Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 127
Filtrar
1.
Sci Adv ; 7(6)2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33547071

RESUMO

To characterize the genetic basis of facial features in Latin Americans, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of more than 6000 individuals using 59 landmark-based measurements from two-dimensional profile photographs and ~9,000,000 genotyped or imputed single-nucleotide polymorphisms. We detected significant association of 32 traits with at least 1 (and up to 6) of 32 different genomic regions, more than doubling the number of robustly associated face morphology loci reported until now (from 11 to 23). These GWAS hits are strongly enriched in regulatory sequences active specifically during craniofacial development. The associated region in 1p12 includes a tract of archaic adaptive introgression, with a Denisovan haplotype common in Native Americans affecting particularly lip thickness. Among the nine previously unidentified face morphology loci we identified is the VPS13B gene region, and we show that variants in this region also affect midfacial morphology in mice.

2.
Infect Genet Evol ; 87: 104675, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33316430

RESUMO

Host genetics is an influencing factor in the manifestation of infectious diseases. In this study, the association of mild malaria with 28 variants in 16 genes previously reported in other populations and/or close to ancestry-informative markers (AIMs) selected was evaluated in an admixed 736 Colombian population sample. Additionally, the effect of genetic ancestry on phenotype expression was explored. For this purpose, the ancestral genetic composition of Turbo and El Bagre was determined. A higher Native American ancestry trend was found in the population with lower malaria susceptibility [odds ratio (OR) = 0.416, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.234-0.740, P = 0.003]. Three AIMs presented significant associations with the disease phenotype (MID1752, MID921, and MID1586). The first two were associated with greater malaria susceptibility (D/D, OR = 2.23, 95% CI = 1.06-4.69, P = 0.032 and I/D-I/I, OR = 2.14, 95% CI = 1.18-3.87, P = 0.011, respectively), and the latter has a protective effect on the appearance of malaria (I/I, OR = 0.18, 95% CI = 0.08-0.40, P < 0.0001). After adjustment by age, sex, municipality, and genetic ancestry, genotype association analysis showed evidence of association with malaria susceptibility for variants in or near IL1B, TLR9, TREM1, IL10RA, and CD3G genes: rs1143629-IL1B (G/A-A/A, OR = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.21-0.78, P = 0.0051), rs352139-TLR9 (T/T, OR = 0.28, 95% CI = 0.11-0.72, P = 0.0053), rs352140-TLR9 (C/C, OR = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.20-0.87, P = 0.019), rs2234237-TREM1 (T/A-A/A, OR = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.23-0.79, P = 0.0056), rs4252246-IL10RA (C/A-A/A, OR = 2.11, 95% CI = 1.18-3.75, P = 0.01), and rs1561966-CD3G (A/A, OR = 0.20, 95% CI = 0.06-0.69, P = 0.0058). The results showed the participation of genes involved in immunological processes and suggested an effect of ancestral genetic composition over the traits analyzed. Compared to the paisa population (Antioquia), Turbo and El Bagre showed a strong decrease in European ancestry and an increase in African and Native American ancestries. Also, a novel association of two single nucleotide polymorphisms with malaria susceptibility was identified in this study.

3.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241282, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147239

RESUMO

The American continent was the last to be occupied by modern humans, and native populations bear the marks of recent expansions, bottlenecks, natural selection, and population substructure. Here we investigate how this demographic history has shaped genetic variation at the strongly selected HLA loci. In order to disentangle the relative contributions of selection and demography process, we assembled a dataset with genome-wide microsatellites and HLA-A, -B, -C, and -DRB1 typing data for a set of 424 Native American individuals. We find that demographic history explains a sizeable fraction of HLA variation, both within and among populations. A striking feature of HLA variation in the Americas is the existence of alleles which are present in the continent but either absent or very rare elsewhere in the world. We show that this feature is consistent with demographic history (i.e., the combination of changes in population size associated with bottlenecks and subsequent population expansions). However, signatures of selection at HLA loci are still visible, with significant evidence selection at deeper timescales for most loci and populations, as well as population differentiation at HLA loci exceeding that seen at neutral markers.

