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1.
Health Place ; 61: 102264, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32329730

RESUMO

This study examined whether changes in green space within the living environment were associated with changes in walking and cycling frequencies in a cohort of 3,220 Dutch adults between 2004, 2011 and 2014. Data on self-reported weekly time spent walking and cycling for active commute and leisure were linked to geographic information system (GIS) measures of total green areas within 1000 m buffer zones around each participant's home address, and distance to the nearest green space. First, cross-sectional linear regression models showed no statistically significant associations between green space measures and walking and cycling. Second, fixed effects (FE) models were used to analyze whether changes in green space were associated with changes in walking and cycling, using longitudinal data from respondents who did not relocate over time. As distance to the nearest green area increased by 100 m, individuals spent 22.76 fewer (95% CI: -39.92, -5.60) minutes walking for leisure per week and 3.21 more (95% CI: 0.46, 5.96) minutes walking for active commute. Changes in distance to green space were not significantly related to changes in cycling measures. No clear associations between changes in green areas within 1000 m buffers and changes in walking and cycling were observed. Overall, there was weak evidence of an effect of changes in green space area on changes in walking, and no evidence for cycling.

2.
J Epidemiol Community Health ; 74(1): 48-56, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630120

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Urban green spaces have been linked to different health benefits, but longitudinal studies on the effect of green spaces on mental health are sparse and evidence often inconclusive. Our objective was to study the effect of changes in green spaces in the residential environment on changes in mental health using data with 10 years of follow-up (2004-2014). METHODS: Data from 3175 Dutch adults were linked to accessibility and availability measures of green spaces at three time points (2004/2011/2014). Mental health was measured with the Mental Health Inventory-5. Fixed effects analyses were performed to assess the effect of changes in green spaces on mental health. RESULTS: Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data showed significant associations between Euclidean distances to the nearest green space and mental health, with an increase of 100 m correlating with a lower mental health score of approximately 0.5 (95% CI -0.87 to -0.12) on a 0-100 scale. Fixed effects models showed no evidence for associations between changes in green spaces and changes in mental health both for the entire sample as well as for those that did not relocate during follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Despite observed cross-sectional correlations between the accessibility of green space in the residential environment and mental health, no evidence was found for an association between changes in green spaces and changes in mental health. If mental health and green spaces are indeed causally linked, then changes in green spaces in the Eindhoven area between 2004 and 2014 are not enough to produce a significant effect.

3.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1635, 2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31801497

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Social capital is an important determinant of health, but how specific sub-dimensions of social capital affect health and health-related behaviors is still unknown. To better understand its role for health inequalities, it is important to distinguish between bonding social capital (connections between homogenous network members; e.g. similar educational level) and bridging social capital (connections between heterogeneous network members). In this study, we test the hypotheses that, 1) among low educational groups, bridging social capital is positively associated with health-behavior, and negatively associated with overweight and obesity, and 2) among high educational groups, bridging social capital is negatively associated with health-behavior, and positively with overweight and obesity. METHODS: Cross-sectional data on educational level, health-behavior, overweight and obesity from participants (25-75 years; Eindhoven, the Netherlands) of the 2014-survey of the GLOBE study were used (N = 2702). Social capital ("How many of your close friends have the same educational level as you have?") was dichotomized as: bridging ('about half', 'some', or 'none of my friends'), or bonding ('all' or 'most of my friends'). Logistic regression models were used to study whether bridging social capital was related to health-related behaviors (e.g. smoking, food intake, physical activity), overweight and obesity, and whether these associations differed between low and high educational groups. RESULTS: Among low educated, having bridging social capital (i.e. friends with a higher educational level) reduced the likelihood to report overweight (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.52-1.03) and obesity (OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.38-0.88), compared to low educated with bonding social capital. In contrast, among high educated, having bridging social capital (i.e. friends with a lower educational level) increased the likelihood to report daily smoking (OR 2.11, 95% CI 1.37-3.27), no leisure time cycling (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.17-2.04), not meeting recommendations for vegetable intake (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.50-2.91), and high meat intake (OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.05-1.83), compared to high educated with bonding social capital. CONCLUSIONS: Bridging social capital had differential relations with health-behavior among low and high educational groups. Policies aimed at reducing segregation between educational groups may reduce inequalities in overweight, obesity and unhealthy behaviors.

