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1.
Science ; 365(6456)2019 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31467194

RESUMO

Twin and family studies have shown that same-sex sexual behavior is partly genetically influenced, but previous searches for specific genes involved have been underpowered. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on 477,522 individuals, revealing five loci significantly associated with same-sex sexual behavior. In aggregate, all tested genetic variants accounted for 8 to 25% of variation in same-sex sexual behavior, only partially overlapped between males and females, and do not allow meaningful prediction of an individual's sexual behavior. Comparing these GWAS results with those for the proportion of same-sex to total number of sexual partners among nonheterosexuals suggests that there is no single continuum from opposite-sex to same-sex sexual behavior. Overall, our findings provide insights into the genetics underlying same-sex sexual behavior and underscore the complexity of sexuality.

3.
Hum Mol Genet ; 28(18): 3053-3061, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31162550

RESUMO

Little is known about the post-transcriptional mechanisms that modulate the genetic effects in the molecular pathways underlying Alzheimer disease (AD), and even less is known about how these changes might differ across diverse populations. RNA editing, the process that alters individual bases of RNA, may contribute to AD pathogenesis due to its roles in neuronal development and immune regulation. Here, we pursued one of the first transcriptome-wide RNA editing studies in AD by examining RNA sequencing data from individuals of both African-American (AA) and non-Hispanic White (NHW) ethnicities. Whole transcriptome RNA sequencing and RNA editing analysis were performed on peripheral blood specimens from 216 AD cases (105 AA, 111 NHW) and 212 gender matched controls (105 AA, 107 NHW). 449 positions in 254 genes and 723 positions in 371 genes were differentially edited in AA and NHW, respectively. While most differentially edited sites localized to different genes in AA and NHW populations, these events converged on the same pathways across both ethnicities, especially endocytic and inflammatory response pathways. Furthermore, these differentially edited sites were preferentially predicted to disrupt miRNA binding and induce nonsynonymous coding changes in genes previously associated with AD in molecular studies, including PAFAH1B2 and HNRNPA1. These findings suggest RNA editing is an important post-transcriptional regulatory program in AD pathogenesis.

4.
J Neuromuscul Dis ; 6(2): 201-211, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30958311

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A) is caused by a uniform 1.5-Mb duplication on chromosome 17p, which includes the PMP22 gene. Patients often present the classic neuropathy phenotype, but also with high clinical variability. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify genetic variants that are potentially associated with specific clinical outcomes in CMT1A. METHODS: We genotyped over 600,000 genomic markers using DNA samples from 971 CMT1A patients and performed a case-only genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify potential genetic association in a subset of 644 individuals of European ancestry. A total of 14 clinical outcomes were analyzed in this study. RESULTS: The analyses yielded suggestive association signals in four clinical outcomes: difficulty with eating utensils (lead SNP rs4713376, chr6 : 30773314, P = 9.91×10-7, odds ratio = 3.288), hearing loss (lead SNP rs7720606, chr5 : 126551732, P = 2.08×10-7, odds ratio = 3.439), decreased ability to feel (lead SNP rs17629990, chr4 : 171224046, P = 1.63×10-7, odds ratio = 0.336), and CMT neuropathy score (lead SNP rs12137595, chr1 : 4094068, P = 1.14×10-7, beta = 3.014). CONCLUSIONS: While the results require validation in future genetic and functional studies, the detected association signals may point to novel genetic modifiers in CMT1A.