4.
Hepatology ; 2020 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893372

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is a neglected disease with substantial geographical variability: Chile shows the highest incidence worldwide, while GBC is relatively rare in Europe. Here we investigate the causal effects of risk factors considered in current GBC prevention programmes as well as C-reactive protein (CRP) level as a marker of chronic inflammation. APPROACH & RESULTS: We applied two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) using publicly available data and our own data from a retrospective Chilean and a prospective European study. Causality was assessed by inverse variance weighted (IVW), MR-Egger regression and weighted median estimates complemented with sensitivity analyses on potential heterogeneity and pleiotropy, two-step MR and mediation analysis. We found evidence for a causal effect of gallstone disease on GBC risk in Chileans (p = 9 × 10-5 ) and Europeans (p = 9 × 10-5 ). A genetically elevated body mass index (BMI) increased GBC risk in Chileans (p = 0.03), while higher CRP concentrations increased GBC risk in Europeans (p = 4.1 × 10-6 ). European results suggest causal effects of BMI on gallstone disease (p = 0.008); public Chilean data were not, however, available to enable assessment of the mediation effects among causal GBC risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: Two risk factors considered in the current Chilean programme for GBC prevention are causally linked to GBC risk: gallstones and BMI. For Europeans, BMI showed a causal effect on gallstone risk, which was itself causally linked to GBC risk.

5.
Forensic Sci Int Genet ; 48: 102342, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32818722

RESUMO

We developed a new mutationally well-balanced 32 Y-STR multiplex (CombYplex) together with a machine learning (ML) program PredYMaLe to assess the impact of STR mutability on haplogourp prediction, while respecting forensic community criteria (high DC/HD). We designed CombYplex around two sub-panels M1 and M2 characterized by average and high-mutation STR panels. Using these two sub-panels, we tested how our program PredYmale reacts to mutability when considering basal branches and, moving down, terminal branches. We tested first the discrimination capacity of CombYplex on 996 human samples using various forensic and statistical parameters and showed that its resolution is sufficient to separate haplogroup classes. In parallel, PredYMaLe was designed and used to test whether a ML approach can predict haplogroup classes from Y-STR profiles. Applied to our kit, SVM and Random Forest classifiers perform very well (average 97 %), better than Neural Network (average 91 %) and Bayesian methods (< 90 %). We observe heterogeneity in haplogroup assignation accuracy among classes, with most haplogroups having high prediction scores (99-100 %) and two (E1b1b and G) having lower scores (67 %). The small sample sizes of these classes explain the high tendency to misclassify the Y-profiles of these haplogroups; results were measurably improved as soon as more training data were added. We provide evidence that our ML approach is a robust method to accurately predict haplogroups when it is combined with a sufficient number of markers, well-balanced mutation rate Y-STR panels, and large ML training sets. Further research on confounding factors (such as CNV-STR or gene conversion) and ideal STR panels in regard to the branches analysed can be developed to help classifiers further optimize prediction scores.

6.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 13706, 2020 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32792643

RESUMO

Neuromyelitis Optica (NMO) is an autoimmune disease with a higher prevalence in non-European populations. Because the Mexican population resulted from the admixture between mainly Native American and European populations, we used genome-wide microarray, HLA high-resolution typing and AQP4 gene sequencing data to analyze genetic ancestry and to seek genetic variants conferring NMO susceptibility in admixed Mexican patients. A total of 164 Mexican NMO patients and 1,208 controls were included. On average, NMO patients had a higher proportion of Native American ancestry than controls (68.1% vs 58.6%; p = 5 × 10-6). GWAS identified a HLA region associated with NMO, led by rs9272219 (OR = 2.48, P = 8 × 10-10). Class II HLA alleles HLA-DQB1*03:01, -DRB1*08:02, -DRB1*16:02, -DRB1*14:06 and -DQB1*04:02 showed the most significant associations with NMO risk. Local ancestry estimates suggest that all the NMO-associated alleles within the HLA region are of Native American origin. No novel or missense variants in the AQP4 gene were found in Mexican patients with NMO or multiple sclerosis. To our knowledge, this is the first study supporting the notion that Native American ancestry significantly contributes to NMO susceptibility in an admixed population, and is consistent with differences in NMO epidemiology in Mexico and Latin America.

