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1.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232892, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32384107

RESUMO

Plant breeders have long sought to develop lines that combine outstanding performance with high and stable quality in different environments. The high-arabinoxylan (AX) Chinese variety Yumai-34 was crossed with three Central European wheat varieties (Lupus, Mv-Mambo, Ukrainka) and 31 selected high-AX lines were compared for physical (hectolitre weight, thousand grain weight, flour yield), compositional (protein content, gluten content, pentosan) and processing quality traits (gluten index, Zeleny sedimentation, Farinograph parameters) in a three-year experiment (2013-2015) in the F7-F9 generations. The stability and heritability of different traits, including the relative effects of the genotype (G) and environment (E), were determined focusing on grain composition. The contents of total and water-soluble pentosans were significantly affected by G, E and G × E interactions, but the heritability of total (TOT)-pentosan was significantly lower (0.341) than that of water-extractable (WE)-pentosan (0.825). The main component of the pentosans, the amount and composition (arabinose:xylose ratio) of the arabinoxylan (AX), was primarily determined by the environment and, accordingly, the broader heritability of these parameters were 0.516 and 0.772. However, genotype significantly affected the amount of water-soluble arabinoxylan and its composition and thus the heritability of these traits was also significant (0.840 and 0.721). The genotypes exhibiting higher stability of content of TOT-pentosan also showed more stable contents of WE-pentosan. There was a positive correlation between the stability of contents of WE-pentosan and WE-AX, while the stability of the WE-AX content and AX composition were also strongly correlated. Water absorption was strongly genetically determined with a heritability of 0.829 with the genotype determining 38.67% of the total variance. Many lines were grouped in the GGE biplot, indicating that they did not significantly differ stability.


Assuntos
Melhoramento Vegetal , Triticum/genética , Xilanos , Grão Comestível/genética , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Farinha/análise , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Glutens/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Triticum/metabolismo , Água/metabolismo , Xilanos/metabolismo
2.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(12): 4409-4417, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32388854

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lines of the internationally recognized old Hungarian Bánkúti 1201 variety are important genetic resources for breeding programmes. Their protein composition and gluten dependent technological traits have been comprehensively studied, however, little information is available about their carbohydrate dependent viscous properties. The aim of this work was to obtain comprehensive rheological characterization of all sublines of Bánkúti 1201 maintained at Martonvásár and to investigate their variability if the carbohydrate dependent viscous behaviour was also included in the analyses. RESULTS: The majority of the lines reflected the famously good mixing quality of Bánkúti, however, much higher diversity of pasting behaviour was detected. Cluster analysis of the Mixolab data was performed resulting in four sample groups. Since several lines of similar mixing properties had significantly different pasting characteristics, it was assumed that classification was mainly based on the viscous properties. From each cluster two to three representative samples were selected for wider examination using conventional testing methods. These results also supported the higher variability of pasting behaviour of the lines, which can be critical for end product quality. The members of the second cluster can be highlighted due to their waxy wheat like behaviour. CONCLUSIONS: Possible reasons for the great variability of pasting behaviour could be the compositional and structural differences of starch and other carbohydrates (e.g. arabinoxylans). Complex rheological characterization and study of molecular background can provide information about important traits from the point of view of technology and product development, which are unknown in the case of old wheat varieties and landraces. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.

3.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0227826, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32023285

RESUMO

Dietary fibre (DF) has multiple health benefits and wheat grains are major sources of DF for human health. However, DF is depleted in white wheat flour which is more widely consumed than wholegrain. The major DF component in white flour is the cell wall polysaccharide arabinoxylan (AX). We have identified the Chinese wheat cultivar Yumai 34 as having unusually high contents of AX in both water-soluble and insoluble forms. We have therefore used populations generated from crosses between Yumai 34 and four other wheat cultivars, three with average contents of AX (Ukrainka, Altigo and Claire) and one also having unusually high AX (Valoris), in order to map QTLs for soluble AX (determined as relative viscosity of aqueous extracts of wholemeal flours) and total AX (determined by enzyme fingerprinting of white flour). A number of QTL were mapped, but most were only detected in one or two crosses. However, all four crosses showed strong QTLs for high RV/total AX on chromosome 1B, with Yumai 34 being the increasing parent, and a KASP marker for the Yumai 34 high AX allele was validated by analysis of high AX lines derived from Yumai 34 but selected by biochemical analysis. A QTL for RV was also mapped on chromosome 6B in Yumai 34 x Valoris, with Valoris being the increasing allele, which is consistent with the observation of transgressive segregation for this population. Association studies in an independent germplasm panel identified marker trait associations for relative viscosity in these same locations while direct selection for fibre content in breeding resulted in high levels of enrichment for the Yumai 34 1B allele. The data therefore indicate that marker-assisted breeding can be used to develop wheat with high AX fibre in white flour.


