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1.
Nat Genet ; 51(11): 1596-1606, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31676859

RESUMO

A rare loss-of-function allele p.Arg138* in SLC30A8 encoding the zinc transporter 8 (ZnT8), which is enriched in Western Finland, protects against type 2 diabetes (T2D). We recruited relatives of the identified carriers and showed that protection was associated with better insulin secretion due to enhanced glucose responsiveness and proinsulin conversion, particularly when compared with individuals matched for the genotype of a common T2D-risk allele in SLC30A8, p.Arg325. In genome-edited human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived ß-like cells, we establish that the p.Arg138* allele results in reduced SLC30A8 expression due to haploinsufficiency. In human ß cells, loss of SLC30A8 leads to increased glucose responsiveness and reduced KATP channel function similar to isolated islets from carriers of the T2D-protective allele p.Trp325. These data position ZnT8 as an appealing target for treatment aimed at maintaining insulin secretion capacity in T2D.

2.
Development ; 145(16)2018 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30042179

RESUMO

To decipher the populations of cells present in the human fetal pancreas and their lineage relationships, we developed strategies to isolate pancreatic progenitors, endocrine progenitors and endocrine cells. Transcriptome analysis of the individual populations revealed a large degree of conservation among vertebrates in the drivers of gene expression changes that occur at different steps of differentiation, although notably, sometimes, different members of the same gene family are expressed. The transcriptome analysis establishes a resource to identify novel genes and pathways involved in human pancreas development. Single-cell profiling further captured intermediate stages of differentiation and enabled us to decipher the sequence of transcriptional events occurring during human endocrine differentiation. Furthermore, we evaluate how well individual pancreatic cells derived in vitro from human pluripotent stem cells mirror the natural process occurring in human fetuses. This comparison uncovers a few differences at the progenitor steps, a convergence at the steps of endocrine induction, and the current inability to fully resolve endocrine cell subtypes in vitro.


Assuntos
Feto/embriologia , Citometria de Fluxo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/fisiologia , Pâncreas/embriologia , Transcrição Genética/fisiologia , Feto/citologia , Humanos , Pâncreas/citologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/metabolismo
3.
Stem Cell Res ; 31: 16-26, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29990710

RESUMO

Maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) is a hereditary form of diabetes mellitus presenting at childhood or adolescence, which eventually leads to pancreatic ß-cells dysfunction. The underlying genetic basis of MODY disorders is haploinsufficiency, where loss-of-function mutations in a single allele cause the diabetic phenotype in heterozygous patients. MODY1 is a type of MODY disorder resulting from a mutation in the transcription factor hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF4α). In order to establish a human based model to study MODY1, we generated patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Differentiation of these pluripotent cells towards the pancreatic lineage enabled to evaluate the effects of the MODY1 mutation and its impact on endodermal and pancreatic cells. Analyzing the gene expression profiles of differentiated MODY1 cells, revealed the outcome of HNF4α haploinsufficiency on its targets. This molecular analysis suggests that the differential expression of HNF4α target genes in MODY1 is affected by the number of HNF4α binding sites, their distance from the transcription start site, and the number of other transcription factor binding sites. These features may help explain the molecular manifestations of haploinsufficiency in MODY1 disease.

4.
Nat Genet ; 50(8): 1122-1131, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30054598

RESUMO

The molecular mechanisms underpinning susceptibility loci for type 2 diabetes (T2D) remain poorly understood. Coding variants in peptidylglycine α-amidating monooxygenase (PAM) are associated with both T2D risk and insulinogenic index. Here, we demonstrate that the T2D risk alleles impact negatively on overall PAM activity via defects in expression and catalytic function. PAM deficiency results in reduced insulin content and altered dynamics of insulin secretion in a human ß-cell model and primary islets from cadaveric donors. Thus, our results demonstrate a role for PAM in ß-cell function, and establish molecular mechanisms for T2D risk alleles at this locus.