7.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 74, 2020 02 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32094344

RESUMO

Current evidence from case/control studies indicates that genetic risk for psychiatric disorders derives primarily from numerous common variants, each with a small phenotypic impact. The literature describing apparent segregation of bipolar disorder (BP) in numerous multigenerational pedigrees suggests that, in such families, large-effect inherited variants might play a greater role. To identify roles of rare and common variants on BP, we conducted genetic analyses in 26 Colombia and Costa Rica pedigrees ascertained for bipolar disorder 1 (BP1), the most severe and heritable form of BP. In these pedigrees, we performed microarray SNP genotyping of 838 individuals and high-coverage whole-genome sequencing of 449 individuals. We compared polygenic risk scores (PRS), estimated using the latest BP1 genome-wide association study (GWAS) summary statistics, between BP1 individuals and related controls. We also evaluated whether BP1 individuals had a higher burden of rare deleterious single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) and rare copy number variants (CNVs) in a set of genes related to BP1. We found that compared with unaffected relatives, BP1 individuals had higher PRS estimated from BP1 GWAS statistics (P = 0.001 ~ 0.007) and displayed modest increase in burdens of rare deleterious SNVs (P = 0.047) and rare CNVs (P = 0.002 ~ 0.033) in genes related to BP1. We did not observe rare variants segregating in the pedigrees. These results suggest that small-to-moderate effect rare and common variants are more likely to contribute to BP1 risk in these extended pedigrees than a few large-effect rare variants.

8.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 65: 101643, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32058310

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The first large-scale genome-wide association study of gallbladder cancer (GBC) recently identified and validated three susceptibility variants in the ABCB1 and ABCB4 genes for individuals of Indian descent. We investigated whether these variants were also associated with GBC risk in Chileans, who show the highest incidence of GBC worldwide, and in Europeans with a low GBC incidence. METHODS: This population-based study analysed genotype data from retrospective Chilean case-control (255 cases, 2042 controls) and prospective European cohort (108 cases, 181 controls) samples consistently with the original publication. RESULTS: Our results confirmed the reported associations for Chileans with similar risk effects. Particularly strong associations (per-allele odds ratios close to 2) were observed for Chileans with high Native American (=Mapuche) ancestry. No associations were noticed for Europeans, but the statistical power was low. CONCLUSION: Taking full advantage of genetic and ethnic differences in GBC risk may improve the efficiency of current prevention programs.


Assuntos
Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Chile/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/epidemiologia , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Índios Sul-Americanos/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Gut Microbes ; 11(2): 191-204, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311405

RESUMO

Cardiometabolic affections greatly contribute to the global burden of disease. The susceptibility to obesity, cardiovascular disease, and type-2 diabetes, conditions that add to the cardiometabolic syndrome (CMS), was associated with the ancestral genetic composition and gut microbiota. Studies explicitly testing associations between genetic ancestry and gut microbes are growing. We here examined whether the host genetic ancestry was associated with gut microbiota composition, and distinguished the effects of genetic ancestry and non-genetic factors on human cardiometabolic health. We performed a cross-sectional study with 441 community-dwelling Colombian mestizos from five cities spanning the Andes, Pacific, and Caribbean coasts. We characterized the host genetic ancestry by genotyping 40 ancestry informative markers; characterized gut microbiota through 16S rRNA gene sequencing; assessed diet intake, physical activity, cigarette, and medicament consumption; and measured cardiometabolic outcomes that allowed calculating a CMS risk scale. On average, each individual of our cohort was 67 ± 6% European, 21 ± 5% Native American and 12 ± 5% African. Multivariable-adjusted generalized linear models showed that individuals with higher Native American and African ancestries had increased fasting insulin, body mass index and CMS risk, as assessed by the CMS risk scale. Furthermore, we identified 21 OTUs associated to the host genetic ancestry and 20 to cardiometabolic health. While we highlight novel associations between genetic ancestry and gut microbiota, we found that the effect of intestinal microbes was more likely to explain the variance in CMS risk scale than the contributions of European, Native American and African genetic backgrounds.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Fatores de Risco , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/genética , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/microbiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Humanos , Índios Sul-Americanos/genética , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Metagenômica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Adulto Jovem
10.
Gut Microbes ; 11(3): 556-568, 2020 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154934

