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1.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3615, 2019 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399598

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies have provided evidence for inherited genetic predisposition to chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). To gain insight into the mechanisms underlying CLL risk we analyze chromatin accessibility, active regulatory elements marked by H3K27ac, and DNA methylation at 42 risk loci in up to 486 primary CLLs. We identify that risk loci are significantly enriched for active chromatin in CLL with evidence of being CLL-specific or differentially regulated in normal B-cell development. We then use in situ promoter capture Hi-C, in conjunction with gene expression data to reveal likely target genes of the risk loci. Candidate target genes are enriched for pathways related to B-cell development such as MYC and BCL2 signalling. At 14 loci the analysis highlights 63 variants as the probable functional basis of CLL risk. By integrating genetic and epigenetic information our analysis reveals novel insights into the relationship between inherited predisposition and the regulatory chromatin landscape of CLL.


Assuntos
Epigênese Genética/genética , Epigênese Genética/fisiologia , Epigenômica , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/genética , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/metabolismo , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Sequência de Bases , Cromatina/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA , Regulação Leucêmica da Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição
3.
Curr Opin Hematol ; 25(4): 299-306, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29738333

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: SOX11 has emerged as a key transcription factor in the pathogenesis of mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) whereas it is not expressed in normal B cells or virtually in any other mature B-cell neoplasm. This review will examine the role of SOX11 as a biomarker in MCL, the new information on its transcriptional targets, and the mechanisms regulating its expression in MCL. RECENT FINDINGS: SOX11 is highly expressed in conventional MCL, including cyclin D1-negative cases, but it is not expressed in the indolent leukemic nonnodal MCL subtype. These two MCL subtypes also differ in their cell-of-origin, IGHV mutational status and genomic instability. SOX11 promotes tumor growth of MCL cells in vivo and regulates a broad transcriptional program that includes B-cell differentiation pathways and tumor-microenvironment interactions, among others. The mechanisms upregulating SOX11 in MCL are not well understood but are mediated in part by the three-dimensional reconfiguration of the DNA, bringing together a distant enhancer region and the SOX11 promoter. SUMMARY: SOX11 is a relevant element in the pathogenesis of MCL and has been instrumental to identify two distinct clinicobiological subtypes of this tumor. Further studies should clarify the mechanisms mediating its oncogenic potential and leading to its intriguing expression in these tumors.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Linfoma de Célula do Manto/metabolismo , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição SOXC/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral , Animais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Humanos , Linfoma de Célula do Manto/genética , Linfoma de Célula do Manto/patologia , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Fatores de Transcrição SOXC/genética
4.
Nat Med ; 24(6): 868-880, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29785028

RESUMO

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a frequent hematological neoplasm in which underlying epigenetic alterations are only partially understood. Here, we analyze the reference epigenome of seven primary CLLs and the regulatory chromatin landscape of 107 primary cases in the context of normal B cell differentiation. We identify that the CLL chromatin landscape is largely influenced by distinct dynamics during normal B cell maturation. Beyond this, we define extensive catalogues of regulatory elements de novo reprogrammed in CLL as a whole and in its major clinico-biological subtypes classified by IGHV somatic hypermutation levels. We uncover that IGHV-unmutated CLLs harbor more active and open chromatin than IGHV-mutated cases. Furthermore, we show that de novo active regions in CLL are enriched for NFAT, FOX and TCF/LEF transcription factor family binding sites. Although most genetic alterations are not associated with consistent epigenetic profiles, CLLs with MYD88 mutations and trisomy 12 show distinct chromatin configurations. Furthermore, we observe that non-coding mutations in IGHV-mutated CLLs are enriched in H3K27ac-associated regulatory elements outside accessible chromatin. Overall, this study provides an integrative portrait of the CLL epigenome, identifies extensive networks of altered regulatory elements and sheds light on the relationship between the genetic and epigenetic architecture of the disease.