Assuntos
Farinha/análise , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Triticum/genética , Xilanos/genética , Alelos , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Marcadores Genéticos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Escore Lod , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Viscosidade
4.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0211892, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30721262

RESUMO

Wild relatives of wheat, such as Aegilops spp. are potential sources of genes conferring tolerance to drought stress. As drought stress affects seed composition, the main goal of the present study was to determine the effects of drought stress on the content and composition of the grain storage protein (gliadin (Gli), glutenin (Glu), unextractable polymeric proteins (UPP%) and dietary fiber (arabinoxylan, ß-glucan) components of hexaploid bread wheat (T. aestivum) lines containing added chromosomes from Ae. biuncialis or Ae. geniculata. Both Aegilops parents have higher contents of protein and ß-glucan and higher proportions of water-soluble arabinoxylans (determined as pentosans) than wheat when grown under both well-watered and drought stress conditions. In general, drought stress resulted in increased contents of protein and total pentosans in the addition lines, while the ß-glucan content decreased in many of the addition lines. The differences found between the wheat/Aegilops addition lines and wheat parents under well-watered conditions were also manifested under drought stress conditions: Namely, elevated ß-glucan content was found in addition lines containing chromosomes 5Ug, 7Ug and 7Mb, while chromosomes 1Ub and 1Mg affected the proportion of polymeric proteins (determined as Glu/Gli and UPP%, respectively) under both well-watered and drought stress conditions. Furthermore, the addition of chromosome 6Mg decreased the WE-pentosan content under both conditions. The grain composition of the Aegilops accessions was more stable under drought stress than that of wheat, and wheat lines with the added Aegilops chromosomes 2Mg and 5Mg also had more stable grain protein and pentosan contents. The negative effects of drought stress on both the physical and compositional properties of wheat were also reduced by the addition of these. These results suggest that the stability of the grain composition could be improved under drought stress conditions by the intraspecific hybridization of wheat with its wild relatives.


Assuntos
Aegilops/genética , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Farinha , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis , Triticum , Aegilops/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Desidratação , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/biossíntese , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/genética , Triticum/genética , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
5.
Front Plant Sci ; 8: 1529, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28932231

RESUMO

Cereal grain fiber is an important health-promoting component in the human diet. One option to improve dietary fiber content and composition in wheat is to introduce genes from its wild relatives Aegilops biuncialis and Aegilops geniculata. This study showed that the addition of chromosomes 2Ug, 4Ug, 5Ug, 7Ug, 2Mg, 5Mg, and 7Mg of Ae. geniculata and 3Ub, 2Mb, 3Mb, and 7Mb of Ae. biuncialis into bread wheat increased the seed protein content. Chromosomes 1Ug and 1Mg increased the proportion of polymeric glutenin proteins, while the addition of chromosomes 1Ub and 6Ub led to its decrease. Both Aegilops species had higher proportions of ß-glucan compared to arabinoxylan (AX) than wheat lines, and elevated ß-glucan content was also observed in wheat chromosome addition lines 5U, 7U, and 7M. The AX content in wheat was increased by the addition of chromosomes 5Ug, 7Ug, and 1Ub while water-soluble AX was increased by the addition of chromosomes 5U, 5M, and 7M, and to a lesser extent by chromosomes 3, 4, 6Ug, and 2Mb. Chromosomes 5Ug and 7Mb also affected the structure of wheat AX, as shown by the pattern of oligosaccharides released by digestion with endoxylanase. These results will help to map genomic regions responsible for edible fiber content in Aegilops and will contribute to the efficient transfer of wild alleles in introgression breeding programs to obtain wheat varieties with improved health benefits. Key Message: Addition of Aegilops U- and M-genome chromosomes 5 and 7 improves seed protein and fiber content and composition in wheat.