5.
Stem Cell Res ; 29: 220-231, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29734117

RESUMO

Recent studies have reported significant advances in the differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells to clinically relevant cell types such as the insulin producing beta-like cells and motor neurons. However, many of the current differentiation protocols lead to heterogeneous cell cultures containing cell types other than the targeted cell fate. Genetically modified human pluripotent stem cells reporting the expression of specific genes are of great value for differentiation protocol optimization and for the purification of relevant cell populations from heterogeneous cell cultures. Here we present the generation of human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines with a GFP reporter inserted in the endogenous NKX6.1 locus. Characterization of the reporter lines demonstrated faithful GFP labelling of NKX6.1 expression during pancreas and motor neuron differentiation. Cell sorting and gene expression profiling by RNA sequencing revealed that NKX6.1-positive cells from pancreatic differentiations closely resemble human beta cells. Furthermore, functional characterization of the isolated cells demonstrated that glucose-stimulated insulin secretion is mainly confined to the NKX6.1-positive cells. We expect that the NKX6.1-GFP iPSC lines and the results presented here will contribute to the further refinement of differentiation protocols and characterization of hPSC-derived beta cells and motor neurons for disease modelling and cell replacement therapies.

6.
Diabetologia ; 61(7): 1614-1622, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29675560

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Most type 2 diabetes-associated genetic variants identified via genome-wide association studies (GWASs) appear to act via the pancreatic islet. Observed defects in insulin secretion could result from an impact of these variants on islet development and/or the function of mature islets. Most functional studies have focused on the latter, given limitations regarding access to human fetal islet tissue. Capitalising upon advances in in vitro differentiation, we characterised the transcriptomes of human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines differentiated along the pancreatic endocrine lineage, and explored the contribution of altered islet development to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We performed whole-transcriptome RNA sequencing of human iPSC lines from three independent donors, at baseline and at seven subsequent stages during in vitro islet differentiation. Differentially expressed genes (q < 0.01, log2 fold change [FC] > 1) were assigned to the stages at which they were most markedly upregulated. We used these data to characterise upstream transcription factors directing different stages of development, and to explore the relationship between RNA expression profiles and genes mapping to type 2 diabetes GWAS signals. RESULTS: We identified 9409 differentially expressed genes across all stages, including many known markers of islet development. Integration of differential expression data with information on transcription factor motifs highlighted the potential contribution of REST to islet development. Over 70% of genes mapping within type 2 diabetes-associated credible intervals showed peak differential expression during islet development, and type 2 diabetes GWAS loci of largest effect (including TCF7L2; log2FC = 1.2; q = 8.5 × 10-10) were notably enriched in genes differentially expressed at the posterior foregut stage (q = 0.002), as calculated by gene set enrichment analyses. In a complementary analysis of enrichment, genes differentially expressed in the final, beta-like cell stage of in vitro differentiation were significantly enriched (hypergeometric test, permuted p value <0.05) for genes within the credible intervals of type 2 diabetes GWAS loci. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: The present study characterises RNA expression profiles during human islet differentiation, identifies potential transcriptional regulators of the differentiation process, and suggests that the inherited predisposition to type 2 diabetes is partly mediated through modulation of islet development. DATA AVAILABILITY: Sequence data for this study has been deposited at the European Genome-phenome Archive (EGA), under accession number EGAS00001002721.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem da Célula , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/patologia , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/patologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
8.
Sci Data ; 4: 170179, 2017 12 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29257133

RESUMO

To investigate the genetic basis of type 2 diabetes (T2D) to high resolution, the GoT2D and T2D-GENES consortia catalogued variation from whole-genome sequencing of 2,657 European individuals and exome sequencing of 12,940 individuals of multiple ancestries. Over 27M SNPs, indels, and structural variants were identified, including 99% of low-frequency (minor allele frequency [MAF] 0.1-5%) non-coding variants in the whole-genome sequenced individuals and 99.7% of low-frequency coding variants in the whole-exome sequenced individuals. Each variant was tested for association with T2D in the sequenced individuals, and, to increase power, most were tested in larger numbers of individuals (>80% of low-frequency coding variants in ~82 K Europeans via the exome chip, and ~90% of low-frequency non-coding variants in ~44 K Europeans via genotype imputation). The variants, genotypes, and association statistics from these analyses provide the largest reference to date of human genetic information relevant to T2D, for use in activities such as T2D-focused genotype imputation, functional characterization of variants or genes, and other novel analyses to detect associations between sequence variation and T2D.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Variação Genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Humanos
9.
Stem Cell Reports ; 9(5): 1395-1405, 2017 11 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29107594

