB1*0301 tagging variant, rs535777, was also genotyped. RESULTS: The C allele of rs3094228 was overrepresented in the UK GD cohort compared with controls (P allele=5.08 × 10-9, odds ratio 1.76; [95% confidence interval, 1.46-2.13]). This association was more marked in young-onset GD (<30 years) (P allele=1.70 × 10-10 vs P allele=0.0008). The meta-analysis of UK and Polish data supported the association of the C allele with GD susceptibility (P allele=1.79 × 10-5) and age of onset (P allele=5.63 × 10-8). Haplotype analysis demonstrated that rs3094228 is associated with age of GD onset (P = 2.39 × 10-6) independent of linkage disequilibrium with HLA DRB1*0301. CONCLUSION: The rs3094228 HCP5 polymorphism is independently associated with GD susceptibility and age of onset in a UK GD cohort. Our findings indicate a potential role of long noncoding ribonucleic acids, including HCP5, in GD pathogenesis, particularly in the younger population.

4.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 8(9): 773-781, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711725

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional imaging regularly results in incidental discovery of adrenal tumours, requiring exclusion of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). However, differentiation is hampered by poor specificity of imaging characteristics. We aimed to validate a urine steroid metabolomics approach, using steroid profiling as the diagnostic basis for ACC. METHODS: We did a prospective multicentre study in adult participants (age ≥18 years) with newly diagnosed adrenal masses. We assessed the accuracy of diagnostic imaging strategies based on maximum tumour diameter (≥4 cm vs <4 cm), imaging characteristics (positive vs negative), and urine steroid metabolomics (low, medium, or high risk of ACC), separately and in combination, using a reference standard of histopathology and follow-up investigations. With respect to imaging characteristics, we also assessed the diagnostic utility of increasing the unenhanced CT tumour attenuation threshold from the recommended 10 Hounsfield units (HU) to 20 HU. FINDINGS: Of 2169 participants recruited between Jan 17, 2011, and July 15, 2016, we included 2017 from 14 specialist centres in 11 countries in the final analysis. 98 (4·9%) had histopathologically or clinically and biochemically confirmed ACC. Tumours with diameters of 4 cm or larger were identified in 488 participants (24·2%), including 96 of the 98 with ACC (positive predictive value [PPV] 19·7%, 95% CI 16·2-23·5). For imaging characteristics, increasing the unenhanced CT tumour attenuation threshold to 20 HU from the recommended 10 HU increased specificity for ACC (80·0% [95% CI 77·9-82·0] vs 64·0% [61·4-66.4]) while maintaining sensitivity (99·0% [94·4-100·0] vs 100·0% [96·3-100·0]; PPV 19·7%, 16·3-23·5). A urine steroid metabolomics result indicating high risk of ACC had a PPV of 34·6% (95% CI 28·6-41·0). When the three tests were combined, in the order of tumour diameter, positive imaging characteristics, and urine steroid metabolomics, 106 (5·3%) participants had the result maximum tumour diameter of 4 cm or larger, positive imaging characteristics (with the 20 HU cutoff), and urine steroid metabolomics indicating high risk of ACC, for which the PPV was 76·4% (95% CI 67·2-84·1). 70 (3·5%) were classified as being at moderate risk of ACC and 1841 (91·3%) at low risk (negative predictive value 99·7%, 99·4-100·0). INTERPRETATION: An unenhanced CT tumour attenuation cutoff of 20 HU should replace that of 10 HU for exclusion of ACC. A triple test strategy of tumour diameter, imaging characteristics, and urine steroid metabolomics improves detection of ACC, which could shorten time to surgery for patients with ACC and help to avoid unnecessary surgery in patients with benign tumours. FUNDING: European Commission, UK Medical Research Council, Wellcome Trust, and UK National Institute for Health Research, US National Institutes of Health, the Claire Khan Trust Fund at University Hospitals Birmingham Charities, and the Mayo Clinic Foundation for Medical Education and Research.