4.
Int J Public Health ; 64(7): 1037-1047, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31187165

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore whether 'distinction', a well-known mechanism that produces and reproduces social inequalities, can explain the socio-economic gradient in healthy diet and physical activity in contemporary obesogenic environments. If this is the case, we would expect a well-established indicator of distinction, 'highbrow' cultural participation, to be associated with a healthy diet and physical activity, while adjusting for education and income. METHODS: Data from participants (25-75 years) of the 2014 wave of the Dutch GLOBE study (N = 2812) were used to analyse the association between 'highbrow' cultural participation (e.g. annual frequency of visits to museums, ballet, concerts, theatre) and sports participation, leisure-time walking and cycling, and fruit and vegetable intake, adjusted for education, income and other confounders. RESULTS: Both highbrow cultural participation and healthy behaviours were more prevalent among high educational groups. Cultural participation was strongly associated with all health behaviours, even when adjusted for education and income. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that health behaviours, similar to highbrow cultural participation, are adopted as an expression of social distinction. This distinction mechanism may be an important determinant of health behaviour inequalities.


Assuntos
Arte , Exercício Físico , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Frutas , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Esportes
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30823592

RESUMO

Low self-control and financial strain may limit individuals' capacity to resist temptations in the local food environment. We investigated the moderating role of self-control and financial strain in the relation between the food environment and higher body weight. We used data from 2812 Dutch adults who participated in the population-based GLOBE study in 2014. Participants' home addresses and the location of food retailers in 2013 were mapped using GIS. The density of fast food retailers and the totality of food retailers in Euclidean buffers of 250, 400 and 800 m around the home were linked to body mass index and overweight status. A higher density of fast food outlets (B (95% confidence interval (CI)) = -0.04 (-0.07; -0.01)) and the totality of food outlets (B (95% CI) = -0.01 (-0.01; -0.00)) were associated with a lower body mass index. Stratification showed that associations were strongest for those experiencing low self-control or great financial strain. For example, every additional fast food outlet was associated with a 0.17 point lower BMI in those with great financial strain, while not significantly associated with BMI in those with no financial strain. In conclusion, we did find support for a moderating role of self-control and financial strain, but associations between the food environment and weight status were not in the expected direction.


Assuntos
Abastecimento de Alimentos , Obesidade/etiologia , Pobreza/psicologia , Características de Residência , Autocontrole , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Fast Foods , Feminino , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Obesidade/economia , Obesidade/psicologia , Fatores de Risco
7.
Health Place ; 53: 79-85, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30056264

RESUMO

We investigated the association and underlying pathways between urban population density and mortality in a compact mid-sized university city in the Netherlands. Baseline data from the GLOBE cohort study (N = 10,120 residents of Eindhoven) were linked to mortality after 23 years of follow up and analyzed in multilevel models. Higher population density was modestly related to increased mortality, independently of baseline socioeconomic position and health. Higher population density was related to more active transport, more perceived urban stress and smoking. Increased active transport suppressed the mortality-increasing impact of higher population density. Overall, in dense cities with good infrastructure for walking and cycling, high population density may negatively impact mortality.


Assuntos
Mortalidade/tendências , Densidade Demográfica , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Cidades , Feminino , Seguimentos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Saúde da População Urbana
8.
BMC Public Health ; 18(1): 158, 2018 01 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29351781