RESUMO

Current in vitro islet differentiation protocols suffer from heterogeneity and low efficiency. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from pancreatic beta cells (BiPSCs) preferentially differentiate toward endocrine pancreas-like cells versus those from fibroblasts (FiPSCs). We interrogated genome-wide open chromatin in BiPSCs and FiPSCs via ATAC-seq and identified ∼8.3k significant, differential open chromatin sites (DOCS) between the two iPSC subtypes (false discovery rate [FDR] < 0.05). DOCS where chromatin was more accessible in BiPSCs (Bi-DOCS) were significantly enriched for known regulators of endodermal development, including bivalent and weak enhancers, and FOXA2 binding sites (FDR < 0.05). Bi-DOCS were associated with genes related to pancreas development and beta-cell function, including transcription factors mutated in monogenic diabetes (PDX1, NKX2-2, HNF1A; FDR < 0.05). Moreover, Bi-DOCS correlated with enhanced gene expression in BiPSC-derived definitive endoderm and pancreatic progenitor cells. Bi-DOCS therefore highlight genes and pathways governing islet-lineage commitment, which can be exploited for differentiation protocol optimization, diabetes disease modeling, and therapeutic purposes.


Assuntos
Reprogramação Celular , Cromatina/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Fator 3-beta Nuclear de Hepatócito/genética , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Células Secretoras de Insulina/citologia , Células Cultivadas , Cromatina/metabolismo , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Fator 1-alfa Nuclear de Hepatócito/genética , Fator 1-alfa Nuclear de Hepatócito/metabolismo , Fator 3-beta Nuclear de Hepatócito/metabolismo , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Células Secretoras de Insulina/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Transativadores/genética , Transativadores/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
10.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 13(10): e1005816, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29059180

RESUMO

Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) constitutes a global health burden. Efforts to uncover predisposing genetic variation have been considerable, yet detailed knowledge of the underlying pathogenesis remains poor. Here, we constructed a T2D phenotypic-linkage network (T2D-PLN), by integrating diverse gene functional information that highlight genes, which when disrupted in mice, elicit similar T2D-relevant phenotypes. Sensitising the network to T2D-relevant phenotypes enabled significant functional convergence to be detected between genes implicated in monogenic or syndromic diabetes and genes lying within genomic regions associated with T2D common risk. We extended these analyses to a recent multiethnic T2D case-control exome of 12,940 individuals that found no evidence of T2D risk association for rare frequency variants outside of previously known T2D risk loci. Examining associations involving protein-truncating variants (PTV), most at low population frequencies, the T2D-PLN was able to identify a convergent set of biological pathways that were perturbed within four of five independent T2D case/control ethnic sets of 2000 to 5000 exomes each. These same pathways were found to be over-represented among both known monogenic or syndromic diabetes genes and genes within T2D-associated common risk loci. Our study demonstrates convergent biology amongst variants representing different classes of T2D genetic risk. Although convergence was observed at the pathway level, few of the contributing genes were found in common between different cohorts or variant classes, most notably between the exome variant sets which suggests that future rare variant studies may be better focusing their power onto a single population of recent common ancestry.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Proteoma/genética , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Prevalência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
11.
F1000Res ; 52016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27508066

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a disease of pandemic proportions, one defined by a complex aetiological mix of genetic, epigenetic, environmental, and lifestyle risk factors. Whilst the last decade of T2D genetic research has identified more than 100 loci showing strong statistical association with disease susceptibility, our inability to capitalise upon these signals reflects, in part, a lack of appropriate human cell models for study. This review discusses the impact of two complementary, state-of-the-art technologies on T2D genetic research: the generation of stem cell-derived, endocrine pancreas-lineage cells and the editing of their genomes. Such models facilitate investigation of diabetes-associated genomic perturbations in a physiologically representative cell context and allow the role of both developmental and adult islet dysfunction in T2D pathogenesis to be investigated. Accordingly, we interrogate the role that patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cell models are playing in understanding cellular dysfunction in monogenic diabetes, and how site-specific nucleases such as the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 system are helping to confirm genes crucial to human endocrine pancreas development. We also highlight the novel biology gleaned in the absence of patient lines, including an ability to model the whole phenotypic spectrum of diabetes phenotypes occurring both in utero and in adult cells, interrogating the non-coding 'islet regulome' for disease-causing perturbations, and understanding the role of other islet cell types in aberrant glycaemia. This article aims to reinforce the importance of investigating T2D signals in cell models reflecting appropriate species, genomic context, developmental time point, and tissue type.