Assuntos
Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/urina , Metabolômica/métodos , Esteroides/urina , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Achados Incidentais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
5.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(9)2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32501499

RESUMO

CONTEXT: The genetic background of young-onset Graves disease (GD) remains largely unknown. An intronic variant in human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex P5 (HCP5) has previously been associated with GD susceptibility and age of onset in a cohort of Polish patients. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the association of the HCP5 variant rs3094228 with GD susceptibility and age of onset in a UK cohort and conduct a meta-analysis of UK and Polish data. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: rs3094228 was genotyped in 469 UK patients with GD using Taqman chemistry. Genotype frequencies were compared with genotypic data available from the Wellcome Trust case-control consortium using logistic regression analysis. To determine whether rs3094228 is independently associated with age of GD onset, the HLA DRB1*0301 tagging variant, rs535777, was also genotyped. RESULTS: The C allele of rs3094228 was overrepresented in the UK GD cohort compared with controls (P allele=5.08 × 10-9, odds ratio 1.76; [95% confidence interval, 1.46-2.13]). This association was more marked in young-onset GD (<30 years) (P allele=1.70 × 10-10 vs P allele=0.0008). The meta-analysis of UK and Polish data supported the association of the C allele with GD susceptibility (P allele=1.79 × 10-5) and age of onset (P allele=5.63 × 10-8). Haplotype analysis demonstrated that rs3094228 is associated with age of GD onset (P = 2.39 × 10-6) independent of linkage disequilibrium with HLA DRB1*0301. CONCLUSION: The rs3094228 HCP5 polymorphism is independently associated with GD susceptibility and age of onset in a UK GD cohort. Our findings indicate a potential role of long noncoding ribonucleic acids, including HCP5, in GD pathogenesis, particularly in the younger population.

6.
Hormones (Athens) ; 19(1): 31-39, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721133

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This review focuses on the results of prospective randomized clinical trials and the conclusions from respective meta-analyses in order to summarize experiences with adjuvant selenium (Se) supplementation in Graves' hyperthyroidism and orbitopathy, while identifying ambiguous findings and highlighting important open research issues. METHODS: We searched the PubMed and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) through May 31, 2019, for relevant studies. RESULTS: The available evidence concerning routine use of Se in the treatment of Graves' hyperthyroidism remains ambiguous. Results of meta-analyses, including ten RCTs, suggest that adjuvant Se supplementation can enhance the restoration of biochemical euthyroidism. Unfortunately, these results must be judged cautiously owing to several important limitations. Moreover, an in-depth analysis of relevant long-term clinical measures of therapeutic success (such as remission rate after antithyroid drug treatment), besides surrogate markers (for example, hormone or autoantibody concentrations), is generally missing. Based on a single study, Se supplementation is recommended in patients with mild orbitopathy of short duration because it may decrease inflammation and eye-specific symptoms while also achieving a marked improvement in disease-specific quality of life. The effects of Se supplementation on moderate-to-severe orbitopathy remain as yet unknown. CONCLUSIONS: Additional randomized clinical trials with clinically relevant endpoints are urgently needed to further aid in clinical decision-making, including better stratification of Graves' disease patients, who are most likely to benefit from Se supplementation.

7.
Pol Arch Intern Med ; 129(12): 874-882, 2019 12 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31808753

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Long­term glucocorticoid (GC) therapy is the most common cause of secondary adrenal insufficiency (AI), which undiagnosed may lead to life­threatening adrenal crisis. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to evaluate AI in patients treated long­term with GCs, receiving a low maintenance dose (≤5 mg of prednisone or equivalent), namely, its prevalence and persistence, risk factors, and diagnostic accuracy of morning cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA­S) levels. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Adrenal function was evaluated in 40 patients before and after GC withdrawal and at least 1 year later. Based on morning cortisol levels and short Synacthen test, patients were divided into 3 groups: AI, intermediate (partial AI), and AS (adrenal sufficiency). Receiver operator characteristic curves were calculated to assess the diagnostic value of morning cortisol and DHEA­S levels before GC withdrawal. RESULTS: Before GC withdrawal, 42.5% of patients had AI or partial AI, which together persisted in 64.3% of those patients after withdrawal. After more than a year, the adrenal function returned to normal only in 14% of patients. Cushingoid feature occurred more often in the AI group compared with the AS group (60% vs 13%; P = 0.03). Morning cortisol levels of 14.91 µg/dl or higher (411 nmol/l) gave 100% negative predictive value to rule out AI. Morning cortisol of 6.51 µg/dl or less (179.6 nmol/l) gave 100% positive predictive value to rule in AI. DHEA­S proved to be a worse parameter for AI diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: AI is common in patients treated with GCs and may persist for years after GC withdrawal. Cushingoid features are associated with a higher risk of AI. Morning cortisol levels may facilitate AI diagnosis.