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Urbanization and ageing have important implications for public mental health and well-being. Cities pose major challenges for older citizens, but also offer opportunities to develop, test, and implement policies, services, infrastructure, and interventions that promote mental well-being. The MINDMAP project aims to identify the opportunities and challenges posed by urban environmental characteristics for the promotion and management of mental well-being and cognitive function of older individuals. METHODS: MINDMAP aims to achieve its research objectives by bringing together longitudinal studies from 11 countries covering over 35 cities linked to databases of area-level environmental exposures and social and urban policy indicators. The infrastructure supporting integration of this data will allow multiple MINDMAP investigators to safely and remotely co-analyse individual-level and area-level data. Individual-level data is derived from baseline and follow-up measurements of ten participating cohort studies and provides information on mental well-being outcomes, sociodemographic variables, health behaviour characteristics, social factors, measures of frailty, physical function indicators, and chronic conditions, as well as blood derived clinical biochemistry-based biomarkers and genetic biomarkers. Area-level information on physical environment characteristics (e.g. green spaces, transportation), socioeconomic and sociodemographic characteristics (e.g. neighbourhood income, residential segregation, residential density), and social environment characteristics (e.g. social cohesion, criminality) and national and urban social policies is derived from publically available sources such as geoportals and administrative databases. The linkage, harmonization, and analysis of data from different sources are being carried out using piloted tools to optimize the validity of the research results and transparency of the methodology. DISCUSSION: MINDMAP is a novel research collaboration that is combining population-based cohort data with publicly available datasets not typically used for ageing and mental well-being research. Integration of various data sources and observational units into a single platform will help to explain the differences in ageing-related mental and cognitive disorders both within as well as between cities in Europe, the US, Canada, and Russia and to assess the causal pathways and interactions between the urban environment and the individual determinants of mental well-being and cognitive ageing in older adults.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Cidades , Bases de Dados como Assunto/organização & administração , Saúde Mental , Pesquisa/organização & administração , Canadá , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação , Federação Russa , Estados Unidos , Saúde da População Urbana
9.
Eur J Public Health ; 28(4): 597-603, 2018 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29236973

RESUMO

Background: Why lower socioeconomic groups behave less healthily can only partly be explained by direct costs of behaving healthily. We hypothesize that low income increases the risk of facing financial strain. Experiencing financial strain takes up cognitive 'bandwidth' and leads to less self-control, and subsequently results in more unhealthy behaviour. We therefore aim to investigate (i) whether a low income increases the likelihood of experiencing financial strain and of unhealthy behaviours, (ii) to what extent more financial strain is associated with less self-control and, subsequently, (iii) whether less self-control is related to more unhealthy behaviour. Methods: Cross-sectional survey data were obtained from participants (25-75 years) in the fifth wave of the Dutch GLOBE study (N = 2812) in 2014. The associations between income, financial strain, self-control and health-behaviour-related outcomes (physical inactivity in leisure-time, obesity, smoking, excessive alcohol intake, and weekly fruit and vegetable intake) were analysed with linear regression and generalized linear regression models (log link). Results: Experiencing great compared with no financial strain increased the risk of all health-behaviour-related outcomes, independent of income. Low self-control, as compared with high self-control, also increased the risk of an unhealthy lifestyle. Taking self-control into account slightly attenuated the associations between financial strain and the outcomes. Conclusion: Great financial strain and low self-control are consistently associated with unhealthy behaviours. Self-control may partly mediate between financial strain and unhealthy behaviour. Interventions that relieve financial strain may free up cognitive bandwidth and improve health behaviour.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Atividades de Lazer/psicologia , Estilo de Vida , Pobreza/psicologia , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Autocontrole/psicologia , Classe Social , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
10.
Cad Saude Publica ; 33(4): e00078015, 2017 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28538789

RESUMO

The study analyzed how socioeconomic factors are associated with seeking, access, use, and quality of health care services in São Paulo, Brazil. Data were obtained from two household health surveys in São Paulo. We used logistic regression to analyze associations between socioeconomic factors and seeking, access, use, and quality of health care services. Access to health care services was high among those who sought it (94.91% in 2003 and 94.98% in 2008). The proportion of access to and use of health care services did not change significantly from 2003 to 2008. Use of services in the public sector was more frequent in lower socioeconomic groups. There were some socioeconomic differences in seeking health care and resolution of health problems. The study showed almost universal access to health care services, but the results suggest problems in quality of services and differences in quality experienced by lower socioeconomic groups, who mostly use the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS).