5.
Nat Genet ; 51(3): 414-430, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30820047

RESUMO

Risk for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD), the most prevalent dementia, is partially driven by genetics. To identify LOAD risk loci, we performed a large genome-wide association meta-analysis of clinically diagnosed LOAD (94,437 individuals). We confirm 20 previous LOAD risk loci and identify five new genome-wide loci (IQCK, ACE, ADAM10, ADAMTS1, and WWOX), two of which (ADAM10, ACE) were identified in a recent genome-wide association (GWAS)-by-familial-proxy of Alzheimer's or dementia. Fine-mapping of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region confirms the neurological and immune-mediated disease haplotype HLA-DR15 as a risk factor for LOAD. Pathway analysis implicates immunity, lipid metabolism, tau binding proteins, and amyloid precursor protein (APP) metabolism, showing that genetic variants affecting APP and Aß processing are associated not only with early-onset autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease but also with LOAD. Analyses of risk genes and pathways show enrichment for rare variants (P = 1.32 × 10-7), indicating that additional rare variants remain to be identified. We also identify important genetic correlations between LOAD and traits such as family history of dementia and education.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/genética , Loci Gênicos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Imunidade/genética , Lipídeos/genética , Proteínas tau/genética , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Haplótipos/genética , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Masculino
6.
Ann Neurol ; 85(3): 316-330, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30706531

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Genetic modifiers in rare disease have long been suspected to contribute to the considerable variance in disease expression, including Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A). To address this question, the Inherited Neuropathy Consortium collected a large standardized sample of such rare CMT1A patients over a period of 8 years. CMT1A is caused in most patients by a uniformly sized 1.5 Mb duplication event involving the gene PMP22. METHODS: We genotyped DNA samples from 971 CMT1A patients on Illumina BeadChips. Genome-wide analysis was performed in a subset of 330 of these patients, who expressed the extremes of a hallmark symptom: mild and severe foot dorsiflexion strength impairment. SIPA1L2 (signal-induced proliferation-associated 1 like 2), the top identified candidate modifier gene, was expressed in the peripheral nerve, and our functional studies identified and confirmed interacting proteins using coimmunoprecipitation analysis, mass spectrometry, and immunocytochemistry. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and in vitro siRNA experiments were used to analyze gene regulation. RESULTS: We identified significant association of 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs10910527, rs7536385, rs4649265, rs1547740) in SIPA1L2 with foot dorsiflexion strength (p < 1 × 10-7 ). Coimmunoprecipitation and mass spectroscopy studies identified ß-actin and MYH9 as SIPA1L2 binding partners. Furthermore, we show that SIPA1L2 is part of a myelination-associated coexpressed network regulated by the master transcription factor SOX10. Importantly, in vitro knockdown of SIPA1L2 in Schwannoma cells led to a significant reduction of PMP22 expression, hinting at a potential strategy for drug development. INTERPRETATION: SIPA1L2 is a potential genetic modifier of CMT1A phenotypic expressions and offers a new pathway to therapeutic interventions. ANN NEUROL 2019;85:316-330.

7.
Neurology ; 2019 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30651383

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore genetic and lifestyle risk factors of MRI-defined brain infarcts (BI) in large population-based cohorts. METHODS: We performed meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and examined associations of vascular risk factors and their genetic risk scores (GRS) with MRI-defined BI and a subset of BI, namely, small subcortical BI (SSBI), in 18 population-based cohorts (n = 20,949) from 5 ethnicities (3,726 with BI, 2,021 with SSBI). Top loci were followed up in 7 population-based cohorts (n = 6,862; 1,483 with BI, 630 with SBBI), and we tested associations with related phenotypes including ischemic stroke and pathologically defined BI. RESULTS: The mean prevalence was 17.7% for BI and 10.5% for SSBI, steeply rising after age 65. Two loci showed genome-wide significant association with BI: FBN2, p = 1.77 × 10-8; and LINC00539/ZDHHC20, p = 5.82 × 10-9. Both have been associated with blood pressure (BP)-related phenotypes, but did not replicate in the smaller follow-up sample or show associations with related phenotypes. Age- and sex-adjusted associations with BI and SSBI were observed for BP traits (p value for BI, p [BI] = 9.38 × 10-25; p [SSBI] = 5.23 × 10-14 for hypertension), smoking (p [BI] = 4.4 × 10-10; p [SSBI] = 1.2 × 10-4), diabetes (p [BI] = 1.7 × 10-8; p [SSBI] = 2.8 × 10-3), previous cardiovascular disease (p [BI] = 1.0 × 10-18; p [SSBI] = 2.3 × 10-7), stroke (p [BI] = 3.9 × 10-69; p [SSBI] = 3.2 × 10-24), and MRI-defined white matter hyperintensity burden (p [BI] = 1.43 × 10-157; p [SSBI] = 3.16 × 10-106), but not with body mass index or cholesterol. GRS of BP traits were associated with BI and SSBI (p ≤ 0.0022), without indication of directional pleiotropy. CONCLUSION: In this multiethnic GWAS meta-analysis, including over 20,000 population-based participants, we identified genetic risk loci for BI requiring validation once additional large datasets become available. High BP, including genetically determined, was the most significant modifiable, causal risk factor for BI.