Assuntos
Cromatina/metabolismo , Epigenômica , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/genética , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Sequência de Bases , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos
6.
Cancer Cell ; 30(5): 806-821, 2016 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27846393

RESUMO

We analyzed the in silico purified DNA methylation signatures of 82 mantle cell lymphomas (MCL) in comparison with cell subpopulations spanning the entire B cell lineage. We identified two MCL subgroups, respectively carrying epigenetic imprints of germinal-center-inexperienced and germinal-center-experienced B cells, and we found that DNA methylation profiles during lymphomagenesis are largely influenced by the methylation dynamics in normal B cells. An integrative epigenomic approach revealed 10,504 differentially methylated regions in regulatory elements marked by H3K27ac in MCL primary cases, including a distant enhancer showing de novo looping to the MCL oncogene SOX11. Finally, we observed that the magnitude of DNA methylation changes per case is highly variable and serves as an independent prognostic factor for MCL outcome.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Epigenômica/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Linfoma de Célula do Manto/genética , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Linhagem da Célula , Simulação por Computador , Epigênese Genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Fatores de Transcrição SOXC/genética
7.
Blood ; 128(19): 2279-2280, 2016 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28829750
8.
Nature ; 526(7574): 519-24, 2015 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26200345

RESUMO

Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is a frequent disease in which the genetic alterations determining the clinicobiological behaviour are not fully understood. Here we describe a comprehensive evaluation of the genomic landscape of 452 CLL cases and 54 patients with monoclonal B-lymphocytosis, a precursor disorder. We extend the number of CLL driver alterations, including changes in ZNF292, ZMYM3, ARID1A and PTPN11. We also identify novel recurrent mutations in non-coding regions, including the 3' region of NOTCH1, which cause aberrant splicing events, increase NOTCH1 activity and result in a more aggressive disease. In addition, mutations in an enhancer located on chromosome 9p13 result in reduced expression of the B-cell-specific transcription factor PAX5. The accumulative number of driver alterations (0 to ≥4) discriminated between patients with differences in clinical behaviour. This study provides an integrated portrait of the CLL genomic landscape, identifies new recurrent driver mutations of the disease, and suggests clinical interventions that may improve the management of this neoplasia.


Assuntos
Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/genética , Mutação/genética , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas/genética , Processamento Alternativo/genética , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 9/genética , Análise Mutacional de DNA , DNA de Neoplasias/genética , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos/genética , Genômica , Humanos , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/metabolismo , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/patologia , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Fator de Transcrição PAX5/biossíntese , Fator de Transcrição PAX5/genética , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 11/genética , Receptor Notch1/genética , Receptor Notch1/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
9.
Nat Genet ; 47(7): 746-56, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26053498

RESUMO

We analyzed the DNA methylome of ten subpopulations spanning the entire B cell differentiation program by whole-genome bisulfite sequencing and high-density microarrays. We observed that non-CpG methylation disappeared upon B cell commitment, whereas CpG methylation changed extensively during B cell maturation, showing an accumulative pattern and affecting around 30% of all measured CpG sites. Early differentiation stages mainly displayed enhancer demethylation, which was associated with upregulation of key B cell transcription factors and affected multiple genes involved in B cell biology. Late differentiation stages, in contrast, showed extensive demethylation of heterochromatin and methylation gain at Polycomb-repressed areas, and genes with apparent functional impact in B cells were not affected. This signature, which has previously been linked to aging and cancer, was particularly widespread in mature cells with an extended lifespan. Comparing B cell neoplasms with their normal counterparts, we determined that they frequently acquire methylation changes in regions already undergoing dynamic methylation during normal B cell differentiation.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/fisiologia , Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética/imunologia , Sequência de Bases , Diferenciação Celular , Células Cultivadas , Ilhas de CpG , Regulação Leucêmica da Expressão Gênica , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Leucemia de Células B/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
10.
Genome Res ; 25(4): 478-87, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25644835

RESUMO

While analyzing the DNA methylome of multiple myeloma (MM), a plasma cell neoplasm, by whole-genome bisulfite sequencing and high-density arrays, we observed a highly heterogeneous pattern globally characterized by regional DNA hypermethylation embedded in extensive hypomethylation. In contrast to the widely reported DNA hypermethylation of promoter-associated CpG islands (CGIs) in cancer, hypermethylated sites in MM, as opposed to normal plasma cells, were located outside CpG islands and were unexpectedly associated with intronic enhancer regions defined in normal B cells and plasma cells. Both RNA-seq and in vitro reporter assays indicated that enhancer hypermethylation is globally associated with down-regulation of its host genes. ChIP-seq and DNase-seq further revealed that DNA hypermethylation in these regions is related to enhancer decommissioning. Hypermethylated enhancer regions overlapped with binding sites of B cell-specific transcription factors (TFs) and the degree of enhancer methylation inversely correlated with expression levels of these TFs in MM. Furthermore, hypermethylated regions in MM were methylated in stem cells and gradually became demethylated during normal B-cell differentiation, suggesting that MM cells either reacquire epigenetic features of undifferentiated cells or maintain an epigenetic signature of a putative myeloma stem cell progenitor. Overall, we have identified DNA hypermethylation of developmentally regulated enhancers as a new type of epigenetic modification associated with the pathogenesis of MM.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/genética , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos/genética , Mieloma Múltiplo/genética , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/citologia , Plasmócitos/citologia , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Ilhas de CpG/genética , DNA de Neoplasias/genética , Regulação para Baixo/genética , Epigênese Genética/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Genoma Humano/genética , Humanos , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Fatores de Transcrição/biossíntese , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
11.
Blood ; 123(14): 2229-37, 2014 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24523240