12.
Nature ; 536(7614): 41-47, 2016 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27398621

RESUMO

The genetic architecture of common traits, including the number, frequency, and effect sizes of inherited variants that contribute to individual risk, has been long debated. Genome-wide association studies have identified scores of common variants associated with type 2 diabetes, but in aggregate, these explain only a fraction of the heritability of this disease. Here, to test the hypothesis that lower-frequency variants explain much of the remainder, the GoT2D and T2D-GENES consortia performed whole-genome sequencing in 2,657 European individuals with and without diabetes, and exome sequencing in 12,940 individuals from five ancestry groups. To increase statistical power, we expanded the sample size via genotyping and imputation in a further 111,548 subjects. Variants associated with type 2 diabetes after sequencing were overwhelmingly common and most fell within regions previously identified by genome-wide association studies. Comprehensive enumeration of sequence variation is necessary to identify functional alleles that provide important clues to disease pathophysiology, but large-scale sequencing does not support the idea that lower-frequency variants have a major role in predisposition to type 2 diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Alelos , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Europa (Continente)/etnologia , Exoma , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Tamanho da Amostra
13.
Islets ; 8(3): 83-95, 2016 04 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27246810

RESUMO

Directed differentiation of stem cells offers a scalable solution to the need for human cell models recapitulating islet biology and T2D pathogenesis. We profiled mRNA expression at 6 stages of an induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) model of endocrine pancreas development from 2 donors, and characterized the distinct transcriptomic profiles associated with each stage. Established regulators of endodermal lineage commitment, such as SOX17 (log2 fold change [FC] compared to iPSCs = 14.2, p-value = 4.9 × 10(-5)) and the pancreatic agenesis gene GATA6 (log2 FC = 12.1, p-value = 8.6 × 10(-5)), showed transcriptional variation consistent with their known developmental roles. However, these analyses highlighted many other genes with stage-specific expression patterns, some of which may be novel drivers or markers of islet development. For example, the leptin receptor gene, LEPR, was most highly expressed in published data from in vivo-matured cells compared to our endocrine pancreas-like cells (log2 FC = 5.5, p-value = 2.0 × 10(-12)), suggesting a role for the leptin pathway in the maturation process. Endocrine pancreas-like cells showed significant stage-selective expression of adult islet genes, including INS, ABCC8, and GLP1R, and enrichment of relevant GO-terms (e.g. "insulin secretion"; odds ratio = 4.2, p-value = 1.9 × 10(-3)): however, principal component analysis indicated that in vitro-differentiated cells were more immature than adult islets. Integration of the stage-specific expression information with genetic data from T2D genome-wide association studies revealed that 46 of 82 T2D-associated loci harbor genes present in at least one developmental stage, facilitating refinement of potential effector transcripts. Together, these data show that expression profiling in an iPSC islet development model can further understanding of islet biology and T2D pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Ilhotas Pancreáticas/citologia , Adulto , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/citologia , Expressão Gênica/genética , Loci Gênicos , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Pâncreas/anormalidades , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/citologia , RNA Mensageiro/análise , Receptores para Leptina/genética
14.
J Clin Transl Endocrinol ; 5: 53-54, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29067236
15.
Nat Genet ; 47(12): 1415-25, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26551672

RESUMO

We performed fine mapping of 39 established type 2 diabetes (T2D) loci in 27,206 cases and 57,574 controls of European ancestry. We identified 49 distinct association signals at these loci, including five mapping in or near KCNQ1. 'Credible sets' of the variants most likely to drive each distinct signal mapped predominantly to noncoding sequence, implying that association with T2D is mediated through gene regulation. Credible set variants were enriched for overlap with FOXA2 chromatin immunoprecipitation binding sites in human islet and liver cells, including at MTNR1B, where fine mapping implicated rs10830963 as driving T2D association. We confirmed that the T2D risk allele for this SNP increases FOXA2-bound enhancer activity in islet- and liver-derived cells. We observed allele-specific differences in NEUROD1 binding in islet-derived cells, consistent with evidence that the T2D risk allele increases islet MTNR1B expression. Our study demonstrates how integration of genetic and genomic information can define molecular mechanisms through which variants underlying association signals exert their effects on disease.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Cromossômico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Fator 3-beta Nuclear de Hepatócito/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Receptor MT2 de Melatonina/genética , Sítios de Ligação , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Imunoprecipitação da Cromatina , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genômica , Fator 3-beta Nuclear de Hepatócito/metabolismo , Humanos , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/patologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Receptor MT2 de Melatonina/metabolismo
16.
PLoS Genet ; 11(1): e1004876, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25625282