8.
PLoS Genet ; 14(12): e1007791, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30517106

RESUMO

The ApoE ε4 allele is the most significant genetic risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer disease. The risk conferred by ε4, however, differs across populations, with populations of African ancestry showing lower ε4 risk compared to those of European or Asian ancestry. The cause of this heterogeneity in risk effect is currently unknown; it may be due to environmental or cultural factors correlated with ancestry, or it may be due to genetic variation local to the ApoE region that differs among populations. Exploring these hypotheses may lead to novel, population-specific therapeutics and risk predictions. To test these hypotheses, we analyzed ApoE genotypes and genome-wide array data in individuals from African American and Puerto Rican populations. A total of 1,766 African American and 220 Puerto Rican individuals with late-onset Alzheimer disease, and 3,730 African American and 169 Puerto Rican cognitively healthy individuals (> 65 years) participated in the study. We first assessed average ancestry across the genome ("global" ancestry) and then tested it for interaction with ApoE genotypes. Next, we assessed the ancestral background of ApoE alleles ("local" ancestry) and tested if ancestry local to ApoE influenced Alzheimer disease risk while controlling for global ancestry. Measures of global ancestry showed no interaction with ApoE risk (Puerto Rican: p-value = 0.49; African American: p-value = 0.65). Conversely, ancestry local to the ApoE region showed an interaction with the ApoE ε4 allele in both populations (Puerto Rican: p-value = 0.019; African American: p-value = 0.005). ApoE ε4 alleles on an African background conferred a lower risk than those with a European ancestral background, regardless of population (Puerto Rican: OR = 1.26 on African background, OR = 4.49 on European; African American: OR = 2.34 on African background, OR = 3.05 on European background). Factors contributing to the lower risk effect in the ApoE gene ε4 allele are likely due to ancestry-specific genetic factors near ApoE rather than non-genetic ethnic, cultural, and environmental factors.

9.
Alzheimers Dement (Amst) ; 10: 554-562, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30406174

RESUMO

Introduction: Less than 10% of early-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD) is explained by known mutations. Methods: We conducted genetic linkage analysis of 68 well-phenotyped Caribbean Hispanic families without clear inheritance patterns or mutations in APP, PSEN1, and PSEN2 and with two or more individuals with EOAD. Results: We identified 16 (logarithm of odds > 3.6) linked regions, including eight novel loci for EOAD (2p15, 5q14.1, 11p15.1, 13q21.22, 13q33.1, 16p12.1, 20p12.1, and 20q11.21) and eight regions previously associated with late-onset Alzheimer's disease. The strongest signal was observed at 16p12.1 (25 cM, 33 Mb; heterogeneity logarithm of odds = 5.3), ∼3 Mb upstream of the ceroid lipofuscinosis 3 (CLN3) gene associated with juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (JNCL), which functions in retromer trafficking and has been reported to alter intracellular processing of the amyloid precursor protein. Discussion: This study supports the notion that the genetic architectures of unexplained EOAD and late-onset AD overlap partially, but not fully.