RESUMO

Identifying the genetic and non-genetic determinants of obesity and related cardiometabolic dysfunctions is cornerstone for their prevention, treatment, and control. While genetic variants contribute to the cardiometabolic syndrome (CMS), non-genetic factors, such as the gut microbiota, also play key roles. Gut microbiota is intimately associated with CMS and its composition is heritable. However, associations between this microbial community and host genetics are understudied. We contribute filling this gap by genotyping 60 variants in 39 genes of three modules involved in CMS risk, measuring cardiometabolic risk factors, and characterizing gut microbiota in a cohort of 441 Colombians. We hypothesized that CMS risk variants were correlated with detrimental levels of clinical parameters and with the abundance of disease-associated microbes. We found several polymorphisms in genes of innate immunity, appetite control, and energy metabolism that were associated with metabolic dysregulation and microbiota composition; the associations between host genetics and cardiometabolic health were independent of the participants' gut microbiota, and those between polymorphisms and gut microbes were independent of the CMS risk. Associations were also independent of the host genetic ancestry, diet and lifestyle. Most microbes explaining genetic-microbiota associations belonged to the families Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae. Multiple CMS risk alleles were correlated with increased abundance of beneficial microbiota, suggesting that the phenotypic outcome of the evaluated variants might depend upon the genetic background of the studied population and its environmental context. Our results provide additional evidence that the gut microbiota is under the host genetic control and present pathways of host-microbe interactions.

11.
Elife ; 82019 11 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31763980

RESUMO

The human face represents a combined set of highly heritable phenotypes, but knowledge on its genetic architecture remains limited, despite the relevance for various fields. A series of genome-wide association studies on 78 facial shape phenotypes quantified from 3-dimensional facial images of 10,115 Europeans identified 24 genetic loci reaching study-wide suggestive association (p < 5 × 10-8), among which 17 were previously unreported. A follow-up multi-ethnic study in additional 7917 individuals confirmed 10 loci including six unreported ones (padjusted < 2.1 × 10-3). A global map of derived polygenic face scores assembled facial features in major continental groups consistent with anthropological knowledge. Analyses of epigenomic datasets from cranial neural crest cells revealed abundant cis-regulatory activities at the face-associated genetic loci. Luciferase reporter assays in neural crest progenitor cells highlighted enhancer activities of several face-associated DNA variants. These results substantially advance our understanding of the genetic basis underlying human facial variation and provide candidates for future in-vivo functional studies.


Assuntos
Face/anatomia & histologia , Loci Gênicos/genética , Desenvolvimento Maxilofacial/genética , Fenótipo , Adolescente , Adulto , Pontos de Referência Anatômicos , Padronização Corporal/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Ontologia Genética , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Herança Multifatorial , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto Jovem
12.
Am J Hum Biol ; 31(5): e23278, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31237064

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This article aims to assess the contribution of genomic ancestry and socioeconomic status to obesity in a sample of admixed Latin Americans. METHODS: The study comprised 6776 adult volunteers from Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, and Peru. Each volunteer completed a questionnaire about socioeconomic variables. Anthropometric variables such as weight, height, waist, and hip circumference were measured to calculate body indices: body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). Genetic data were extracted from blood samples, and ancestry was estimated using chip genotypes. Multiple linear regression was used to evaluate the relationship between the indices and ancestry, educational level, and economic well-being. The body indices were dichotomized to obesity indices by using appropriate thresholds. Odds ratios were calculated for each obesity index. RESULTS: The sample showed high percentages of obesity by all measurements. However, indices did not overlap consistently when classifying obesity. WHtR resulted in the highest prevalence of obesity. Overall, women with low education level and men with high economic wellness were more likely to be obese. American ancestry was statistically associated with obesity indices, although to a lesser extent than socioeconomic variables. CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of obesity was heavily dependent on the index and the population. Genomic ancestry has a significant influence on the anthropometric measurements, especially on central adiposity. As a whole, we detected a large interpopulation variation that suggests that better approaches to overweight and obesity phenotypes are needed in order to obtain more precise reference values.