6.
Plant Physiol ; 172(2): 749-764, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27436830

RESUMO

Assessing the genetic variability of plant performance under heat and drought scenarios can contribute to reduce the negative effects of climate change. We propose here an approach that consisted of (1) clustering time courses of environmental variables simulated by a crop model in current (35 years × 55 sites) and future conditions into six scenarios of temperature and water deficit as experienced by maize (Zea mays L.) plants; (2) performing 29 field experiments in contrasting conditions across Europe with 244 maize hybrids; (3) assigning individual experiments to scenarios based on environmental conditions as measured in each field experiment; frequencies of temperature scenarios in our experiments corresponded to future heat scenarios (+5°C); (4) analyzing the genetic variation of plant performance for each environmental scenario. Forty-eight quantitative trait loci (QTLs) of yield were identified by association genetics using a multi-environment multi-locus model. Eight and twelve QTLs were associated to tolerances to heat and drought stresses because they were specific to hot and dry scenarios, respectively, with low or even negative allelic effects in favorable scenarios. Twenty-four QTLs improved yield in favorable conditions but showed nonsignificant effects under stress; they were therefore associated with higher sensitivity. Our approach showed a pattern of QTL effects expressed as functions of environmental variables and scenarios, allowing us to suggest hypotheses for mechanisms and candidate genes underlying each QTL. It can be used for assessing the performance of genotypes and the contribution of genomic regions under current and future stress situations and to accelerate breeding for drought-prone environments.


Assuntos
Biomassa , Secas , Genoma de Planta/genética , Temperatura Alta , Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Alelos , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Europa (Continente) , Genótipo , Hibridização Genética , Fenótipo , Análise de Componente Principal , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Estresse Fisiológico , Zea mays/classificação , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento
7.
Plant Biotechnol J ; 14(1): 128-39, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25816894

RESUMO

Free asparagine in cereals is known to be the precursor of acrylamide, a neurotoxic and carcinogenic product formed during cooking processes. Thus, the development of crops with lower asparagine is of considerable interest to growers and the food industry. In this study, we describe the development and application of a rapid (1)H-NMR-based analysis of cereal flour, that is, suitable for quantifying asparagine levels, and hence acrylamide-forming potential, across large numbers of samples. The screen was applied to flour samples from 150 bread wheats grown at a single site in 2005, providing the largest sample set to date. Additionally, screening of 26 selected cultivars grown for two further years in the same location and in three additional European locations in the third year (2007) provided six widely different environments to allow estimation of the environmental (E) and G x E effects on asparagine levels. Asparagine concentrations in the 150 genotypes ranged from 0.32 to 1.56 mg/g dry matter in wholemeal wheat flours. Asparagine levels were correlated with plant height and therefore, due to recent breeding activities to produce semi-dwarf varieties, a negative relationship with the year of registration of the cultivar was also observed. The multisite study indicated that only 13% of the observed variation in asparagine levels was heritable, whilst the environmental contribution was 36% and the GxE component was 43%. Thus, compared to some other phenotypic traits, breeding for low asparagine wheats presents a difficult challenge.


Assuntos
Asparagina/metabolismo , Meio Ambiente , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Sementes/metabolismo , Triticum/genética , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Grão Comestível/química , Farinha/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Genótipo , Padrões de Herança/genética , Chuva , Solo , Inquéritos e Questionários , Temperatura
8.
BMC Genet ; 16: 19, 2015 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25879431

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genomic prediction of agronomic traits as targets for selection in plant breeding programmes is increasingly common. The methods employed can also be applied to predict traits from other sources of covariates, such as metabolomics. However, prediction combining sets of covariates can be less accurate than using the best of the individual sets. RESULTS: We describe a method, termed Differentially Penalized Regression (DiPR), which uses standard ridge regression software to combine sets of covariates while applying independent penalties to each. In a dataset of wheat varieties, field traits are better predicted, on average, by seed metabolites than by genetic markers, but DiPR using both sets of predictors is best. CONCLUSION: DiPR is a simple and accessible method of using existing software to combine multiple sets of covariates in trait prediction when there are more predictors than observations and the contribution to accuracy from each set differs.