RESUMO

Severe congenital neutropenia (CN) is a preleukemic bone marrow failure syndrome with a 20% risk of evolving into leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Patterns of acquisition of leukemia-associated mutations were investigated using next-generation deep-sequencing in 31 CN patients who developed leukemia or MDS. Twenty (64.5%) of the 31 patients had mutations in RUNX1. A majority of patients with RUNX1 mutations (80.5%) also had acquired CSF3R mutations. In contrast to their high frequency in CN patients who developed leukemia or MDS, RUNX1 mutations were found in only 9 of 307 (2.9%) patients with de novo pediatric acute myeloid leukemia. A sequential analysis at stages prior to overt leukemia revealed RUNX1 mutations to be late events in leukemic transformation. Single-cell analyses in 2 patients showed that RUNX1 and CSF3R mutations were present in the same malignant clone. Functional studies demonstrated elevated granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-induced proliferation with diminished myeloid differentiation of hematopoietic CD34(+) cells coexpressing mutated forms of RUNX1 and CSF3R. The high frequency of cooperating RUNX1 and CSF3R mutations in CN patients suggests a novel molecular pathway of leukemogenesis: mutations in the hematopoietic cytokine receptor (G-CSFR) in combination with the second mutations in the downstream hematopoietic transcription fator (RUNX1). The detection of both RUNX1 and CSF3R mutations could be used as a marker for identifying CN patients with a high risk of progressing to leukemia or MDS.


Assuntos
Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Subunidade alfa 2 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/genética , Leucemia Mieloide/genética , Mutação , Neutropenia/congênito , Receptores de Fator Estimulador de Colônias/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise Citogenética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Neutropenia/genética , Neutropenia/patologia , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Adulto Jovem
13.
Biochim Biophys Acta ; 1829(11): 1161-74, 2013 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23938249

RESUMO

Ever since the discovery of DNA methylation at cytosine residues, the role of this so called fifth base has been extensively studied and debated. Until recently, the majority of DNA methylation studies focused on the analysis of CpG islands associated to promoter regions. However, with the upcoming possibilities to study DNA methylation in a genome-wide context, this epigenetic mark can now be studied in an unbiased manner. As a result, recent studies have shown that not only promoters but also intragenic and intergenic regions are widely modulated during physiological processes and disease. In particular, it is becoming increasingly clear that DNA methylation in the gene body is not just a passive witness of gene transcription but it seems to be actively involved in multiple gene regulation processes. In this review we discuss the potential role of intragenic DNA methylation in alternative promoter usage, regulation of short and long non-coding RNAs, alternative RNA processing, as well as enhancer activity. Furthermore, we summarize how the intragenic DNA methylome is modified both during normal cell differentiation and neoplastic transformation.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/genética , Metilação de DNA , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias/genética , Transcrição Genética , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Humanos , Neoplasias/patologia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Processamento Pós-Transcricional do RNA
15.
Hematol Oncol Clin North Am ; 27(1): 61-73, viii, 2013 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23351988

RESUMO

Following activation by their cognate ligands, cytokine receptors undergo intracellular routing toward lysosomes, where they are degraded. This review focuses on the signaling function of the G-CSFR in relation to the dynamics of endosomal routing of the G-CSFR. Mechanisms involving receptor lysine ubiquitination and redox-controlled phosphatase activities are discussed. Specific attention is paid to the consequences of G-CSFR mutations, acquired in patients with severe congenital neutropenias who receive G-CSF therapy, particularly in the context of leukemic transformation, a major clinical complication of the disease.