10.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2018 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30108311

RESUMO

The Alzheimer's Disease Sequencing Project (ADSP) undertook whole exome sequencing in 5,740 late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD) cases and 5,096 cognitively normal controls primarily of European ancestry (EA), among whom 218 cases and 177 controls were Caribbean Hispanic (CH). An age-, sex- and APOE based risk score and family history were used to select cases most likely to harbor novel AD risk variants and controls least likely to develop AD by age 85 years. We tested ~1.5 million single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and 50,000 insertion-deletion polymorphisms (indels) for association to AD, using multiple models considering individual variants as well as gene-based tests aggregating rare, predicted functional, and loss of function variants. Sixteen single variants and 19 genes that met criteria for significant or suggestive associations after multiple-testing correction were evaluated for replication in four independent samples; three with whole exome sequencing (2,778 cases, 7,262 controls) and one with genome-wide genotyping imputed to the Haplotype Reference Consortium panel (9,343 cases, 11,527 controls). The top findings in the discovery sample were also followed-up in the ADSP whole-genome sequenced family-based dataset (197 members of 42 EA families and 501 members of 157 CH families). We identified novel and predicted functional genetic variants in genes previously associated with AD. We also detected associations in three novel genes: IGHG3 (p = 9.8 × 10-7), an immunoglobulin gene whose antibodies interact with ß-amyloid, a long non-coding RNA AC099552.4 (p = 1.2 × 10-7), and a zinc-finger protein ZNF655 (gene-based p = 5.0 × 10-6). The latter two suggest an important role for transcriptional regulation in AD pathogenesis.

11.
Curr Protoc Hum Genet ; 97(1): e56, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30040223

RESUMO

In this article, we discuss strategies for selection of families and family members for genetic studies. We will evaluate strategies to sample large families with multiply affected members, sibships, and nuclear families. In addition, we have added a section to discuss sub-sampling within pedigrees for large sequencing studies, particularly when genome-wide SNP chips are available on all members of a pedigree. The type of family sampled for a study will determine the statistical analyses and power of discovery of genetic findings. We will evaluate study designs that maximize power and allow for linkage and association analyses to identify genetic loci predisposing to phenotype. © 2018 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

12.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 5(4): 406-417, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29688227

RESUMO

Objective: To identify rare causal variants underlying known loci that segregate with late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) in multiplex families. Methods: We analyzed whole genome sequences (WGS) from 351 members of 67 Caribbean Hispanic (CH) families from Dominican Republic and New York multiply affected by LOAD. Members of 67 CH and additional 47 Caucasian families underwent WGS as a part of the Alzheimer's Disease Sequencing Project (ADSP). All members of 67 CH families, an additional 48 CH families and an independent CH case-control cohort were subsequently genotyped for validation. Patients met criteria for LOAD, and controls were determined to be dementia free. We investigated rare variants segregating within families and gene-based associations with disease within LOAD GWAS loci. Results: A variant in AKAP9, p.R434W, segregated significantly with LOAD in two large families (OR = 5.77, 95% CI: 1.07-30.9, P = 0.041). In addition, missense mutations in MYRF and ASRGL1 under previously reported linkage peaks at 7q14.3 and 11q12.3 segregated completely in one family and in follow-up genotyping both were nominally significant (P < 0.05). We also identified rare variants in a number of genes associated with LOAD in prior genome wide association studies, including CR1 (P = 0.049), BIN1 (P = 0.0098) and SLC24A4 (P = 0.040). Conclusions and Relevance: Rare variants in multiple genes influence the risk of LOAD disease in multiplex families. These results suggest that rare variants may underlie loci identified in genome wide association studies.

13.
Genet Epidemiol ; 42(2): 214-229, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29288582

RESUMO

Population substructure can lead to confounding in tests for genetic association, and failure to adjust properly can result in spurious findings. Here we address this issue of confounding by considering the impact of global ancestry (average ancestry across the genome) and local ancestry (ancestry at a specific chromosomal location) on regression parameters and relative power in ancestry-adjusted and -unadjusted models. We examine theoretical expectations under different scenarios for population substructure; applying different regression models, verifying and generalizing using simulations, and exploring the findings in real-world admixed populations. We show that admixture does not lead to confounding when the trait locus is tested directly in a single admixed population. However, if there is more complex population structure or a marker locus in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with the trait locus is tested, both global and local ancestry can be confounders. Additionally, we show the genotype parameters of adjusted and unadjusted models all provide tests for LD between the marker and trait locus, but in different contexts. The local ancestry adjusted model tests for LD in the ancestral populations, while tests using the unadjusted and the global ancestry adjusted models depend on LD in the admixed population(s), which may be enriched due to different ancestral allele frequencies. Practically, this implies that global-ancestry adjustment should be used for screening, but local-ancestry adjustment may better inform fine mapping and provide better effect estimates at trait loci.