Assuntos
Software , Triticum/química , Triticum/genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Triticum/classificação
9.
Mol Breed ; 34: 297-310, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25076837

RESUMO

Heading of cereals is determined by complex genetic and environmental factors in which genes responsible for vernalization and photoperiod sensitivity play a decisive role. Our aim was to use diagnostic molecular markers to determine the main allele types in VRN-A1, VRN-B1, VRN-D1, PPD-B1 and PPD-D1 in a worldwide wheat collection of 683 genotypes and to investigate the effect of these alleles on heading in the field. The dominant VRN-A1, VRN-B1 and VRN-D1 alleles were present at a low frequency. The PPD-D1a photoperiod-insensitive allele was carried by 57 % of the cultivars and was most frequent in Asian and European cultivars. The PPD-B1 photoperiod-insensitive allele was carried by 22 % of the genotypes from Asia, America and Europe. Nine versions of the PPD-B1-insensitive allele were identified based on gene copy number and intercopy structure. The allele compositions in PPD-D1, PPD-B1 and VRN-D1 significantly influenced heading and together explained 37.5 % of the phenotypic variance. The role of gene model increased to 39.1 % when PPD-B1 intercopy structure was taken into account instead of overall PPD-B1 type (sensitive vs. insensitive). As a single component, PPD-D1 had the most important role (28.0 % of the phenotypic variance), followed by PPD-B1 (12.3 % for PPD-B1_overall, and 15.1 % for PPD-B1_intercopy) and VRN-D1 (2.2 %). Significant gene interactions were identified between the marker alleles within PPD-B1 and between VRN-D1 and the two PPD1 genes. The earliest heading genotypes were those with the photoperiod-insensitive allele in PPD-D1 and PPD-B1, and with the spring allele for VRN-D1 and the winter alleles for VRN-A1 and VRN-B1. This combination could only be detected in genotypes from Southern Europe and Asia. Late-heading genotypes had the sensitivity alleles for both PPD1 genes, regardless of the allelic composition of the VRN1 genes. There was a 10-day difference in heading between the earliest and latest groups under field conditions.

10.
Carbohydr Polym ; 102: 557-65, 2014 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24507319

RESUMO

The effects of heat (H), drought (D) and H+D (from 12th day after heading for 15 days) on the dietary fiber content and composition (arabinoxylan (AX) and ß-glucan) of three winter wheat varieties (Plainsman V, Mv Magma and Fatima 2) were determined. Results showed that H and D stress decreased the TKW, the ß-glucan contents of the seeds and the quantity of the DP3+DP4 units, while the protein and AX contents increased. The highest amounts of AX and proteins were in the H+D stressed samples with heat stress also increasing the water extractability (WE) of the AX. However, while the content of AX content was generally increased by all stresses, drought stress had negative effect on the AX content of the drought tolerant Plainsman V. Fatima 2 behaved similarly to Plainsman V as regards to its drought tolerance, but was very sensitive to heat stress, while Mv Magma was the most resistant to heat stress.


Assuntos
Secas , Temperatura Alta , Estresse Fisiológico , Triticum/química , Xilanos/química , beta-Glucanas/química , Estrutura Molecular , Sementes/química , Triticum/embriologia
11.
J Agric Food Chem ; 61(35): 8295-303, 2013 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23414336

RESUMO

The wheat grain comprises three groups of major components, starch, protein, and cell wall polysaccharides (dietary fiber), and a range of minor components that may confer benefits to human health. Detailed analyses of dietary fiber and other bioactive components were carried out under the EU FP6 HEALTHGRAIN program on 150 bread wheat lines grown on a single site, 50 lines of other wheat species and other cereals grown on the same site, and 23-26 bread wheat lines grown in six environments. Principal component analysis allowed the 150 bread wheat lines to be classified on the basis of differences in their contents of bioactive components and wheat species (bread, durum, spelt, emmer, and einkorn wheats) to be clearly separated from related cereals (barley, rye, and oats). Such multivariate analyses could be used to define substantial equivalence when novel (including transgenic) cereals are considered.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível/química , Sementes/química , Triticum/química , Pão/análise , Parede Celular/química , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Hordeum/química , Nevo de Ota/química , Fenóis/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Polissacarídeos/análise , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/análise , Secale/química , Amido/análise , Terpenos/análise , Triticum/classificação , Complexo Vitamínico B/análise
12.
Food Chem ; 136(3-4): 1243-8, 2013 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23194520