8.
Pol Merkur Lekarski ; 47(279): 91-94, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557136

RESUMO

High and very high doses of intravenous methylprednisolone (IVMP) administered in pulses are the first-line treatment for active, moderateto- severe, as well as sight-threatening Graves' orbitopathy (GO). However, glucocorticoid therapy is associated with side effects, among others, it affects bone metabolism. AIM: The aim of study was to assess the acute effects of high and very high doses of IVMP on calcium (Ca) and phosphate (P) balance in euthyroid patients with moderate-to-severe GO and sight-threatening GO due to dysthyroid optic neuropathy (DON). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-six patients with active, moderate-tosevere GO were treated with twelve once-weekly pulses (with cumulative dose of 4.5 g IVMP) and 11 patients with DON received 3 intravenous pulses of 1.0 g IVMP on three consecutive days. We measured serum levels of Ca and P at baseline and on the following days after the beginning of the IVMP therapy. RESULTS: We observed a significant increase in serum Ca level on the next day after the 1st IVMP pulse both in patients with moderate-tosevere GO and with DON. Then, on the day 3, the decrease of serum Ca was noticed. In patients with moderate-to-severe GO, on the day 2 serum P showed a significant increase and then, it returned to basal level on the day 3. CONCLUSIONS: We observed a significant increase in serum Ca level on the next day after the 1st IVMP pulse both in patients with moderate-tosevere GO and with DON. Then, on the day 3, the decrease of serum Ca was noticed. In patients with moderate-to-severe GO, on the day 2 serum P showed a significant increase and then, it returned to basal level on the day 3.


Assuntos
Cálcio , Glucocorticoides , Oftalmopatia de Graves , Metilprednisolona , Fosfatos , Cálcio/sangue , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Oftalmopatia de Graves/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Metilprednisolona/administração & dosagem , Fosfatos/sangue
9.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 55(9)2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438630

RESUMO

Obesity is considered to be a 20th century pandemic, and its prevalence correlates with the increasing global pollution and the presence of chemical compounds in the environment. Excessive adiposity results from an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure, but it is not merely an effect of overeating and lack of physical activity. Recently, several compounds that alter the mechanisms responsible for energy homeostasis have been identified and called "obesogens". This work presents the role of obesogens in the pathogenesis of obesity. We reviewed data from in vitro animal and human studies concerning the role of obesogens in the disturbance of energy homeostasis. We identified (i) the main groups and classes of obesogens, (ii) the molecular mechanisms of their action, (iii) their deleterious effect on adipose tissue function and control of appetite, and (iv) possible directions in limiting their influence on human metabolism. Obesogens have a multifactorial detrimental influence on energy homeostasis. Focusing on limiting exposure to obesogens and improving early life nutrition seems to be the most reasonable direction of action to prevent obesity in future generations.

10.
Endokrynol Pol ; 70(3): 271-276, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31290558

RESUMO

Obesity-related changes in the composition of the body interfere with the proper functioning of the thyrotropic axis, leading to its disturbances and changes in the structure of the thyroid gland. Distinguishing what is related to obesity and what constitutes pathological changes is crucial for the proper treatment of patients. In this paper authors present a case of a patient with a diet-induced obesity, whose only abnormalities in thyroid assessment included an elevated level of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and hypoechoic thyroid gland on ultrasound. Based on this clinical situation, we reviewed literature in order to establish rules regarding management of thyroid disorders in obese individuals. The most common obesity-related thyroid abnormality is an isolated increase of TSH, without clinical symptoms of hypothyroidism, defined as hyperthyrotropinaemia. In obese adults, autoimmune thyroid disease is found equally often as in the normal-weight population. Thyroid enlargement, increased risk of nodules, and decreased echogenicity, not related to autoimmunity, is frequent among obese individuals. Weight loss leads to the normalisation of TSH levels and thyroid echogenicity. Excessive weight can influence both the TSH level and ultrasound image of the thyroid gland; however, these findings can be reversed by weight reduction. Therefore, in asymptomatic obese patients elevated TSH should not be treated with thyroid hormone replacement.