Assuntos
Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Genética Populacional , Modelos Genéticos , Análise de Regressão , África Ocidental/etnologia , Afro-Americanos/genética , Região do Caribe/etnologia , Fatores de Confusão (Epidemiologia) , Europa (Continente)/etnologia , Florida , Frequência do Gene , Humanos , Índios Norte-Americanos/genética , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , México/etnologia , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas
14.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 16950, 2017 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29217827

RESUMO

Family and twin studies suggest that genes play a role in male sexual orientation. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of male sexual orientation on a primarily European ancestry sample of 1,077 homosexual men and 1,231 heterosexual men using Affymetrix single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays. We identified several SNPs with p < 10-5, including regions of multiple supporting SNPs on chromosomes 13 (minimum p = 7.5 × 10-7) and 14 (p = 4.7 × 10-7). The genes nearest to these peaks have functions plausibly relevant to the development of sexual orientation. On chromosome 13, SLITRK6 is a neurodevelopmental gene mostly expressed in the diencephalon, which contains a region previously reported as differing in size in men by sexual orientation. On chromosome 14, TSHR genetic variants in intron 1 could conceivably help explain past findings relating familial atypical thyroid function and male homosexuality. Furthermore, skewed X chromosome inactivation has been found in the thyroid condition, Graves' disease, as well as in mothers of homosexual men. On pericentromeric chromosome 8 within our previously reported linkage peak, we found support (p = 4.1 × 10-3) for a SNP association previously reported (rs77013977, p = 7.1 × 10-8), with the combined analysis yielding p = 6.7 × 10-9, i.e., a genome-wide significant association.

16.
PLoS One ; 12(10): e0183836, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29016599

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronary collateral circulation protects cardiac tissues from myocardial infarction damage and decreases sudden cardiac death. So far, it is unclear how coronary collateralization varies by race-ethnicity groups and by sex. METHODS: We assessed 868 patients with obstructive CAD. Patients were assessed for collateral grades based on Rentrop grading system, as well as other covariates. DNA samples were genotyped using the Affymetrix 6.0 genotyping array. To evaluate genetic contributions to collaterals, we performed admixture mapping using logistic regression with estimated local and global ancestry. RESULTS: Overall, 53% of participants had collaterals. We found difference between sex and racial-ethnic groups. Men had higher rates of collaterals than women (P-value = 0.000175). White Hispanics/Latinos showed overall higher rates of collaterals than African Americans and non-Hispanic Whites (59%, 50% and 48%, respectively, P-value = 0.017), and especially higher rates in grade 1 and grade 3 collateralization than the other two populations (P-value = 0.0257). Admixture mapping showed Native American ancestry was associated with the presence of collaterals at a region on chromosome 17 (chr17:35,243,142-41,251,931, ß = 0.55, P-value = 0.000127). African ancestry also showed association with collaterals at a different region on chromosome 17 (chr17: 32,266,966-34,463,323, ß = 0.38, P-value = 0.00072). CONCLUSIONS: In our study, collateralization showed sex and racial-ethnic differences in obstructive CAD patients. We identified two regions on chromosome 17 that were likely to harbor genetic variations that influenced collateralization.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/genética , Circulação Colateral/genética , Circulação Coronária/genética , Infarto do Miocárdio/genética , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/genética , Idoso , Artérias/fisiopatologia , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Aterosclerose/fisiopatologia , Circulação Coronária/fisiologia , Grupos Étnicos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Hispano-Americanos/genética , Humanos , Índios Norte-Americanos/genética , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco , Caracteres Sexuais
17.
JAMA Neurol ; 74(9): 1113-1122, 2017 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28738127