Assuntos
Neutropenia/congênito , Receptores de Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Animais , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/metabolismo , Progressão da Doença , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos/metabolismo , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Leucemia/etiologia , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Mutação , Neutropenia/tratamento farmacológico , Neutropenia/genética , Neutropenia/metabolismo , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 1/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Receptores de Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos/deficiência , Receptores de Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos/genética , Ubiquitinação
16.
Blood ; 119(22): 5071-7, 2012 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22371884

RESUMO

Severe congenital neutropenia (SCN) is a BM failure syndrome with a high risk of progression to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The underlying genetic changes involved in SCN evolution to AML are largely unknown. We obtained serial hematopoietic samples from an SCN patient who developed AML 17 years after the initiation of G-CSF treatment. Next- generation sequencing was performed to identify mutations during disease progression. In the AML phase, we found 12 acquired nonsynonymous mutations. Three of these, in CSF3R, LLGL2, and ZC3H18, co-occurred in a subpopulation of progenitor cells already in the early SCN phase. This population expanded over time, whereas clones harboring only CSF3R mutations disappeared from the BM. The other 9 mutations were only apparent in the AML cells and affected known AML-associated genes (RUNX1 and ASXL1) and chromatin remodelers (SUZ12 and EP300). In addition, a novel CSF3R mutation that conferred autonomous proliferation to myeloid progenitors was found. We conclude that progression from SCN to AML is a multistep process, with distinct mutations arising early during the SCN phase and others later in AML development. The sequential gain of 2 CSF3R mutations implicates abnormal G-CSF signaling as a driver of leukemic transformation in this case of SCN.


Assuntos
Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Mutação , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Neutropenia/genética , Adulto , Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/metabolismo , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/complicações , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/metabolismo , Masculino , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neutropenia/complicações , Neutropenia/congênito , Neutropenia/tratamento farmacológico , Neutropenia/metabolismo , Células-Tronco/metabolismo
17.
PLoS One ; 6(10): e26537, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22028901

RESUMO

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) results from multiple genetic and epigenetic aberrations, many of which remain unidentified. Frequent loss of large chromosomal regions marks haplo-insufficiency as one of the major mechanisms contributing to leukemogenesis. However, which haplo-insufficient genes (HIGs) are involved in leukemogenesis is largely unknown and powerful experimental strategies aimed at their identification are currently lacking. Here, we present a new approach to discover HIGs, using retroviral integration mutagenesis in mice in which methylated viral integration sites and neighbouring genes were identified. In total we mapped 6 genes which are flanked by methylated viral integration sites (mVIS). Three of these, i.e., Lrmp, Hcls1 and Prkrir, were up regulated and one, i.e., Ptp4a3, was down regulated in the affected tumor. Next, we investigated the role of PTP4A3 in human AML and we show that PTP4A3 expression is a negative prognostic indicator, independent of other prognostic parameters. In conclusion, our novel strategy has identified PTP4A3 to potentially have a role in AML, on one hand as a candidate HIG contributing to leukemogenesis in mice and on the other hand as a prognostic indicator in human AML.


Assuntos
Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Vírus da Leucemia Murina/fisiologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/diagnóstico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Mutagênese , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas Tirosina Fosfatases/genética , Integração Viral/genética , Animais , Metilação de DNA/genética , Regulação para Baixo/genética , Haploinsuficiência/genética , Humanos , Vírus da Leucemia Murina/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/virologia , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prognóstico , Transcrição Genética/genética
18.
PLoS One ; 6(1): e16340, 2011 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21283726

RESUMO

The antioxidant peroxiredoxin (PRDX) protein family comprises 6 members, which are implicated in a variety of cellular responses, including growth factor signal transduction. PRDX4 resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), where it locally controls oxidative stress by reducing H(2)O(2) levels. We recently provided evidence for a regulatory function of PRDX4 in signal transduction from a myeloid growth factor receptor, the granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor (G-CSFR). Upon activation, the ligand-induced G-CSFR undergoes endocytosis and routes via the early endosomes where it physically interacts with ER-resident PRDX4. PRDX4 negatively regulates G-CSFR mediated signaling. Here, we investigated whether PRDX4 is affected in acute myeloid leukemia (AML); genomic alterations and expression levels of PRDX4 were investigated. We show that genomic abnormalities involving PRDX4 are rare in AML. However, we find a strong reduction in PRDX4 expression levels in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) compared to normal promyelocytes and different molecular subtypes of AML. Subsequently, the possible role of DNA methylation and histone modifications in silencing of PRDX4 in APLs was investigated. We show that the reduced expression is not due to methylation of the CpG island in the promoter region of PRDX4 but correlates with increased trimethylation of histone 3 lysine residue 27 (H3K27me3) and lysine residue 4 (H3K4me3) at the transcriptional start site (TSS) of PRDX4, indicative of a bivalent histone code involved in transcriptional silencing. These findings suggest that the control of G-CSF responses by the antioxidant protein PRDX4 may be perturbed in APL.