Assuntos
Obesidade/terapia , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/terapia , Cirurgia Bariátrica , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/cirurgia , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/sangue , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/etiologia , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/cirurgia , Tireotropina/sangue , Perda de Peso
11.
Endokrynol Pol ; 70(5): 385-391, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31274185

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) has been causing problems for clinicians since it was first described in 1954 by Wermer. Not only its rarity, but also its variable clinical manifestations and lack of genotype-phenotype correlation make it hard to establish evidence-based guidelines for the management of this syndrome. Nationwide registers and population-based research are the best means to improve knowledge about this rare disease. As yet, there is no example of such research in the Polish population of MEN1 patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of clinical and genetic data of patients diagnosed with MEN1 syndrome and followed-up in two polish referral centres in the years 1994-2018. RESULTS: We analysed 79 patients, of whom the majority were women. The mean age of the patient population was 43 years, mean age at MEN1 diagnosis was 37.95 years, and mean interval from initial symptoms to MEN1 diagnosis was 6.93 years. Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHP), gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumour (GEP-NET), and pituitary adenoma (PA) developed in 90%, 52%, and 47% of patients, respectively. The dominance of insulinoma with low prevalence of gastrinoma is the most vivid difference, when compared to previously described populations. Moreover, we found 3.5-fold higher risk of developing a pituitary tumour in patients with a frameshift mutation with the STOP codon of the MEN1 gene. CONCLUSIONS: The Polish population of patients with MEN1 is different than previously described European and Asian populations, primarily in prevalence of functional NETs. A frameshift mutation with the STOP codon of the MEN1 gene significantly increases the risk of PA. Further studies with a larger cohort of patients are needed to fully describe the Polish population and improve diagnosis and management of the syndrome.

12.
Endokrynol Pol ; 70(1): 102-121, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30855699

RESUMO

Approximately 70% of medical decisions are made based on results of laboratory investigations. Immunochemical methods are used most commonly in routine laboratory diagnostics of endocrine disorders. Those methods are limited by susceptibility of the immunochemical reaction to various interferences. Interference may be caused by the presence of autologous antibodies, heterophilic antibodies, or paraproteins in the blood serum, by cross-reactions with similar reagents, haemolysis, significant lipidaemia, or hyperbilirubinaemia. Some recent reports have indicated a significant effect of biotin on the reliability of laboratory investigations. Biotin is a water-soluble vitamin belonging to the B group. It is present in popular dietary supplements - alone or as a component of multi-vitamin formulas - and it is advertised as a remedy to falling out and fragility of hair and nails. Due to its low molecular weight and a strong affinity to streptavidin, biotin is used in many immunochemical tests. Due to a strong and stable bond of streptavidin and biotin, analytical methods using the streptavidin (avidin)-biotin system are characterised by superior sensitivity, and they allow determination of very low levels of the tested substance in biological material. The presence of exogenous biotin in a sample may cause interference when using tests that utilise the streptavidin (avidin)-biotin system. Interference of biotin with immunochemical tests depends on several factors: the construction of the immunochemical test, the dose used by the patient, the biotin concentration in the sample, and most of all - the time from the last dose to the collection of biological material for laboratory testing. In this paper we present some practical recommendations and a procedure to be followed in the case of suspected interference of biotin in immunochemical assays, for clinicians and laboratory diagnosticians.


Assuntos
Biotina , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Endócrino/normas , Hormônios/sangue , Imunoensaio/normas , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
13.
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) ; 90(2): 320-327, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30358895

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Graves' disease (GD) is an autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) with a peak incidence between 30 and 50 years of age. Although children and adolescents may also develop the disease, the genetic background of paediatric-onset GD (POGD) remains largely unknown. Here, we looked for similarities and differences in the genetic risk factors for POGD and adult-onset GD (AOGD) as well as for variants associated with age of GD onset. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 1267 GD patients and 1054 healthy controls were included in the study. Allele frequencies of 40 established and suggested GD/AITD genetic risk variants (39 SNPs and HLA-DRB1*03) were compared between POGD (N = 179), AOGD (N = 1088) and healthy controls. Subsequently, multiple linear regression was used to explore the relationship between age of GD onset and genotype for each locus. RESULTS: We identified six POGD risk loci, all of them were also strongly associated with AOGD. Although for some of the analysed variants, including HCP5 (rs3094228), PRICKLE1 (rs4768412) and SCGB3A2 (rs1368408), allele frequencies differed nominally between POGD and AOGD patients, these differences were not significant after applying multiple testing correction (Pcor  = 0.05/40 = 1.25 × 10-3 ). Regression analysis showed that patients with higher number of HCP5 risk alleles tend to have a significantly earlier onset of GD (P = 6.9 × 10-5 ). CONCLUSIONS: The results of our study revealed that POGD and AOGD share multiple common genetic risk variants. Moreover, we demonstrated for the first time that HCP5 polymorphism is associated with an earlier age of GD onset in a dose-dependent manner.