RESUMO

Importance: Mutations in APP, PSEN1, and PSEN2 lead to early-onset Alzheimer disease (EOAD) but account for only approximately 11% of EOAD overall, leaving most of the genetic risk for the most severe form of Alzheimer disease unexplained. This extreme phenotype likely harbors highly penetrant risk variants, making it primed for discovery of novel risk genes and pathways for AD. Objective: To search for rare variants contributing to the risk for EOAD. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this case-control study, whole-exome sequencing (WES) was performed in 51 non-Hispanic white (NHW) patients with EOAD (age at onset <65 years) and 19 Caribbean Hispanic families previously screened as negative for established APP, PSEN1, and PSEN2 causal variants. Participants were recruited from John P. Hussman Institute for Human Genomics, Case Western Reserve University, and Columbia University. Rare, deleterious, nonsynonymous, or loss-of-function variants were filtered to identify variants in known and suspected AD genes, variants in multiple unrelated NHW patients, variants present in 19 Hispanic EOAD WES families, and genes with variants in multiple unrelated NHW patients. These variants/genes were tested for association in an independent cohort of 1524 patients with EOAD, 7046 patients with late-onset AD (LOAD), and 7001 cognitively intact controls (age at examination, >65 years) from the Alzheimer's Disease Genetics Consortium. The study was conducted from January 21, 2013, to October 13, 2016. Main Outcomes and Measures: Alzheimer disease diagnosed according to standard National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke and the Alzheimer Disease and Related Disorders Association criteria. Association between Alzheimer disease and genetic variants and genes was measured using logistic regression and sequence kernel association test-optimal gene tests, respectively. Results: Of the 1524 NHW patients with EOAD, 765 (50.2%) were women and mean (SD) age was 60.0 (4.9) years; of the 7046 NHW patients with LOAD, 4171 (59.2%) were women and mean (SD) age was 77.4 (8.6) years; and of the 7001 NHW controls, 4215 (60.2%) were women and mean (SD) age was 77.4 (8.6) years. The gene PSD2, for which multiple unrelated NHW cases had rare missense variants, was significantly associated with EOAD (P = 2.05 × 10-6; Bonferroni-corrected P value [BP] = 1.3 × 10-3) and LOAD (P = 6.22 × 10-6; BP = 4.1 × 10-3). A missense variant in TCIRG1, present in a NHW patient and segregating in 3 cases of a Hispanic family, was more frequent in EOAD cases (odds ratio [OR], 2.13; 95% CI, 0.99-4.55; P = .06; BP = 0.413), and significantly associated with LOAD (OR, 2.23; 95% CI, 1.37-3.62; P = 7.2 × 10-4; BP = 5.0 × 10-3). A missense variant in the LOAD risk gene RIN3 showed suggestive evidence of association with EOAD after Bonferroni correction (OR, 4.56; 95% CI, 1.26-16.48; P = .02, BP = 0.091). In addition, a missense variant in RUFY1 identified in 2 NHW EOAD cases showed suggestive evidence of an association with EOAD as well (OR, 18.63; 95% CI, 1.62-213.45; P = .003; BP = 0.129). Conclusions and Relevance: The genes PSD2, TCIRG1, RIN3, and RUFY1 all may be involved in endolysosomal transport-a process known to be important to development of AD. Furthermore, this study identified shared risk genes between EOAD and LOAD similar to previously reported genes, such as SORL1, PSEN2, and TREM2.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Transporte Biológico/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , ATPases Vacuolares Próton-Translocadoras/genética , Idade de Início , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Região do Caribe , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Exoma , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
18.
Nat Genet ; 49(9): 1373-1384, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28714976