Assuntos
Equidade em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Setor Público , Fatores Socioeconômicos , População Urbana , Adulto Jovem
11.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 14(1): 40, 2017 03 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28347301

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The key mechanisms underlying socioeconomic inequalities in dietary intake are still poorly understood, hampering the development of interventions. An important, but sparsely mentioned mechanism is that of 'social distinction', whereby those in a higher socioeconomic position adopt dietary patterns by which they can distinguish themselves from lower socioeconomic groups. We investigated the importance of distinction as a mechanism, by testing the socioeconomic gradient in the consumption of so-called 'superfoods' and the contribution of a well-established indicator of distinction, cultural participation. METHODS: Data from participants (25-75 years) of the 2014 survey of the Dutch population-based GLOBE study were used (N = 2812). Multivariable regression models were used to analyse the association between education, income and cultural participation (e.g. visits to museums, opera, theatre, concerts) and the consumption of superfoods (spelt, quinoa and goji berries, chia seeds or wheatgrass). RESULTS: The consumption of superfoods is far more prevalent among higher socioeconomic groups. Adjusting for cultural participation strongly attenuated the educational and income gradient in superfoods consumption, whereas cultural participation remained strongly associated with superfoods consumption. Those in the highest quintile of cultural participation reported the highest consumption of spelt products (OR = 2.97, 95% CI = 2.10;4.18), quinoa (OR = 3.50, 95% CI = 2.12;5.79) and goji berries, chia seeds or wheatgrass (OR = 2.69, 95% CI = 1.73;4.17). CONCLUSIONS: The associations between socioeconomic position and the consumption of 'superfoods' seem to be partially driven by a process of social distinction. These findings suggest that distinction may be an important, but currently neglected mechanism in generating socioeconomic inequalities in dietary intake. It deserves a more prominent role in interventions to reduce these inequalities.


Assuntos
Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Classe Social , Distância Social , Adulto , Idoso , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Cad. saúde pública ; 33(4): e00078015, 2017. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-839701

RESUMO

Abstract: The study analyzed how socioeconomic factors are associated with seeking, access, use, and quality of health care services in São Paulo, Brazil. Data were obtained from two household health surveys in São Paulo. We used logistic regression to analyze associations between socioeconomic factors and seeking, access, use, and quality of health care services. Access to health care services was high among those who sought it (94.91% in 2003 and 94.98% in 2008). The proportion of access to and use of health care services did not change significantly from 2003 to 2008. Use of services in the public sector was more frequent in lower socioeconomic groups. There were some socioeconomic differences in seeking health care and resolution of health problems. The study showed almost universal access to health care services, but the results suggest problems in quality of services and differences in quality experienced by lower socioeconomic groups, who mostly use the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS).


Resumo: O estudo analisou os fatores socioeconômicos associados à procura, acesso, uso e qualidade dos serviços de assistência à saúde em São Paulo, Brasil. Os dados foram obtidos a partir de dois inquéritos domiciliares de saúde em São Paulo. A regressão logística foi utilizada para analisar as associações entre fatores socioeconômicos e a procura, acesso, uso e qualidade dos serviços de assistência à saúde. O acesso aos serviços de assistência à saúde era alto entre aqueles que procuravam (94,91% em 2003 e 94,98% em 2008). A proporção de acesso e uso dos serviços de assistência à saúde não mudou de maneira significativa entre 2003 e 2008. O use de serviços no setor público era mais frequente nos extratos socioeconômicos mais baixos. Houve algumas diferenças na procura de assistência e na resolução dos problemas de saúde. O estudo mostrou acesso quase universal aos serviços de assistência à saúde, mas os resultados sugerem problemas na qualidade dos serviços e diferenças na qualidade vivenciada pelos grupos socioeconômicos mais baixos, a maioria dos quais utilizavam o Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS).


Resumen: El estudio analizó los factores socioeconómicos asociados a la búsqueda, acceso, uso y calidad de los servicios de asistencia a la salud en São Paulo, Brasil. Los datos fueron obtenidos a partir de dos encuestas domiciliarias de salud en São Paulo. La regresión logística se utilizó para analizar las asociaciones entre factores socioeconómicos y la búsqueda, acceso, uso y calidad de los servicios de asistencia a la salud. El acceso a los servicios de asistencia a la salud era alto entre aquellos que lo buscaban (94,91% en 2003 y 94,98% en 2008). La proporción de acceso y uso de los servicios de asistencia a la salud no se vio modificado de manera significativa entre 2003 y 2008. El uso de servicios en el sector público era más frecuente en los estratos socioeconómicos más bajos. Hubo algunas diferencias en la búsqueda de asistencia y en la resolución de los problemas de salud. El estudio mostró un acceso casi universal a los servicios de asistencia a la salud, pero los resultados sugieren problemas en la calidad de los servicios y diferencias en la calidad experimentada por los grupos socioeconómicos más bajos, la mayoría de los cuales utilizaban el Sistema Único de Salud (SUS).