Assuntos
Idade de Início , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Doença de Graves/genética , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Frequência do Gene , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
14.
Endocrine ; 64(2): 308-315, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30506426

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the influence of intravenous methylprednisolone (IVMP) pulse administration on bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine and the femoral neck in patients with moderate-to-severe Graves' orbitopathy (GO). METHODS: Thirty-five patients with GO in euthyreosis were treated with 12 IVMP pulses (6 × 0.5 g, 6 × 0.25 g on a weekly schedule). Supplementation with 1.0 g of calcium and 800 IU of vitamin D was initiated in all patients before beginning therapy. BMD of the lumbar spine (L1-L4) and the femoral neck were assessed at baseline and after the last IVMP pulse using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. To determine differences in BMD between values at baseline and after treatment, we used the least significant change (LSC) methodology. LSC values were calculated to be 3 and 5% for the lumbar spine and the femoral neck, respectively. Change in BMD equal to or exceeding the LSC was assessed as either increase or decrease of BMD. We then compared pre-treatment and post-treatment mean BMD values at the lumbar spine and the femoral neck. RESULTS: We did not observe a decrease of BMD at any site equal to or exceeding the LSC. We found an increase of BMD in at least one measurement site equal to or exceeding the LSC value in 43% of patients, mostly in the lumbar spine (31%). Mean femoral neck BMD did not change while mean lumbar BMD increased. CONCLUSIONS: IVMP given in weekly intravenous pulses does not lead to loss of BMD of the lumbar spine and the femoral neck.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Oftalmopatia de Graves/tratamento farmacológico , Metilprednisolona/efeitos adversos , Osteoporose/induzido quimicamente , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adulto , Idoso , Colo do Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Colo do Fêmur/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Vértebras Lombares/diagnóstico por imagem , Vértebras Lombares/efeitos dos fármacos , Metilprednisolona/administração & dosagem , Metilprednisolona/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoporose/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
16.
Endokrynol Pol ; 69(4)2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30209801

RESUMO

Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a complex genetic disorder characterised by a set of phenotypic traits, which include infantile hypotonia, short stature, and morbid obesity. Over the last 12 years, visible progress has been made in medical care management of PWS patients in Poland. Increasing awareness of the disorder in neonatal and paediatric care has led to early identification of the condition in neonates, followed by the institution of an appropriate dietary regime, introduction of physiotherapy, and early-onset recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) treatment. Growth hormone (GH) therapy in Poland is conducted within the nationwide framework of the Therapeutic Programme: "Treatment of Prader-Willi Syndrome". The therapeutic interventions initiated in the paediatric centres need to be continued in multidisciplinary adult care settings. The main aim of PWS clinical management in adulthood is prevention of obesity and its comor-bidities, treatment of hormonal disorders, mental health stabilisation, nutritional guidance, as well as on-going physiotherapy. Integrated multidisciplinary therapeutic intervention is necessary if patients with such a complex genetic condition as PWS are to not only achieve an average life expectancy but also to enjoy higher quality of life.


Assuntos
Gerenciamento Clínico , Síndrome de Prader-Willi/tratamento farmacológico , Sociedades Médicas , Adulto , Endocrinologia , Humanos , Polônia , Síndrome de Prader-Willi/terapia
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 19(10)2018 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30261581

RESUMO

Hypercortisolemia is associated with increased risk of hypertension. Natural and synthetic glucocorticoids (GCs) have different effects on blood pressure (BP). The effect of synthetic GCs on BP depends on the dose, treatment duration, type of GCs, and route of administration. Intravenous methylprednisolone (IVMP) pulse therapy is the first line of treatment for severe Graves' orbitopathy (GO). The aim of this study was to evaluate influence of IVMP pulses on BP and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) dynamics. A total of 32 patients with GO were treated with one IVMP pulse every week for 12 weeks. We performed 48-h BP monitoring (24-h before and 24-h after IVMP) and measured NT-proBNP before, 24 h, and 48 h after the 1st, 6th, and 12th IVMP pulse. Mean BP did not change after any of the pulses. We did not observe an increase in maximal systolic BP or mean nocturnal BP, except after the last pulse. Additionally, the dipping phenomenon was less frequent after the last pulse. We found a significant increase in median NT-proBNP levels after all analyzed pulses. Our study suggests that IVMP may have an unfavorable cumulative effect on BP. Variation in NT-proBNP concentration indicates a compensatory effect of brain natriuretic peptide secretion.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Oftalmopatia de Graves/tratamento farmacológico , Metilprednisolona/uso terapêutico , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/análise , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/análise , Adulto , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Oftalmopatia de Graves/patologia , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Masculino , Metilprednisolona/administração & dosagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Pulsoterapia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
19.
Endokrynol Pol ; 69(5): 468-524, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30117531