RESUMO

Genome wide association studies (GWAS) for fasting glucose (FG) and insulin (FI) have identified common variant signals which explain 4.8% and 1.2% of trait variance, respectively. It is hypothesized that low-frequency and rare variants could contribute substantially to unexplained genetic variance. To test this, we analyzed exome-array data from up to 33,231 non-diabetic individuals of European ancestry. We found exome-wide significant (P<5×10-7) evidence for two loci not previously highlighted by common variant GWAS: GLP1R (p.Ala316Thr, minor allele frequency (MAF)=1.5%) influencing FG levels, and URB2 (p.Glu594Val, MAF = 0.1%) influencing FI levels. Coding variant associations can highlight potential effector genes at (non-coding) GWAS signals. At the G6PC2/ABCB11 locus, we identified multiple coding variants in G6PC2 (p.Val219Leu, p.His177Tyr, and p.Tyr207Ser) influencing FG levels, conditionally independent of each other and the non-coding GWAS signal. In vitro assays demonstrate that these associated coding alleles result in reduced protein abundance via proteasomal degradation, establishing G6PC2 as an effector gene at this locus. Reconciliation of single-variant associations and functional effects was only possible when haplotype phase was considered. In contrast to earlier reports suggesting that, paradoxically, glucose-raising alleles at this locus are protective against type 2 diabetes (T2D), the p.Val219Leu G6PC2 variant displayed a modest but directionally consistent association with T2D risk. Coding variant associations for glycemic traits in GWAS signals highlight PCSK1, RREB1, and ZHX3 as likely effector transcripts. These coding variant association signals do not have a major impact on the trait variance explained, but they do provide valuable biological insights.


Assuntos
Glicemia/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Glucose-6-Fosfatase/genética , Insulina/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Exoma/genética , Frequência do Gene , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1 , Índice Glicêmico/genética , Humanos , Insulina/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptores de Glucagon/genética
17.
Nat Genet ; 46(4): 357-63, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24584071

RESUMO

Loss-of-function mutations protective against human disease provide in vivo validation of therapeutic targets, but none have yet been described for type 2 diabetes (T2D). Through sequencing or genotyping of ~150,000 individuals across 5 ancestry groups, we identified 12 rare protein-truncating variants in SLC30A8, which encodes an islet zinc transporter (ZnT8) and harbors a common variant (p.Trp325Arg) associated with T2D risk and glucose and proinsulin levels. Collectively, carriers of protein-truncating variants had 65% reduced T2D risk (P = 1.7 × 10(-6)), and non-diabetic Icelandic carriers of a frameshift variant (p.Lys34Serfs*50) demonstrated reduced glucose levels (-0.17 s.d., P = 4.6 × 10(-4)). The two most common protein-truncating variants (p.Arg138* and p.Lys34Serfs*50) individually associate with T2D protection and encode unstable ZnT8 proteins. Previous functional study of SLC30A8 suggested that reduced zinc transport increases T2D risk, and phenotypic heterogeneity was observed in mouse Slc30a8 knockouts. In contrast, loss-of-function mutations in humans provide strong evidence that SLC30A8 haploinsufficiency protects against T2D, suggesting ZnT8 inhibition as a therapeutic strategy in T2D prevention.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Glicemia/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Transporte de Íons/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Proinsulina/sangue , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Transportador 8 de Zinco
18.
Nat Genet ; 45(11): 1380-5, 2013 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24097065