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Equidade em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Brasil , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Setor Público , Fatores Socioeconômicos , População Urbana
13.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 16(1): 683, 2016 12 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27927241

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Access to, and use of, dental health services in Brazil have improved since 2003. The increase of private health care plans and the implementation of the "Smiling Brazil" Program, the largest public oral health care program in the world, could have influenced this increase in access. However, we do not yet know if inequalities in the use of dental health services persist after the improvement in access. The aims of this study are to analyze socioeconomic differences for dental health service use between 2003 and 2008 in São Paulo and to examine changes in these associations since the implementation of the Smiling Brazil program in 2003. METHOD: Data was obtained via two household health surveys (ISA-Capital 2003 and ISA-Capital 2008) which investigated living conditions, lifestyle, health status and use of health care services. Logistic regression was used to analyze associations between socioeconomic factors and dental services use. Additionally, trends from 2003 to 2008 regarding socioeconomic characteristics and dental health service use were explored. RESULTS: Overall, dental health service use increased between 2003 and 2008 and was at both time points more common among those who had higher income, better education, better housing conditions, private health care plans and were Caucasian. Inequalities in use of dental health care did not decrease over time. Among the reasons for not seeking dental care, not having teeth and financial difficulty were more common in lower socioeconomic groups, while thinking it was unnecessary was more common in higher socioeconomic groups. CONCLUSIONS: The Brazilian oral health policy is still in a period of expansion and seems to have contributed slightly to increased dental health service use, but has not influenced socioeconomic inequalities in the use of these services. Acquiring deeper knowledge about inequalities in dental health service use will contribute to better understanding of potential barriers to reducing them.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Assistência Odontológica/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos de Saúde Bucal , Características da Família , Feminino , Serviços de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Classe Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Prev Med ; 70: 64-8, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25450490

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In Europe, the demand for informal care is high and will increase because of the ageing population. Although caregiving is intended to contribute to the care recipient's health, its effects on the health of older European caregivers are not yet clear. This study explores the association between providing informal personal care and the caregivers' health. METHOD: Data were used from the longitudinal cohort (2004/2005-2010/2011) of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) (n=7858). Generalized estimating equations were used to explore the longitudinal association of informal care and the caregiver's health using poor self-rated health (less than good), poor mental health (EURO-D score for depression ≥4), and poor physical health (≥2 health complaints). RESULTS: Providing informal personal care was significantly associated with poor mental health (OR=1.23, 95% CI=1.04-1.47) and poor physical health (OR=1.18, 95% CI=1.01-1.38), after adjusting for various socio-demographic and health-related factors. No statistical significant association was found for self-rated health in the adjusted models. CONCLUSION: Providing informal personal care may negatively influence the caregiver's mental and physical health. More awareness of the beneficial and detrimental effects of caregiving among policy makers is needed to make well-informed decisions concerning the growth of care demands in the ageing population.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/psicologia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Nível de Saúde , Saúde Mental , Assistência ao Paciente/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cuidadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidadores/tendências , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Assistência ao Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Assistência ao Paciente/tendências , Estudos Prospectivos , Autorrelato , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
15.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 46(2): 293-301, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24051658

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This cross-sectional study uses an adaptation of a social-ecological model on the hierarchy of walking needs to explore direct associations and interactions of urban-form characteristics and individual psychosocial factors for leisure-time walking. METHODS: Questionnaire data (n = 736) from adults (25-74 yr) and systematic field observations within 14 neighborhoods in Eindhoven (the Netherlands) were used. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to relate the urban-form characteristics (accessibility, safety, comfort, and pleasurability) and individual psychosocial factors (attitude, self-efficacy, social influence, and intention) to two definitions of leisure-time walking, that is, any leisure-time walking and sufficient leisure-time walking according to the Dutch physical activity norm and to explore their interactions. RESULTS: Leisure-time walking was associated with psychosocial factors but not with characteristics of the urban environment. For sufficient leisure-time walking, interactions between attitude and several urban-form characteristics were found, indicating that positive urban-form characteristics contributed toward leisure-time walking only in residents with a less positive attitude toward physical activity. In contrast, living in a neighborhood that was accessible for walking was stronger associated with leisure-time walking among residents who experienced a positive social influence to engage in physical activity compared with those who reported less social influence. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed some evidence for an interaction between the neighborhood environment and the individual psychosocial factors in explaining leisure-time walking. The specific mechanism of interaction may depend on the specific combination of psychosocial factor and environmental factor. The lack of association between urban form and leisure-time walking could be partly due to the little variation in urban-form characteristics between neighborhoods.


