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1.
J Sports Sci Med ; 20(3): 391-397, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34267577

RESUMO

The purpose of the present study was to examine the influence of an acute bout of high-intensity resistance exercise on measures of cognitive function. Ten men (Mean ± SD: age = 24.4 ± 3.2 yrs; body mass = 85.7 ± 11.8 kg; height = 1.78 ± 0.08 m; 1 repetition maximum (1RM) = 139.0 ± 24.1 kg) gave informed consent and performed a high-intensity 6 sets of 10 repetitions of barbell back squat exercise at 80% 1RM with 2 minutes rest between sets. The Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics (ANAM) was completed to assess various cognitive domains during the familiarization period, immediately before, and immediately after the high-intensity resistance exercise bout. The repeated measures ANOVAs for throughput scores (r·m-1) demonstrated significant mean differences for the Mathematical Processing task (MTH; p < 0.001, η2 p = 0.625) where post hoc pairwise comparisons demonstrated that the post-fatigue throughput (32.0 ± 8.8 r·m-1) was significantly greater than the pre-fatigue (23.8 ± 7.4 r·m-1, p = 0.003, d = 1.01) and the familiarization throughput (26.4 ± 5.3 r·m-1, p = 0.024, d = 0.77). The Coded Substitution-Delay task also demonstrated significant mean differences (CDD; p = 0.027, η2 p = 0.394) with post hoc pairwise comparisons demonstrating that the post-fatigue throughput (49.3 ± 14.4 r·m-1) was significantly less than the pre-fatigue throughput (63.2 ± 9.6 r·m-1, p = 0.011, d = 1.14). The repeated measures ANOVAs for reaction time (ms) demonstrated significant mean differences for MTH (p < 0.001, η2 p = 0.624) where post hoc pairwise comparisons demonstrated that the post-fatigue reaction time (1885.2 ± 582.8 ms) was significantly less than the pre-fatigue (2518.2 ± 884.8 ms, p = 0.005, d = 0.85) and familiarization (2253.7 ± 567.6 ms, p = 0.009, d = 0.64) reaction times. The Go/No-Go task demonstrated significant mean differences (GNG; p = 0.031, η2 p = 0.320) with post hoc pairwise comparisons demonstrating that the post-fatigue (285.9 ± 16.3 ms) was significantly less than the pre-fatigue (298.5 ± 12.1 ms, p = 0.006, d = 0.88) reaction times. High-intensity resistance exercise may elicit domain-specific influences on cognitive function, characterized by the facilitation of simple cognitive tasks and impairments of complex cognitive tasks.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Treinamento de Força/métodos , Adulto , Atenção , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Masculino , Memória , Rememoração Mental , Fadiga Muscular/fisiologia , Força Muscular , Tempo de Reação , Adulto Jovem
2.
J Am Coll Nutr ; 40(3): 193-210, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32521207

RESUMO

Background: Increased soft-drink consumption has contributed to poor calcium intake with 90% of adolescent girls consuming less than the RDA for calcium.Purpose/objectives: The purpose of this investigation was to determine the independent and additive effects of two interventions (milk and resistance training) on nutrient adequacy, body composition, and bone health in adolescent girls.Methods: The experimental design consisted of four experimental groups of adolescent girls 14-17 years of age: (1) Milk + resistance training [MRT]; n = 15; (2) Resistance training only [RT]; n = 15; (3) Milk only [M] n = 20; (4) Control [C] n = 16. A few significant differences were observed at baseline between the groups for subject characteristics. Testing was performed pre and post-12 week training period for all groups. Milk was provided (3, 8 oz servings) for both the MRT and the M groups. The MRT group and the RT groups performed a supervised periodized resistance training program consisting of supervised one-hour exercise sessions 3 d/wk (M, W, F) for 12 wk. Baseline dietary data was collected utilizing the NUT-P-FFQ and/or a 120 item FFQ developed by the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center (Seattle, Washington). Body composition was measured in the morning after an overnight fast using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) with a total body scanner (ProdigyTM, Lunar Corporation, Madison, WI). A whole body scan for bone density and lumbar spine scans were performed on all subjects. Maximal strength of the upper and lower body was assessed via a one-repetition maximum (1-RM) squat and bench press exercise protocols. Significance was set at P ≤ 0.05.Results: Significant differences in nutrient intakes between groups generally reflected the nutrient composition of milk with greater intakes of protein and improved nutrient adequacy for several B vitamins, vitamin A, vitamin D, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, and zinc. Mean calcium intake was 758 and 1581 mg/d, in the non-milk and milk groups, respectively, with 100% of girls in the milk groups consuming > RDA of 1300 mg/d. There were no effects of milk on body composition or muscle performance, but resistance training had a main effect and significantly increased body mass, lean body mass, muscle strength, and muscle endurance. There was a main effect of milk and resistance training on several measures of bone mineral density (BMD). Changes in whole body BMD in the M, RT, MRT, and CON were 0.45, 0.52, 1.32, and -0.19%, respectively (P < 0.01).Conclusions: Over the course of 12 weeks the effects of 1300 mg/d of calcium in the form of fluid milk combined with a heavy resistance training program resulted in the additive effects of greater nutrient adequacy and BMD in adolescent girls. While further studies are needed, combining increased milk consumption with resistance training appears to optimize bone health in adolescent girls.