RESUMO

We identified rare coding variants associated with Alzheimer's disease in a three-stage case-control study of 85,133 subjects. In stage 1, we genotyped 34,174 samples using a whole-exome microarray. In stage 2, we tested associated variants (P < 1 × 10-4) in 35,962 independent samples using de novo genotyping and imputed genotypes. In stage 3, we used an additional 14,997 samples to test the most significant stage 2 associations (P < 5 × 10-8) using imputed genotypes. We observed three new genome-wide significant nonsynonymous variants associated with Alzheimer's disease: a protective variant in PLCG2 (rs72824905: p.Pro522Arg, P = 5.38 × 10-10, odds ratio (OR) = 0.68, minor allele frequency (MAF)cases = 0.0059, MAFcontrols = 0.0093), a risk variant in ABI3 (rs616338: p.Ser209Phe, P = 4.56 × 10-10, OR = 1.43, MAFcases = 0.011, MAFcontrols = 0.008), and a new genome-wide significant variant in TREM2 (rs143332484: p.Arg62His, P = 1.55 × 10-14, OR = 1.67, MAFcases = 0.0143, MAFcontrols = 0.0089), a known susceptibility gene for Alzheimer's disease. These protein-altering changes are in genes highly expressed in microglia and highlight an immune-related protein-protein interaction network enriched for previously identified risk genes in Alzheimer's disease. These genetic findings provide additional evidence that the microglia-mediated innate immune response contributes directly to the development of Alzheimer's disease.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Imunidade Inata/genética , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Microglia/metabolismo , Fosfolipase C gama/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptores Imunológicos/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Exoma/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Razão de Chances , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas/genética , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos
19.
Clin Transl Gastroenterol ; 8(4): e87, 2017 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28406493

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Hispanics represent an understudied inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) population. Prior studies examining genetic predisposition to IBD in Hispanics are limited. In this study, we examined whether European-derived IBD variants confer risk in Hispanics and their influence on IBD phenotype in Hispanics compared to non-Hispanic whites (NHW). METHODS: Self-identified Hispanics and NHWs with IBD were included. Hispanic controls were included for our genetic analyses. We performed single-variant testing at previously identified Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) IBD variants in Hispanic cases and controls. These risk variants were used to compute individual genetic risk scores. Genetic risk scores and phenotype associations were compared between Hispanic and NHW. RESULTS: A total of 1,115 participants were included: 698 controls and 417 IBD patients (230 Hispanics). We found evidence of association within our Hispanic cohort at 22 IBD risk loci, with ~76% of the risk loci demonstrating over-representation of the European risk allele; these included loci corresponding to IL23R and NOD2 genes. CD genetic risk score for Hispanics (199.67) was similar to the score for NHW (200.33), P=0.51; the same was true in UC. Genetic risk scores did not predict IBD phenotype or complications in Hispanics or NHW except for a younger age of CD onset in Hispanics (P=0.04). CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the fundamental importance of these loci in IBD pathogenesis including in our diverse Hispanic population. Future studies looking at non-genetic mechanisms of disease are needed to explain differences in age of presentation and phenotype between Hispanics and NHW.

20.
Alzheimers Dement ; 13(7): 727-738, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28183528

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Genetic loci for Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been identified in whites of European ancestry, but the genetic architecture of AD among other populations is less understood. METHODS: We conducted a transethnic genome-wide association study (GWAS) for late-onset AD in Stage 1 sample including whites of European Ancestry, African-Americans, Japanese, and Israeli-Arabs assembled by the Alzheimer's Disease Genetics Consortium. Suggestive results from Stage 1 from novel loci were followed up using summarized results in the International Genomics Alzheimer's Project GWAS dataset. RESULTS: Genome-wide significant (GWS) associations in single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based tests (P < 5 × 10-8) were identified for SNPs in PFDN1/HBEGF, USP6NL/ECHDC3, and BZRAP1-AS1 and for the interaction of the (apolipoprotein E) APOE ε4 allele with NFIC SNP. We also obtained GWS evidence (P < 2.7 × 10-6) for gene-based association in the total sample with a novel locus, TPBG (P = 1.8 × 10-6). DISCUSSION: Our findings highlight the value of transethnic studies for identifying novel AD susceptibility loci.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Apolipoproteína E4/genética , Proteínas Ativadoras de GTPase/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Fator de Crescimento Semelhante a EGF de Ligação à Heparina/genética , Humanos , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Chaperonas Moleculares/genética , Fatores de Transcrição NFI/genética , Enzima Bifuncional do Peroxissomo/genética , Receptores de GABA/genética
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