Assuntos
Planejamento Ambiental , Atividades de Lazer/psicologia , População Urbana , Caminhada/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Cidades , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Psicologia , Características de Residência , Segurança , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Int J Epidemiol ; 43(3): 721-30, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23716619

RESUMO

The main aim of the Gezondheid en Levens Omstandigheden Bevolking Eindhoven en omstreken (GLOBE) study (the letters of whose name represent the first letters of the Dutch acronym for Health and Living Conditions of the Population of Eindhoven and surroundings) is to quantitatively assess mechanisms and factors explaining socio-economic inequalities in health in the Netherlands. Baseline data for the study were collected by postal survey in 1991 among 18,973 respondents ranging in age from 15-75 years from the city of Eindhoven and its surrounding municipalities. Subsamples (total N=5667) were interviewed and/or surveyed in 1991, 1997, 2004 (also including a new sample), and most recently in 2011. Information was asked on indicators of socio-economic position, a range of potential explanatory factors (material, behavioural, psychosocial, and environmental) and health outcomes. From 2004 onwards, special emphasis was given to the identification of physical, social, and cultural environmental factors in the explanation of socio-economic inequalities in health behaviours. Information from the baseline postal survey onwards can and has been linked to several registries of causes of death, hospital admissions, and cancer. Researchers are cordially invited to contact the project leader (f.vanlenthe@erasmusmc.nl) to propose research based on the data.


Assuntos
Saúde Global , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Cultura , Dieta , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Meio Social , Apoio Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Health Educ Res ; 28(2): 220-33, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23393100

RESUMO

Although physical activity is often believed to be influenced by both environmental and individual factors, little is known about their interaction. This study explores interactions of perceived safety and social neighborhood factors with psychosocial cognitions for leisure-time walking. Cross-sectional data were obtained from residents (age 25-75 years) of 212 neighborhoods in the South-East of the Netherlands, who participated in the Dutch GLOBE study in 2004 (N = 4395, survey response 64.4%). Direct associations of, and interactions between perceived neighborhood safety, social neighborhood factors (social cohesion, social network and feeling at home) and psychosocial cognitions (attitude, self-efficacy, social influence and intention) on two outcomes of leisure-time walking [yes versus no (binary), and among walkers: minutes per week (continuous)] were analyzed in multilevel regression models. The association between attitude and participating in leisure-time walking was stronger in those who felt less at home in their neighborhood. Social influence and attitude were stronger associated with participation in leisure-time walking in those who sometimes felt unsafe in their neighborhood. A positive intention was associated with more minutes walked in those who perceived their neighborhood as unsafe among those who walked. Only limited support was found for interactions between neighborhood perceptions and psychosocial cognitions for leisure-time walking.


Assuntos
Características de Residência , Segurança , Caminhada/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Psicologia , Caminhada/estatística & dados numéricos
18.
Eur J Public Health ; 23(5): 811-6, 2013 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23302764