3.
J Strength Cond Res ; 34(12): 3326-3330, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33235016

RESUMO

Kraemer, WJ, Caldwell, LK, Post, EM, DuPont, WH, Martini, ER, Ratamess, NA, Szivak, TK, Shurley, JP, Beeler, MK, Volek, JS, Maresh, CM, Todd, JS, Walrod, BJ, Hyde, PN, Fairman, C, and Best, TM. Body composition in elite strongman competitors. J Strength Cond Res 34(12): 3326-3330, 2020-The purpose of this descriptive investigation was to characterize a group of elite strongman competitors to document the body composition of this unique population of strength athletes. Data were collected from eligible competitors as part of a health screening program conducted over 5 consecutive years. Imaging was acquired using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), providing total body measures of fat mass, lean mass, and bone mineral content (BMC). Year to year, testing groups showed a homogenous grouping of anthropometric, body composition, and bone density metrics. Composite averages were calculated to provide an anthropometric profile of the elite strongman competitor (N = 18; mean ± SD): age, 33.0 ± 5.2 years; body height, 187.4 ± 7.1 cm; body mass, 152.9 ± 19.3 kg; body mass index, 43.5 ± 4.8 kg·m; fat mass, 30.9 ± 11.1 kg; lean mass, 118.0 ± 11.7 kg, body fat, 18.7 ± 6.2%, total BMC, 5.23 ± 0.41 kg, and bone mineral density, 1.78 ± 0.14 g·cm. These data demonstrate that elite strongman competitors are among the largest human male athletes, and in some cases, they are at the extreme limits reported for body size and structure. Elite strongman competitors undergo a high degree of mechanical stress, providing further insight into the potent role of physical training in mediating structural remodeling even into adulthood. Such data provide a glimpse into a unique group of competitive athletes pushing the limits not only of human performance but also of human physiology.


Assuntos
Atletas , Composição Corporal , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Densidade Óssea , Humanos , Masculino
4.
Growth Horm IGF Res ; 55: 101355, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032163

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of a novel "floatation-restricted environmental stimulation therapy" (floatation-REST) on growth hormone responses to an intense resistance exercise stress. DESIGN: Nine resistance trained men (age: 23.4 ±â€¯2.5 yrs.; height: 175.3 ±â€¯5.4 cm; body mass: 85.3 ±â€¯7.9 kg) completed a balanced, crossover-controlled study design with two identical exercise trials, differing only in post-exercise recovery intervention (i.e., control or floatation-REST). A two-week washout period was used between experimental conditions. Plasma lactate was measured pre-exercise, immediately post-exercise and after the 1 h. recovery interventions. Plasma iGH was measured pre-exercise, immediately-post exercise, and after the recovery intervention, as well as 24 h and 48 h after the exercise test. The bGH-L was measured only at pre-exercise and following each recovery intervention. RESULTS: For both experimental conditions, a significant (P ≤ 0.05) increase in lactate concentrations were observed immediately post-exercise (~14 mmol • L-1) and remained slightly elevated after the recovery condition. The same pattern of responses was observed for iGH with no differences from resting values at 24 and 48 h of recovery. The bGH-L showed no exercise-induced changes following recovery with either treatment condition, however concentration values were dramatically lower than ever reported. CONCLUSION: The use of floatation-REST therapy immediately following intense resistance exercise does not appear to influence anterior pituitary function in highly resistance trained men. However, the lower values of bGH suggest dramatically different molecular processing mechanisms at work in this highly trained population.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/sangue , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/análise , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Treinamento de Força , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Cross-Over , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Privação Sensorial , Adulto Jovem
5.
Int J Sports Physiol Perform ; : 1-4, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30958064