RESUMO

A large and diverse material collection of whole grain wheat samples (n=129) was analysed for total dietary fibre (TDF) content and composition, including fructan (11.5-15.5%). Correlations between the dietary fibre components, associated bioactive components (e.g. tocols, sterols, phenolic acids and folates) and agronomic properties previously determined on the same samples were found with multivariate analysis (PCA). Samples from the same countries had similar characteristics. The first PC described variation in components concentrated in the starchy endosperm (e.g. starch, ß-glucan and fructan) and the dietary fibre components concentrated in the bran (e.g. TDF, arabinoxylan and cellulose). The second PC described the variation in kernel weight and other bran components such as alkylresorcinols, tocols and sterols. Interestingly, there was no correlation among these different groups of bran components, which reflected their concentration in different bran tissues. The results are of importance for plant breeders who wish to develop varieties with health-promoting effects.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Triticum/química , Cruzamento , Celulose/análise , Ácido Fólico/análise , Genótipo , Humanos , Esteróis/análise , Triticum/genética
13.
Theor Appl Genet ; 126(2): 335-47, 2013 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23052020

RESUMO

Fall-sown barley will be increasingly important in the era of climate change due to higher yield potential and efficient use of water resources. Resistance/tolerance to abiotic stresses will be critical, and foremost among the abiotic stresses is low temperature. Simultaneous gene discovery and breeding will accelerate the development of agronomically relevant fall-sown barley germplasm with resistance to low temperature. We developed two doubled haploid mapping populations using two lines from the University of Nebraska (NE) and one line from Oregon State University (OR): NB3437f/OR71 (facultative × facultative) and NB713/OR71 (winter × facultative). Both were genotyped with a custom 384 oligonucleotide pool assay (OPA). QTL analyses were performed for low temperature tolerance (LTT) and vernalization sensitivity (VS). The role of VRN-H2 in VS was confirmed and a novel alternative winter allele at VRN-H3 was discovered in the Nebraska germplasm. FR-H2 was identified as a probable determinant of LTT and a new QTL, FR-H3, was discovered on chromosome 1H that accounted for up to 48 % of the phenotypic variation in field survival at St. Paul, MN, USA. The discovery of FR-H3 is a significant advancement in barley LTT genetics and will assist in developing the next generation of fall-sown varieties.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica/genética , Temperatura Baixa , Genes de Plantas/genética , Hordeum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hordeum/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Ligação Genética , Genótipo , Nebraska , Oregon , Fenótipo , Estações do Ano
14.
J Agric Food Chem ; 60(21): 5471-81, 2012 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22559314

RESUMO

This study examined the environmental and genetic variation in methyl donor contents and compositions of 200 cereal genotypes. Glycine betaine, choline, and trigonelline contents were determined by (1)H NMR, and significant differences were observed between cereal types (G) and across harvesting years and growing locations (E). Glycine betaine was the most abundant methyl donor in all of the 200 lines grown on a single site, and concentrations ranged from 0.43 ± 0.09 mg/g dm in oats to 2.57 ± 0.25 mg/g dm in diploid Einkorn varieties. In bread wheat genotypes there was a 3-fold difference in glycine betaine content. Choline contents, in the same lines, were substantially lower, and mean concentrations ranged from 0.17 mg/g dm in oats to 0.27 mg/g dm in durum wheat. Trigonelline was by far the least abundant of the methyl donors studied. Despite this, however, there were large differences between cereal types. Twenty-six wheat genotypes were grown in additional years at four European locations. The average glycine betaine content was highest in grains grown in Hungary and lowest in those grown in the United Kingdom. Across the six environments, there was a 3.8-fold difference in glycine betaine content. Glycine betaine levels, although moderately heritable (0.36), were found to be the most susceptible to the environmental conditions. Free choline concentrations were less variable across genotypes, but heritability of this component was the lowest of all methyl donor components (0.25) and showed a high G × E interaction. Trigonelline showed the most variation due to genotype. Heritability of this metabolite was the highest (0.59), but given that it is at a very low concentration in wheat, it is probably not attractive to plant breeders.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/análise , Betaína/análise , Colina/análise , Grão Comestível/química , Grão Comestível/genética , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Alcaloides/metabolismo , Betaína/metabolismo , Colina/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Meio Ambiente , Genótipo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo
15.
J Agric Food Chem ; 59(22): 12139-48, 2011 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21961929