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this longitudinal study is to identify risk groups for disengagement from sports during adolescence. In addition, it will be explored whether cognitive and environmental factors can explain socio-demographic differences in disengagement from sports. METHODS: Data were obtained from the Environmental Determinants of Obesity in Rotterdam Schoolchildren study, and 357 adolescents were eligible for analysis. Socio-demographics (gender, ethnicity, education), individual cognitions and neighbourhood perceptions were assessed at baseline (2005/2006), and sports participation at baseline and at follow-up (2007/2008). Two dichotomous outcome variables were constructed: (i) disengagement from sports (yes/no) and (ii) ceased compliance with the fitnorm (i.e. cease engaging in sports ≥3 times/wk) (yes/no). In logistic regression and mediation analyses, we identified socio-demographic differences in the two outcomes. Subsequently, we applied mediation analyses to identify the contribution of cognitive and environmental explanatory factors of the socio-demographic differences. RESULTS: Girls [odds ratio (OR): 2.5, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.5-4.5] were more likely than boys to disengage from sports. Girls (OR: 2.5, 95% CI: 1.4-4.2), adolescents of non-Western background (OR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.0-3.0) and those in lower educational levels (OR: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.0-2.9) were more likely to cease compliance with the fitnorm. Perceived neighbourhood safety partly explained gender differences in disengagement from sports (8%). Intention partly explained ethnical (32%) and educational differences (37%) in ceasing compliance with the fitnorm. CONCLUSIONS: Girls, lower-educated adolescents and those with a non-Western background showed more pronounced reductions in sports participation and compliance with the fitnorm. Intention and perceived neighbourhood safety could partially explain these differences.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Esportes/psicologia , Adolescente , Demografia , Escolaridade , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Intenção , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Características de Residência/classificação , Segurança , Autorrelato , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos
19.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 9: 116, 2012 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22992350

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study systematically reviewed the evidence pertaining to socioeconomic inequalities in different domains of physical activity (PA) by European region. METHODS: Studies conducted between January 2000 and December 2010 were identified by a systematic search in Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science, Psychinfo, Sportdiscus, Sociological Abstracts, and Social Service Abstracts. English-language peer-reviewed studies undertaken in the general population of adults (18-65 years) were classified by domain of PA (total, leisure-time including sport, occupational, active transport), indicator of socioeconomic position (education, income, occupation), and European region. Distributions of reported positive, negative, and null associations were evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 131 studies met the inclusion criteria. Most studies were conducted in Scandinavia (n = 47). Leisure-time PA was the most frequently studied PA outcome (n = 112). Considerable differences in the direction of inequalities were seen for the different domains of PA. Most studies reported that those with high socioeconomic position were more physically active during leisure-time compared to those with low socioeconomic position (68% positive associations for total leisure-time PA, 76% for vigorous leisure-time PA). Occupational PA was more prevalent among the lower socioeconomic groups (63% negative associations). Socioeconomic differences in total PA and active transport PA did not show a consistent pattern (40% and 38% positive associations respectively). Some inequalities differed by European region or socioeconomic indicator, however these differences were not very pronounced. CONCLUSIONS: The direction of socioeconomic inequalities in PA in Europe differed considerably by domain of PA. The contradictory results for total PA may partly be explained by contrasting socioeconomic patterns for leisure-time PA and occupational PA.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Atividade Motora , Transportes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Europa (Continente) , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Atividades de Lazer , Ocupações , Países Escandinavos e Nórdicos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Esportes , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Am J Prev Med ; 42(6): 610-5, 2012 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22608378

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To successfully stimulate cycling, it is necessary to understand the factors that facilitate or inhibit cycling. Little is known about how changes in the neighborhood environment are related to changes in cycling behavior. PURPOSE: This study aimed to identify environmental determinants of the uptake of cycling after relocation. METHODS: The RESIDential Environment Project (RESIDE) is a longitudinal natural experiment of people moving into new housing developments in Perth (Western Australia). Self-reported usual transport and recreational cycling behavior, as well as self-reported and objective built environmental factors were measured before and after residential relocation. Participants who did not usually cycle at baseline in 2003-2004 were included in the study. Logistic regression models were used to relate changes in built environmental determinants to the probability of taking up cycling after relocation (2005-2006). Analyses were carried out in 2010-2011. RESULTS: At baseline, 90% (n=1289) of the participants did not cycle for transport and 86% (n=1232) did not cycle for recreation. After relocation, 5% of the noncyclists took up transport-related cycling, and 7% took up recreational cycling. After full adjustment, the uptake of transport-related cycling was determined by an increase in objective residential density (OR=1.54, 95% CI=1.04, 2.26) and self-reported better access to parks (OR=2.60, 95% CI=1.58, 4.27) and other recreation destinations (OR=1.57, 95% CI=1.12, 2.22). Commencing recreational cycling mostly was determined by an increase in objective street connectivity (OR=1.20, 95% CI=1.06, 1.35). CONCLUSIONS: Changes in the built environment may support the uptake of cycling among formerly noncycling adults.


Assuntos
Ciclismo , Planejamento Ambiental , Características de Residência , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Austrália Ocidental
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