Assuntos
Regulação para Baixo/genética , Epigênese Genética , Leucemia Promielocítica Aguda/genética , Peroxirredoxinas/genética , Antioxidantes , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos/metabolismo , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Lisina/metabolismo , Metilação , Sítio de Iniciação de Transcrição
19.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 11: 275, 2010 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20492700

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tiling-arrays are applicable to multiple types of biological research questions. Due to its advantages (high sensitivity, resolution, unbiased), the technology is often employed in genome-wide investigations. A major challenge in the analysis of tiling-array data is to define regions-of-interest, i.e., contiguous probes with increased signal intensity (as a result of hybridization of labeled DNA) in a region. Currently, no standard criteria are available to define these regions-of-interest as there is no single probe intensity cut-off level, different regions-of-interest can contain various numbers of probes, and can vary in genomic width. Furthermore, the chromosomal distance between neighboring probes can vary across the genome among different arrays. RESULTS: We have developed Hypergeometric Analysis of Tiling-arrays (HAT), and first evaluated its performance for tiling-array datasets from a Chromatin Immunoprecipitation study on chip (ChIP-on-chip) for the identification of genome-wide DNA binding profiles of transcription factor Cebpa (used for method comparison). Using this assay, we can refine the detection of regions-of-interest by illustrating that regions detected by HAT are more highly enriched for expected motifs in comparison with an alternative detection method (MAT). Subsequently, data from a retroviral insertional mutagenesis screen were used to examine the performance of HAT among different applications of tiling-array datasets. In both studies, detected regions-of-interest have been validated with (q)PCR. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that HAT has increased specificity for analysis of tiling-array data in comparison with the alternative method, and that it accurately detects regions-of-interest in two different applications of tiling-arrays. HAT has several advantages over previous methods: i) as there is no single cut-off level for probe-intensity, HAT can detect regions-of-interest at various thresholds, ii) it can detect regions-of-interest of any size, iii) it is independent of probe-resolution across the genome, and across tiling-array platforms and iv) it employs a single user defined parameter: the significance level. Regions-of-interest are detected by computing the hypergeometric-probability, while controlling the Family Wise Error. Furthermore, the method does not require experimental replicates, common regions-of-interest are indicated, a sequence-of-interest can be examined for every detected region-of-interest, and flanking genes can be reported.


Assuntos
Imunoprecipitação da Cromatina/métodos , Genômica/métodos , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos/métodos , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Software , Genoma
20.
Blood ; 115(25): 5131-6, 2010 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20237318

RESUMO

Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) has been used in the clinic for more than 2 decades to treat congenital and acquired neutropenias and to reduce febrile neutropenia before or during courses of intensive cytoreductive therapy. In addition, healthy stem cell donors receive short-term treatment with G-CSF for mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells. G-CSF has also been applied in priming strategies designed to enhance the sensitivity of leukemia stem cells to cytotoxic agents, in protocols aimed to induce their differentiation and accompanying growth arrest and cell death, and in severe aplastic anemia and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) to alleviate anemia. The potential adverse effects of G-CSF administration, particularly the risk of malignant transformation, have fueled ongoing debates, some of which can only be settled in follow-up studies extending over several decades. This specifically applies to children with severe congenital neutropenia who receive lifelong treatment with G-CSF and in which the high susceptibility to develop MDS and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has now become a major clinical concern. Here, we will highlight some of the controversies and challenges regarding the clinical application of G-CSF and discuss a possible role of G-CSF in malignant transformation, particularly in patients with neutropenia harboring mutations in the gene encoding the G-CSF receptor.


Assuntos
Transformação Celular Neoplásica/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos/efeitos adversos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/induzido quimicamente , Neutropenia/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores de Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos/metabolismo , Anemia Aplástica/tratamento farmacológico , Anemia Aplástica/genética , Anemia Aplástica/metabolismo , Anemia Aplástica/patologia , Animais , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Morte Celular/genética , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/metabolismo , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos/uso terapêutico , Mobilização de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/metabolismo , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Doadores Vivos , Mutação , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/genética , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/metabolismo , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/patologia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Neutropenia/congênito , Neutropenia/metabolismo , Neutropenia/patologia , Receptores de Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes , Fatores de Risco
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