RESUMO

Rye products typically induce low insulin responses and appear to facilitate glucose regulation. The objective of this study was to investigate differences in postprandial glucose, insulin, and satiety responses between breads made from five rye varieties. Breads made from whole grain rye (Amilo, Rekrut, Dankowski Zlote, Nikita, and Haute Loire Pop) or a white wheat bread (WWB) were tested in a randomized cross-over design in 14 healthy subjects (50 g available starch). Metabolic responses were also related to the composition of dietary fiber and bioactive compounds in the breads and to the rate of in vitro starch hydrolysis. The Amilo and Rekrut rye breads induced significantly lower insulin indices (II) than WWB. Low early postprandial glucose and insulin responses (tAUC 0-60 min) were related to higher amounts of caffeic, ferulic, sinapic, and vanillic acids in the rye breads, indicating that the phenolic acids in rye may influence glycemic regulation. All rye breads induced significantly higher subjective feelings of fullness compared to WWB. A low II was related to a higher feeling of fullness and a lower desire to eat in the late postprandial phase (180 min). The data indicate that some rye varieties may be more insulin-saving than others, possibly due to differences in dietary fiber, rate of starch hydrolysis, and bioactive components such as phenolic acids.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Pão/análise , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Insulina/sangue , Resposta de Saciedade , Secale/metabolismo , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Período Pós-Prandial , Distribuição Aleatória , Secale/química , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 59(19): 10564-71, 2011 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21863876

RESUMO

The total contents of thiamine (vitamin B1), riboflavin (B2), and pyridoxine (B6) and the bioavailable forms of niacin (B3) were determined on wholemeal flours of 24 winter wheat varieties grown on four sites (United Kingdom, Poland, France, and Hungary) in 2007 and of two spring varieties grown on the same sites with the exception of Poland. The contents of vitamins B1 (5.53-13.55 µg/g dw), B2 (0.77-1.40 µg/g dw), and B6 (1.27-2.97 µg/g dw) were within the ranges reported previously, while the content of bioavailable vitamin B3 (0.16-1.74 µg/g dw) was about 10-15% of the total contents of vitamin B3 reported in previous studies. Strong correlations were observed between the contents of vitamins B1, B3, and B6, and partitioning of the variance in the contents of these three B vitamins showed that between 48 and 70% was accounted for by the environment. By contrast, the content of vitamin B2 was not correlated with the contents of other B vitamins, and 73% of the variance was ascribed to the error term, which suggests that this trait may be influenced by genotype × environment interactions. Whereas the contents of vitamins B1, B3, and B6 were correlated positively with the mean temperature from heading to harvest (r > 0.8), the content of vitamin B2 was positively correlated with precipitation during the 3 months prior to heading. These results are discussed in relation to the development of new wheat varieties with enhanced health benefits.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Sementes/química , Sementes/genética , Triticum/genética , Complexo Vitamínico B/análise , Farinha/análise , França , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Genótipo , Hungria , Niacinamida/análise , Polônia , Riboflavina/análise , Tiamina/análise , Reino Unido , Vitamina B 6/análise
17.
J Agric Food Chem ; 59(13): 7075-82, 2011 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21615152