Assuntos
Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/genética , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Chile/epidemiologia , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiologia , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/etnologia , Peru/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Classe Social , Adulto Jovem
13.
BMJ Open ; 9(4): e025530, 2019 04 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31005922

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Pain constitutes a major component of the global burden of diseases. Recent studies suggest a strong genetic contribution to pain susceptibility and severity. Whereas most of the available evidence relies on candidate gene association or linkage studies, research on the genetic basis of pain sensitivity using genome-wide association studies (GWAS) is still in its infancy. This protocol describes a proposed GWAS on genetic contributions to baseline pain sensitivity and nociceptive sensitisation in a sample of unrelated healthy individuals of mixed Latin American ancestry. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A GWAS on genetic contributions to pain sensitivity in the naïve state and following nociceptive sensitisation will be conducted in unrelated healthy individuals of mixed ancestry. Mechanical and thermal pain sensitivity will be evaluated with a battery of quantitative sensory tests evaluating pain thresholds. In addition, variation in mechanical and thermal sensitisation following topical application of mustard oil to the skin will be evaluated. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study received ethical approval from the University College London research ethics committee (3352/001) and from the bioethics committee of the Odontology Faculty at the University of Antioquia (CONCEPTO 01-2013). Findings will be disseminated to commissioners, clinicians and service users via papers and presentations at international conferences.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Limiar da Dor , Dor/genética , Colômbia , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Nociceptores/fisiologia
14.
Biomedica ; 39(1): 88-101, 2019 03 31.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31021550

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Host genetics is recognized as an influential factor for the development of dengue disease. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the association of dengue with the polymorphisms rs8192284 for gene IL6R, rs3775290 for TLR3, and rs7248637 for DC-SIGN. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Of the 292 surveyed subjects, 191 were confirmed for dengue fever and the remaining 101 were included as controls. The genotypes were resolved using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCRRFLP). In an attempt to determine the risk (Odds Ratio) of suffering dengue fever, data were analyzed using chi-square for alleles and logistic regression for both genotypes and allelic combinations. Confidence intervals were set to 95% for all tests regardless of the adjustment by either self-identification or ancestry. RESULTS: For Afro-Colombians, the allele rs8192284 C offered protection against dengue [OR=0.425,(0.204-0.887), p=0.020]. The alleles rs7248637 A and rs3775290 A posed, respectively, an increased risk of dengue for Afro-Colombians [OR=2.389, (1.170-4.879), p=0.015] and Mestizos [OR=2.329, (1.283-4.226), p=0.005]. The reproducibility for rs8192284 C/C [OR=2.45, (1.05-5.76), p=0.013] remained after adjustment by Amerindian ancestry [OR=2.52, (1.04-6.09), p=0.013]. The reproducibility for rs3775290 A/A [OR=2.48, (1.09-5.65), p=0.033] remained after adjustment by European [OR=2.34, (1.02-5.35), p=0.048], Amerindian [OR=2.49, (1.09-5.66), p=0.035], and African ancestry [OR=2.37, (1.04-5.41), p=0.046]. Finally, the association of dengue fever with the allelic combination CAG [OR=2.07, (1.06-4.05), p=0.033] remained after adjustment by Amerindian ancestry [OR=2.16, (1.09-4.28), p=0.028]. CONCLUSIONS: Polymorphisms rs8192284 for IL6R, rs3775290 for TLR3, and rs7248637 for DC-SIGN were associated with the susceptibility to suffer dengue fever in the sampled Colombian population.