RESUMO

Genome sequencing can identify individuals in the general population who harbor rare coding variants in genes for Mendelian disorders and who may consequently have increased disease risk. Previous studies of rare variants in phenotypically extreme individuals display ascertainment bias and may demonstrate inflated effect-size estimates. We sequenced seven genes for maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) in well-phenotyped population samples (n = 4,003). We filtered rare variants according to two prediction criteria for disease-causing mutations: reported previously in MODY or satisfying stringent de novo thresholds (rare, conserved and protein damaging). Approximately 1.5% and 0.5% of randomly selected individuals from the Framingham and Jackson Heart Studies, respectively, carry variants from these two classes. However, the vast majority of carriers remain euglycemic through middle age. Accurate estimates of variant effect sizes from population-based sequencing are needed to avoid falsely predicting a substantial fraction of individuals as being at risk for MODY or other Mendelian diseases.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Variação Genética , Adulto , Sequência de Bases , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Fator 1-alfa Nuclear de Hepatócito/genética , Fator 1-beta Nuclear de Hepatócito/genética , Fator 4 Nuclear de Hepatócito/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Risco , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Transativadores/genética , Adulto Jovem
19.
Diabetes Care ; 35(7): 1482-4, 2012 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22611063

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the importance of using a combined genetic and functional approach to correctly interpret a genetic test for monogenic diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We identified three probands with a phenotype consistent with maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) subtype GCK-MODY, in whom two potential pathogenic mutations were identified: [R43H/G68D], [E248 K/I225M], or [G261R/D217N]. Allele-specific PCR and cosegregation were used to determine phase. Single and double mutations were kinetically characterized. RESULTS: The mutations occurred in cis (double mutants) in two probands and in trans in one proband. Functional studies of all double mutants revealed inactivating kinetics. The previously reported GCK-MODY mutations R43H and G68D were inherited from an affected father and unaffected mother, respectively. Both our functional and genetic studies support R43H as the cause of GCK-MODY and G68D as a neutral rare variant. CONCLUSIONS: These data highlight the need for family/functional studies, even for previously reported pathogenic mutations.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Glucoquinase/genética , Feminino , Testes Genéticos , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Linhagem
20.
PLoS One ; 7(4): e34541, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22493702

RESUMO

Heterozygous glucokinase (GCK) mutations cause a subtype of maturity-onset diabetes of the young (GCK-MODY). Over 600 GCK mutations have been reported of which ∼65% are missense. In many cases co-segregation has not been established and despite the importance of functional studies in ascribing pathogenicity for missense variants these have only been performed for <10% of mutations. The aim of this study was to determine the minimum prevalence of GCK-MODY amongst diabetic subjects in Slovakia by sequencing GCK in 100 Slovakian probands with a phenotype consistent with GCK-MODY and to explore the pathogenicity of identified variants through family and functional studies. Twenty-two mutations were identified in 36 families (17 missense) of which 7 (I110N, V200A, N204D, G258R, F419S, c.580-2A>C, c.1113-1114delGC) were novel. Parental DNA was available for 22 probands (covering 14/22 mutations) and co-segregation established in all cases. Bioinformatic analysis predicted all missense mutations to be damaging. Nine (I110N, V200A, N204D, G223S, G258R, F419S, V244G, L315H, I436N) mutations were functionally evaluated. Basic kinetic analysis explained pathogenicity for 7 mutants which showed reduced glucokinase activity with relative activity indices (RAI) between 0.6 to <0.001 compared to wild-type GCK (1.0). For the remaining 2 mutants additional molecular mechanisms were investigated. Differences in glucokinase regulatory protein (GKRP) -mediated-inhibition of GCK were observed for both L315H & I436N when compared to wild type (IC(50) 14.6±0.1 mM & 20.3±1.6 mM vs.13.3±0.1 mM respectively [p<0.03]). Protein instability as assessed by thermal lability studies demonstrated that both L315H and I436N show marked thermal instability compared to wild-type GCK (RAI at 55°C 8.8±0.8% & 3.1±0.4% vs. 42.5±3.9% respectively [p<0.001]). The minimum prevalence of GCK-MODY amongst Slovakian patients with diabetes was 0.03%. In conclusion, we have identified 22 GCK mutations in 36 Slovakian probands and demonstrate that combining family, bioinformatic and functional studies can aid the interpretation of variants identified by molecular diagnostic screening.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Glucoquinase/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Estabilidade Enzimática , Feminino , Testes Genéticos , Genótipo , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Eslováquia
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