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the changes in the state of hydration in elite National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I college wrestlers during and after a season. METHODS: Ohio State University wrestling team members (N = 6; mean [SD] age = 19.6 [1.1] y; height = 171.6 [2.9] cm; body mass = 69.5 [8.1] kg) gave informed consent to participate in the investigation with measurements (ie, body mass, urine-specific gravity [USG; 2 methods], Visual Analog Scale thirst scale, plasma osmolality) obtained during and after the season. RESULTS: Measurements for USG, regardless of methods, were not significantly different between visits, but plasma osmolality was significantly (P = .001) higher at the beginning of the season-295.5 (4.9) mOsm·kg-1 compared with 279.6 (6.1) mOsm·kg-1 after the season. No changes in thirst ratings were observed, and the 2 measures of USG were highly correlated (r > .9, P = .000) at each time point, but USG and plasma osmolality were not related. CONCLUSIONS: A paradox in the clinical interpretation of euhydration in the beginning of the season was observed with the USG, indicating that the wrestlers were properly hydrated, while the plasma osmolality showed they were not. Thus, the tracking of hydration status during the season is a concern when using only NCAA policies and procedures. The wrestlers did return to normal euhydration levels after the season on both biomarkers, which is remarkable, as previous studies have indicated that this may not happen because of the reregulation of the osmol-regulatory center in the brain.

6.
J Sports Sci Med ; 17(1): 92-100, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29535582

RESUMO

The purpose of this double-blind, placebo-controlled investigation was to examine the effects of a Korean Ginseng (GINST15) on measures of perception and physical performance following an acute bout of resistance exercise. Ten women (age: 38.7 ± 7.8 years; height: 1.64 ± 0.05 m; body mass: 76.0 ± 11.6 kg) and nine men (age: 41.2. ± 9.7 years; height: 1.77 ± 0.05 m; body mass: 88.5 ± 5.0 kg) completed the investigation. Participants were randomized to a three-cycle testing scheme consisting of high dose ginseng (HIGH: 960 mg/day), low dose ginseng (LOW: 160 mg/day) and placebo (PBO: 0 mg/day). After 14 days of supplementation participants returned to the laboratory for an acute resistance exercise trial (5 sets of 12 repetitions of the leg press at 70% of one-repetition-maximum [1RM]). Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were assessed after each set. Muscle pain/soreness was assessed before exercise and 24 hours post exercise. Psychomotor performance and peak power were measured before exercise, immediately post exercise and 24 hours after exercise. Each treatment cycle was separated by a minimum one-week washout period. HIGH significantly reduced perceived exertion during exercise. HIGH and LOW significantly reduced change in muscle soreness at 24 hours post exercise. Analysis of peak power demonstrated the presence of responders (n = 13) and non-responders (n = 6). Responders showed a significant effect of HIGH GINST15 on maintenance of neuromuscular function. The appearance of responders and non-responders, could explain the mixed literature base on the ergogenic properties of ginseng.