Assuntos
Moléculas de Adesão Celular/genética , Dengue/genética , Lectinas Tipo C/genética , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética , Receptores de Interleucina-6/genética , Receptor 3 Toll-Like/genética , Adulto , Colômbia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Humanos , Masculino
15.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 39(1): 88-101, ene.-mar. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001392

RESUMO

Abstract Introduction: Host genetics is recognized as an influential factor for the development of dengue disease. Objective: This study evaluated the association of dengue with the polymorphisms rs8192284 for gene IL6R, rs3775290 for TLR3, and rs7248637 for DC-SIGN. Materials and methods: Of the 292 surveyed subjects, 191 were confirmed for dengue fever and the remaining 101 were included as controls. The genotypes were resolved using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR- RFLP). In an attempt to determine the risk (Odds Ratio) of suffering dengue fever, data were analyzed using chi-square for alleles and logistic regression for both genotypes and allelic combinations. Confidence intervals were set to 95% for all tests regardless of the adjustment by either self-identification or ancestry. Results: For Afro-Colombians, the allele rs8192284 C offered protection against dengue [OR=0.425,(0.204-0.887), p=0.020]. The alleles rs7248637 A and rs3775290 A posed, respectively, an increased risk of dengue for Afro-Colombians [OR=2.389, (1.170-4.879), p=0.015] and Mestizos [OR=2.329, (1.283-4.226), p=0.005]. The reproducibility for rs8192284 C/C [OR=2.45, (1.05-5.76), p=0.013] remained after adjustment by Amerindian ancestry [OR=2.52, (1.04-6.09), p=0.013]. The reproducibility for rs3775290 A/A [OR=2.48, (1.09-5.65), p=0.033] remained after adjustment by European [OR=2.34, (1.02-5.35), p=0.048], Amerindian [OR=2.49, (1.09-5.66), p=0.035], and African ancestry [OR=2.37, (1.04-5.41), p=0.046]. Finally, the association of dengue fever with the allelic combination CAG [OR=2.07, (1.06-4.05), p=0.033] remained after adjustment by Amerindian ancestry [OR=2.16, (1.09-4.28), p=0.028]. Conclusions: Polymorphisms rs8192284 for IL6R, rs3775290 for TLR3, and rs7248637 for DC-SIGN were associated with the susceptibility to suffer dengue fever in the sampled Colombian population.


Resumen Introducción. La genética del huésped se reconoce como un factor que influye en el desarrollo del dengue. Objetivo. Este estudio evaluó la asociación del dengue con los polimorfismos rs8192284 del gen IL6R, rs3775290 del TLR3 y rs7248637 del DC-SIGN. Materiales y métodos. De los 292 sujetos encuestados, en 191 se confirmó la presencia de fiebre por dengue y los restantes 101 se incluyeron como controles. Los genotipos se resolvieron mediante reacción en cadena de la polimerasa y polimorfismos en la longitud de los fragmentos de restricción (PCR-RFLP). En un intento por determinar el riesgo de sufrir dengue, los datos se analizaron mediante la prueba de ji al cuadrado para los alelos y la regresión logística para los genotipos y las combinaciones alélicas. Los intervalos de confianza se calcularon a 95 % para todas las pruebas independientemente ajustadas por autoidentificación o componente genético ancestral. Resultados. En los afrocolombianos, el alelo C rs8192284 ofreció protección contra el dengue (OR=0,425; 0,204-0,887, p=0,020). Los alelos A rs7248637 y Ars3775290 plantearon un mayor riesgo de dengue para los afrocolombianos (OR=2,389; 1,170- 4,879; p=0,015) y los mestizos (OR=2,329; 1,283-4,226: p=0,005), respectivamente. La reproducibilidad para rs8192284 C/C (OR=2,45; 1,05-5,76; p=0,013) permaneció después del ajuste por el componente genético ancestral amerindio (OR=2,52; 1,04- 6,09; p=0,013). La reproducibilidad del rs3775290 A/A (OR=2,48; 1,09-5,65; p=0,033) permaneció después del ajuste por el componente europeo (OR=2,34; 1,02-5,35; p=0,048), el amerindio (OR=2,49; 1,09- 5,66; p=0,035), y el africano (OR=2,37; 1,04- 5,41; p=0,046). Por último, la asociación del dengue con la combinación alélica CAG (OR=2,07; 1,06-4,05; p=0,033) permaneció después del ajuste por el componente genético amerindio (OR=2,16; 1,09-4,28;p=0,028). Conclusión. Los polimorfismos rs8192284 en IL6R, rs3775290 en TLR3 y rs7248637 en DC-SIGN, se asociaron con la propensión a sufrir dengue en una muestra de población colombiana.