RESUMO

Fifty bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars were selected from the HEALTHGRAIN germplasm collection based on variation in their contents of total and water-extractable arabinoxylan. FT-IR spectroscopic mapping of thin transverse sections of grain showed variation in cell wall arabinoxylan composition between the cultivars, from consisting almost entirely of low-substituted arabinoxylan (e.g., T.aestivum 'Claire') to almost entirely of highly substituted arabinoxylan (e.g., T.aestivum 'Manital') and a mixture of the two forms (e.g., T.aestivum 'Hereward'). Complementary data were obtained using endoxylanase digestion of flour followed by HP-AEC analysis of the arabinoxylan oligosaccharides. This allowed the selection of six cultivars for more detailed analysis using FT-IR and (1)H NMR spectroscopy to determine the proportions of mono-, di-, and unsubstituted xylose residues. The results of the two analyses were consistent, showing that variation in the composition and structure of the endosperm cell wall arabinoxylan is present between bread wheat cultivars. The heterogeneity and spatial distribution of the arabinoxylan in endosperm cell walls may be exploited in wheat processing as it may allow the production of mill streams enriched in various arabinoxylan fractions which have beneficial effects on health.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta/análise , Endosperma/química , Triticum/química , Xilanos/análise , Parede Celular/química , Endo-1,4-beta-Xilanases/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Sementes/química , Especificidade da Espécie , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Xilanos/química
18.
J Agric Food Chem ; 59(3): 928-33, 2011 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21218832

RESUMO

The EU FP6 HEALTHGRAIN has generated an extensive database on the contents of phytochemicals (alkylresorcinols, tocols, sterols, phenolic acids, folates) and dietary fiber components in the grain of wheat, including analyses of 150 lines grown on a single site in Hungary in 2005 and a smaller set of lines grown under five (three lines) or six (23 lines) different environments (in Hungary in 2005, 2006, and 2007 and in France, Poland, and the United Kingdom in 2007). The lines analyzed included land races and varieties bred between the mid-19th and early 21st centuries. These results have been analyzed to determine whether the contents of these groups of bioactive components in the grain have decreased with the development of intensive plant breeding in the second part of the 20th century. No decreases in the contents of any groups of bioactive components were observed in relation to release date, showing that selection for increased yield and protein quality has been effectively neutral for other grain components.


Assuntos
Cruzamento , Triticum/química , Bases de Dados Factuais , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Ácido Fólico/análise , França , Hungria , Hidroxibenzoatos/análise , Fitosteróis/análise , Polônia , Resorcinóis/análise , Sementes/química , Especificidade da Espécie , Triticum/genética , Reino Unido
19.
Funct Integr Genomics ; 11(1): 71-83, 2011 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20697765

RESUMO

Grain dietary fiber content in wheat not only affects its end use and technological properties including milling, baking and animal feed but is also of great importance for health benefits. In this study, integration of association genetics (seven detected loci on chromosomes 1B, 3A, 3D, 5B, 6B, 7A, 7B) and meta-QTL (three consensus QTL on chromosomes 1B, 3D and 6B) analyses allowed the identification of seven chromosomal regions underlying grain dietary fiber content in bread wheat. Based either on a diversity panel or on bi-parental populations, we clearly demonstrate that this trait is mainly driven by a major locus located on chromosome 1B associated with a log of p value >13 and a LOD score >8, respectively. In parallel, we identified 73 genes differentially expressed during the grain development and between genotypes with contrasting grain fiber contents. Integration of quantitative genetics and transcriptomic data allowed us to propose a short list of candidate genes that are conserved in the rice, sorghum and Brachypodium chromosome regions orthologous to the seven wheat grain fiber content QTL and that can be considered as major candidate genes for future improvement of the grain dietary fiber content in bread wheat breeding programs.


Assuntos
Pão/análise , Fibras na Dieta , Grão Comestível/genética , Genes de Plantas/genética , Genômica , Triticum/genética , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Brachypodium/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos de Plantas , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genótipo , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Repetições de Microssatélites , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Oryza/genética , Fenótipo , Locos de Características Quantitativas , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA de Plantas/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
20.
J Agric Food Chem ; 58(17): 9291-8, 2010 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20438061

RESUMO

Analysis of the contents of bioactive components (tocols, sterols, alkylresorcinols, folates, phenolic acids, and fiber components) in 26 wheat cultivars grown in six site x year combinations showed that the extent of variation due to variety and environment differed significantly between components. The total contents of tocols, sterols, and arabinoxylan fiber were highly heritable and hence an appropriate target for plant breeding. However, significant correlations between the contents of bioactive components and environmental factors (precipitation and temperature) during grain development also occurred, with even highly heritable components differing in amount between grain samples grown in different years on different sites.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta/análise , Variação Genética , Triticum/classificação , Genótipo , Triticum/química , Triticum/genética
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