RESUMO

Growth hormone (GH) has been used in the treatment of short stature in children with GH deficiency (GHD) for 60 years, and for about 30 years also in the treatment of adults with GHD, in whom such treatment is carried out due to metabolic indications. In Poland, GH treatment is reimbursed only in children with GHD, while so far it has not been refunded in adults with GHD. There are two groups of adults (or adolescents after growth completion) with GHD, who require GH therapy: patients with GHD that occurred in childhood (childhood-onset GHD - CO-GHD) and patients with GHD acquired in adulthood (adulthood-onset GHD - AO-GHD). This review presents a brief outline of the history of GH treatment in humans, the latest data on the causes and symptoms of GHD in adults, and the complications of untreated GHD. Current recommendations regarding diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of GH therapy in adults are also discussed. Moreover, the review paper presents the objectives, assumptions, and plans of implementation of the "National Treatment Program for Severe Growth Hormone Deficiency in Adults and Adolescents after Completion of the Growth Promoting Therapy", as well as the expected health and economic effects of introduction of GH treatment in adults with GHD in Poland.


Assuntos
Endocrinologia , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/deficiência , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Doenças do Sistema Endócrino/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Polônia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Endokrynol Pol ; 69(5): 567-573, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30132588

RESUMO

Wstep: Celem badania LanroNET byla ocena wykorzystania zasobów medycznych oraz kosztów objawowego leczenia polskich chorych na nowotwory neuroendokrynne z zastosowaniem lanreotydu autogel 120 mg. Material i metody: LanroNET to wieloosrodkowe, nieinterwencyjne, obserwacyjne, prospektywne badanie przeprowadzone w 12 osrod-kach w Polsce. W badaniu uczestniczyli dorosli chorzy na wydzielajace nowotwory neuroendokrynne leczeni lanreotydem autogel 120 mg od przynajmniej 3 miesiecy przed wlaczeniem do badania. Podczas 24-miesiecznej obserwacji rzeczywistej praktyki klinicznej zbierano dane dotyczace wykorzystania zasobów medycznych oraz przebiegu terapii chorych z wydzielajacymi nowotworami neuroendokrynnymi. WYNIKI: W badaniu uczestniczylo 54 chorych na wydzielajace nowotwory neuroendokrynne. Przecietny czas stosowania lanreotydu wynosil 1,7 roku (zakres 0,0-2,2 lata). Badanie ukonczylo 33 pacjentów, najczestsza przyczyna przedwczesnego zakonczenia leczenia (8/16) byla progresja choroby. Calkowity sredni koszt wykorzystanych zasobów bez kosztów farmakoterapii oszacowano na 26 307 zl/EUR 6.030,35 na pacjenta/rok. W czasie badania sredni odstep miedzy wstrzyknieciami lanreotydu wynosil 31,7 dni (6,7). Pod koniec obserwacji, po 24 miesiacach od follow-up, 7 pacjentów stosowalo 42-dniowe odstepy miedzy dawkami. Sredni rzeczywisty koszt lanreotydu autogel 120 mg wyniósl 4216,30 zl/966,49 EUR na pacjenta/28 dni we wspólnej perspektywie platnika i pacjenta i byl nizszy o 554,16 zl/127,02 EUR niz koszt stosowania standardowych 28-dniowych odstepów miedzy dawkami. WNIOSKI: Badanie LanroNET jest pierwszym w Polsce obserwacyjnym dwuletnim badaniem chorych na czynne hormonalnie nowotwo-ry neuroendokrynne zoladkowo-jelitowo-trzustkowe oceniajacym koszty codziennej praktyki klinicznej i koszty leczenia lanreotydem autogel.


Assuntos
Tumores Neuroendócrinos/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos Cíclicos/economia , Somatostatina/análogos & derivados , Antineoplásicos/economia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polônia , Estudos Prospectivos , Somatostatina/economia
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