16.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 358, 2019 01 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30664655

RESUMO

We report a genome-wide association scan in >6,000 Latin Americans for pigmentation of skin and eyes. We found eighteen signals of association at twelve genomic regions. These include one novel locus for skin pigmentation (in 10q26) and three novel loci for eye pigmentation (in 1q32, 20q13 and 22q12). We demonstrate the presence of multiple independent signals of association in the 11q14 and 15q13 regions (comprising the GRM5/TYR and HERC2/OCA2 genes, respectively) and several epistatic interactions among independently associated alleles. Strongest association with skin pigmentation at 19p13 was observed for an Y182H missense variant (common only in East Asians and Native Americans) in MFSD12, a gene recently associated with skin pigmentation in Africans. We show that the frequency of the derived allele at Y182H is significantly correlated with lower solar radiation intensity in East Asia and infer that MFSD12 was under selection in East Asians, probably after their split from Europeans.


Assuntos
Epistasia Genética , Cor de Olho/genética , Genoma Humano , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Pigmentação da Pele/genética , Alelos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Evolução Biológica , Grupos Étnicos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Frequência do Gene , Genética Populacional , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/genética , Humanos , América Latina , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptor de Glutamato Metabotrópico 5/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases
17.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 168(3): 438-447, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30582632

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the variation in dental nonmetric traits and to evaluate the utility of this variation for inferring genetic ancestry proportions in a sample of admixed Latin Americans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We characterized a sample from Colombia (N = 477) for 34 dental traits and obtained estimates of individual Native American, European, and African ancestry using genome-wide SNP data. We tested for correlation between dental traits, genetic ancestry, age, and sex. We carried out a biodistance analysis between the Colombian sample and reference continental population samples using the mean measure of divergence statistic calculated from dental trait frequencies. We evaluated the inference of genetic ancestry from dental traits using a regression approach (with 10-fold cross-validation) as well as by testing the correlation between estimates of ancestry obtained from genetic and dental data. RESULTS: Latin Americans show intermediate dental trait frequencies when compared to Native Americans, Europeans, and Africans. Significant correlations were observed for several dental traits, genetic ancestry, age, and sex. The biodistance analysis displayed a closer relationship of Colombians to Europeans than to Native Americans and Africans. Mean ancestry estimates obtained from the dental data are similar to the genetic estimates (Native American: 32% vs. 28%, European: 59% vs. 63%, and African: 9% vs. 9%, respectively). However, dental features provided low predictive power for genetic ancestry of individuals in both approaches tested (R2 < 5% for all genetic ancestries across methods). DISCUSSION: The frequency of dental traits in Latin Americans reflects their admixed Native American, European and African ancestry and can provide reasonable average estimates of genetic ancestry. However, the accuracy of individual genetic ancestry estimates is relatively low, probably influenced by the continental differentiation of dental traits, their genetic architecture, and the distribution of genetic ancestry in the individuals examined.