7.
J Med Food ; 21(1): 104-112, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28981384

RESUMO

The effect of GINST15, an enzyme fermented ginseng supplement, on hormonal and inflammatory responses to physical stress in humans is unknown. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the constitutive and stress-induced effects of GINST15 supplement on hypo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and antioxidant activity in addition to muscle damage. Ten women (age: 38.7 ± 7.8 years; height: 163.81 ± 4.4 cm; body mass 76.0 ± 11.6 kg) and nine men (age: 41.2. ± 9.7 years; height: 177.4 ± 5.3 cm; body mass: 88.5 ± 5.0 kg) participated in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, counterbalanced within-group study. Participants completed three 14-day treatment cycles with different doses (high: 960 mg; low: 160 mg; placebo: 0 mg) separated by a 1-week washout period. At the end of treatment, physical stress was imposed with intense resistance exercise work stress. Participants provided blood at rest and various time points after exercise (immediately [IP], 30 min [30], 60 min [60], 24 h [+24HR]). Cortisol (CORT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), total glutathione, nonspecific antioxidant activity, total antioxidant power (TAP), and creatine kinase were measured. GINST15 supplementation produced stress-inducible dose-dependent reductions in circulating cortisol and increased enzymatic and nonspecific antioxidant activity. Twenty-four hours after intense exercise, a high dose GINST15, a bioactive ginsenoside metabolite, significantly reduces muscle damage and HPA responses to physical stress in humans; these effects may result from increased antioxidant expression.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Exercício Físico , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Panax/química , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Feminino , Glutationa/metabolismo , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/metabolismo , República da Coreia , Treinamento de Força
8.
J Sports Sci Med ; 16(3): 333-342, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28912650

RESUMO

Compression and cold therapy used separately have shown to reduce negative effects of tissue damage. The combining compression and cold therapy (cryocompression) as a single recovery modality has yet to be fully examined. To examine the effects of cryocompression on recovery following a bout of heavy resistance exercise, recreationally resistance trained men (n =16) were recruited, matched, and randomly assigned to either a cryocompression group (CRC) or control group (CON). Testing was performed before and then immediately after exercise, 60 minutes, 24 hours, and 48 hours after a heavy resistance exercise workout (barbell back squats for 4 sets of 6 reps at 80% 1RM, 90 sec rest between sets, stiff legged deadlifts for 4 sets of 8 reps at 1.0 X body mass with 60 sec rest between sets, 4 sets of 10 eccentric Nordic hamstring curls, 45 sec rest between sets). The CRC group used the CRC system for 20-mins of cryocompression treatment immediately after exercise, 24 hours, and 48 hours after exercise. CON sat quietly for 20-mins at the same time points. Muscle damage [creatine kinase], soreness (visual analog scale, 0-100), pain (McGill Pain Q, 0-5), fatigue, sleep quality, and jump power were significantly (p < 0.05) improved for CRC compared to CON at 24 and 48 hours after exercise. Pain was also significantly lower for CRC compared to CON at 60-mins post exercise. These findings show that cryocompression can enhance recovery and performance following a heavy resistance exercise workout.

9.
Peptides ; 91: 26-32, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28263851

RESUMO

Due to the important interactions of proenkephalin fragments (e.g., proenkephalin [107-140] Peptide F) to enhance activation of immune cells and potentially combat pain associated with exercise-induced muscle tissue damage, we examined the differential plasma responses of Peptide F to different exercise training programs. Participants were tested pre-training (T1), and after 8 weeks (T2) of training. Fifty-nine healthy women were matched and then randomly assigned to one of four groups: heavy resistance strength training (STR, n=18), high intensity endurance training (END, n=14), combined strength and endurance training (CMB, n=17), or control (CON, n=10). Blood was collected using a cannula inserted into a superficial vein in the antecubital fossa with samples collected at rest and immediately after an acute bout of 6 X 10 RM in a squat resistance exercise before training and after training. Prior to any training, no significant differences were observed for any of the groups before or after acute exercise. With training, significant (P≤0.95) elevations were observed with acute exercise in each of the exercise training groups and this effect was significantly greater in the CMB group. These data indicate that in untrained women exercise training will not change resting of plasma Peptide F concentrations unless both forms of exercise are performed but will result in significant increases in the immediate post-exercise responses. Such findings appear to indicate adrenal medullary adaptations opioid production significantly altered with exercise training.


Assuntos
Medula Suprarrenal/fisiologia , Encefalina Metionina/análogos & derivados , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Precursores de Proteínas/sangue , Adaptação Fisiológica , Adulto , Cânula , Encefalina Metionina/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Treinamento de Força , Fatores de Tempo
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