Assuntos
Grupos de Populações Continentais , Hispano-Americanos/genética , Dente/anatomia & histologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Antropologia Física , Grupos de Populações Continentais/genética , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Genética Populacional , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Fotografia Dentária , Adulto Jovem
18.
Int J Cardiol ; 279: 168-173, 2019 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30305239

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Serum uric acid (SUA) is a heritable trait associated with cardiovascular risk factors and coronary artery disease (CAD). Genome wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several genes associated with SUA, mainly in European populations. However, to date there are few GWAS in Latino populations, and the role of SUA-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in cardiovascular disease has not been studied in the Mexican population. METHODS: We performed genome-wide SUA association study in 2153 Mexican children and adults, evaluated whether genetic effects were modified by sex and obesity, and used a Mendelian randomization approach in an independent cohort to study the role of SUA modifying genetic variants in premature CAD. RESULTS: Only two loci were associated with SUA levels: SLC2A9 (ß = -0.47 mg/dl, P = 1.57 × 10-42 for lead SNP rs7678287) and ABCG2 (ß = 0.23 mg/dl, P = 2.42 × 10-10 for lead SNP rs2231142). No significant interaction between SLC2A9 rs7678287 and ABCG2 rs2231142 genotypes and obesity was observed. However, a significant ABCG2 rs2231142 genotype*sex interaction (P = 0.001) was observed in adults but not in children. Although SUA levels were associated with premature CAD, metabolic syndrome and decreased glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), only ABCG2 rs2231142 was associated with decreased eGFR in the premature CAD group. CONCLUSIONS: SUA elevation was independently associated with premature CAD, metabolic syndrome and decreased eGFR in the Mexican population. However, a Mendelian randomization approach using the lead SUA-associated SNPs (SLC2A9 and ABCG2) did not support a causal role of elevated SUA levels for premature CAD.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Ácido Úrico/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Criança , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Infect Public Health ; 12(1): 43-48, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30228077

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Etiologic studies provide evidence that IL-4R and IL-6R receptors may play important roles in the regulatory mechanisms of the development of clinical dengue, especially in children which is a segment of the population with high severe dengue risk. Moreover, the allele frequencies and genetic associations may be influenced by the populational genetic background. Therefore, we performed a case-control study to evaluate possible associations between SNPs in IL4R and IL6R genes and clinical dengue in children from two Colombian populations. METHODS: We genotyped the rs1805016 (IL4R) and rs8192284 (IL6R) by PCR-RFLP method, in 298 symptomatic children and 648 asymptomatic controls. Three individual genetic ancestral proportions (APs) (European, Amerindian, African) were inferred by genotyping 29 AIMs (Ancestry informative markers). The variables gender, APs, and the population of origin were used like confusion variables. RESULTS: We found IL4R-rs1805016 GG genotype and G-allele carriers and IL6R-rs8192284 AA genotype associated with clinical dengue in the pooled and Huila samples. Nevertheless, we found no association of these polymorphisms in the sample of Antioquia. CONCLUSIONS: For the first time, we report SNPs in IL4R and IL6R genes associated with clinical dengue, which contributes to understanding the genetic susceptibility to dengue disease. Moreover, these results may be influenced by genetic background and must be evaluated through functional analysis.


Assuntos
Dengue/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-4/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptores de Interleucina-6/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição
20.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 5388, 2018 12 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30568240

RESUMO

Historical records and genetic analyses indicate that Latin Americans trace their ancestry mainly to the intermixing (admixture) of Native Americans, Europeans and Sub-Saharan Africans. Using novel haplotype-based methods, here we infer sub-continental ancestry in over 6,500 Latin Americans and evaluate the impact of regional ancestry variation on physical appearance. We find that Native American ancestry components in Latin Americans correspond geographically to the present-day genetic structure of Native groups, and that sources of non-Native ancestry, and admixture timings, match documented migratory flows. We also detect South/East Mediterranean ancestry across Latin America, probably stemming mostly from the clandestine colonial migration of Christian converts of non-European origin (Conversos). Furthermore, we find that ancestry related to highland (Central Andean) versus lowland (Mapuche) Natives is associated with variation in facial features, particularly nose morphology, and detect significant differences in allele frequencies between these groups at loci previously associated with nose morphology in this sample.


Assuntos
Migração Humana , Índios Norte-Americanos/genética , Índios Sul-Americanos/genética , Haplótipos , Humanos , México , Nariz/anatomia & histologia , América do Sul
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA