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1.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 126: 105167, 2021 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33592366

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Most of the observed associations of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), social anxiety disorder (SAD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) with cortisol concentrations came from clinical and adult study samples, with inconsistent findings, partly due to method variance. We examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between GAD, SAD and MDD with saliva and hair cortisol as well as hair cortisol change in a population-based sample of adolescents and young adults, considering relevant co-factors. DESIGN: Epidemiological cohort study in Dresden, Germany. Data of 1050 individuals (mean age: 17.2 years) assessed at baseline (11/2015-12/2016) and of 605 individuals assessed at 1-year follow-up (FU1) are used. METHODS: Multivariable regression models were implemented to assess cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of DSM-5 defined 12-month diagnoses of GAD, SAD, and MDD, with short-term (saliva cortisol: cortisol awakening response (CAR) and area under the curve (AUC) as total cortisol) and long-term (hair cortisol) cortisol indices. Multivariable models were adjusted for age or "tanner" stage, waist circumference, tobacco and alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and hair cortisol dependent confounder. Sex-specific analyses were additionally conducted. RESULTS: Cross-sectional analyses revealed positive associations between SAD and baseline saliva cortisol in multivariable models (CAR: ß-coefficient: 0.12; 95% CI: 0.01; 0.23) but could not be confirmed after adjusting for "tanner" stage or comorbid depression. Cross-sectional analyses concerning GAD and MDD in the full baseline sample yielded no significant associations. Sex-specific linear models revealed a significant inverse cross-sectional association between MDD (ß-coefficient: - 2.21; 95% CI: - 3.64; - 0.79) as well as SAD (ß-coefficient: - 2.21; 95% CI: - 4.03; - 0.38) with baseline hair cortisol in males, but not in females. In longitudinal analyses, no significant associations were found in the fully adjusted model, except for a positive association between hair cortisol change between baseline and FU1 and FU1-SAD (OR: 1.07; 95% CI: 1.02; 1.12). CONCLUSIONS: Results confirmed sex-specificity and the role of pubertal development in the association between cortisol with SAD and MDD, while no association emerged regarding cortisol and GAD. Future research in adolescents focusing on the role of cortisol in the pathogenesis of anxiety and depressive disorders would benefit from considering factors like sex-specificity and puberty development as well as comorbidity.

2.
Depress Anxiety ; 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33406283

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prior research indicated, based on retrospective assessments of symptomatology, that 25% of individuals with "remitted" anxiety disorders (AD) experience a relapse. The present study used ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to examine how ADs affect everyday life among community adolescents and young adults with current or remitted AD compared to healthy controls and to each other. METHODS: Data come from the baseline assessment of the epidemiological Behavior and Mind Health study, conducted in Dresden (Germany) from 11/2015-12/2016. The sub-sample analyzed (n = 648, age 14-21) consisted of 65 participants with current DSM-5 AD-diagnosis, 52 participants with lifetime AD-diagnosis but not within the last 6 months (remitted), and 531 healthy controls (no psychopathology; healthy controls [HC]). EMA of various constructs took place 8 times a day for 4 days. RESULTS: The highest levels of symptoms were reported by those with current AD, followed by remitted AD and HC. Regression analyses revealed significantly worse mood, self-efficacy, quality of life and sleep-quality and more experiential avoidance, stress, negative thoughts and pessimism in remitted and current AD compared to HC. Current AD additional differed significantly from HC in optimism and positive thoughts. Furthermore, individuals with remitted AD without comorbidities differed significantly from HC on five out of 16 constructs. CONCLUSION: Not only current but also remitted AD is associated with diverse negative experiences in everyday life, which cannot merely be explained by comorbidities. As the remaining burden and impairment in individuals with remitted AD might contribute to relapse, interventions might be targeted to improve mental health.

3.
J Trauma Stress ; 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33151596

RESUMO

The ICD-11 includes a new definition of adjustment disorder (AjD). The present study aimed to examine interrater reliability, internal consistency, and construct validity of a new diagnostic interview module to assess ICD-11 AjD. Data from two studies that used a standardized diagnostic interview assessment (i.e., DIA-X/M-CIDI and updated DIA-X-5) were used. For interrater reliability, agreement indicators (i.e., κ) were calculated using data from the DIA-X-5 test-retest study (N = 60). To examine internal consistency and construct validity, Cronbach's alpha values and the Kuder-Richardson correlation coefficient were computed along with confirmatory factor and latent class analyses (LCA), using data from the Zurich Adjustment Disorder Study (N = 330). Interrater reliability analyses found an adjusted kappa of 0.807 for the ICD-11 AjD diagnosis. Few items from the impairment criterion of the diagnostic algorithm performed poorly. The internal consistency was acceptable, Cronbach's αs = .43-.80; the lower-bound estimate resulted from the two-item preoccupation symptom pattern. However, both items were significantly associated, OR = 3.14, 95% CI [1.97, 4.99]. Regarding LCA results, a two-class model was favored. We found that 94.3% of all ICD-11 AjD cases belonged to Class 2, OR = 23.69, 95% CI [7.15, 79.54], which was associated with subjectively rated distress, OR = 2.18, 95% CI [1.57, 3.02], and the external measure of the Brief Symptom Inventory global severity index, OR = 2.18, 95% CI [1.57, 3.02]. Overall, the new AjD interview module provided a reliable, valid assessment of the ICD-11 diagnosis; confirmation by other studies is needed.

4.
Depress Anxiety ; 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058370

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous work on gene-environment (GxE) interplay concerning anxiety has focused on the interaction of 5-HTTLPR with childhood adversities or traumatic events whereas the impact of recent stressors is understudied, as is the integration of resilience. The current study aimed to investigate the interactive effect of 5-HTTLPR and recent stress on anxiety in adolescents considering resilience as buffer of a GxE risk constellation. METHOD: In a random population-based sample of 14-21 years old from Dresden, Germany, (N = 1180; genotyped = 942) recent stress (Daily Hassles [DH] Scale, Perceived Stress Scale, Screening Scale of the Trier Inventory for the Assessment of Chronic Stress), resilience (Connor-Davidson resilience scale) and anxiety (Patient Reported Outcome Measurement Information System Anxiety Short Form) were assessed via questionnaire in 2015 or 2016. RESULTS: Fractional regression models revealed that resilience interacted with recent stress in form of DH as well as recent chronic stress and 5-HTTLPR regarding anxiety. Participants carrying the more active LA LA genotype reported consistently higher levels of anxiety when experiencing more DH or more recent chronic stress and having low levels of resilience. When the resilience scores were high, LA LA carriers reported the lowest anxiety scores despite DH or recent chronic stress. CONCLUSION: Findings revealed an interactive relationship between 5-HTTLPR genotype and recent stress suggesting resilience to function as an additional dimension buffering the impact of a GxE risk constellation. Early interventions to build resilience may be useful to prevent an escalation of distress and associated unfavorable health outcomes.

5.
BMC Psychiatry ; 20(1): 364, 2020 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32646488

RESUMO

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

6.
BMC Psychiatry ; 20(1): 280, 2020 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32503463

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a need of comprehensive standardized diagnostic assessment tools of psychopathology that match recent changes in diagnostic classification systems, such as the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). Therefore, the computer-assisted DIA-X-5 was developed and its test-retest reliability was explored. The DIA-X-5 is based on the DIA-X/M-CIDI (Diagnostisches Expertensystem für psychische Störungen/Munich-Composite International Diagnostic Interview) which referred to the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). METHODS: A convenience sample (N = 60, age: 15-67) was interviewed twice with the computer-assisted DIA-X-5 interview, on average nine days apart, by trained and blinded interviewers. The DIA-X-5 is a standardized instrument for research purposes covering symptoms, syndromes and diagnoses from eleven classes of mental disorders according to the DSM-5 with matching F codes of the 10th edition of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). RESULTS: Kappa values ranged from 0.90 for post-traumatic stress disorder to 0.30 for social anxiety disorder. For age of onset and age of recency, test-retest reliability as measured by intra-class correlation was satisfying with values above 0.90 for most disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Test-retest reliability of the DIA-X-5 syndromes and diagnoses were comparable to those of previous DSM-IV/DIA-X diagnoses for most disorders. Due to low case numbers for some diagnoses, further research in larger samples is required.

7.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 2020 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32596977

RESUMO

The ENIGMA group on Generalized Anxiety Disorder (ENIGMA-Anxiety/GAD) is part of a broader effort to investigate anxiety disorders using imaging and genetic data across multiple sites worldwide. The group is actively conducting a mega-analysis of a large number of brain structural scans. In this process, the group was confronted with many methodological challenges related to study planning and implementation, between-country transfer of subject-level data, quality control of a considerable amount of imaging data, and choices related to statistical methods and efficient use of resources. This report summarizes the background information and rationale for the various methodological decisions, as well as the approach taken to implement them. The goal is to document the approach and help guide other research groups working with large brain imaging data sets as they develop their own analytic pipelines for mega-analyses.

8.
J Affect Disord ; 266: 722-730, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32217255

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Panic disorders during pregnancy and after delivery may have detrimental effects for mother and child, but no firm conclusions regarding the course and outcomes of peripartum panic disorders can be drawn from previous studies. METHODS: N = 306 women were repeatedly interviewed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview for Women. Social support and partnership quality, gestational outcomes, duration of breastfeeding, regulatory disorders, maternal bonding and parenting style were assessed via medical and maternal reports. Standardized observations of neuropsychological development, infant temperament and attachment were conducted 4 and 16 months after delivery. RESULTS: Women reported heterogenous courses of panic disorders, and panic disorders/panic attacks were commonly observed during the early stages of pregnancy. Women with peripartum panic disorders presented with a worse psychosocial situation (e.g., lower social support). Clear behavioral differences (temperament, attachment) in infants of women with panic disorders as compared to women with no anxiety and depressive disorder could not be detected in this study, but differences concerning gestational outcomes, duration of breastfeeding, maternal parenting, and bonding as well as regulatory problems in infants were identified. LIMITATIONS: This prospective-longitudinal multi-wave study is restricted by the relative small sizes of the particular groups that limit the power to detect group differences. CONCLUSIONS: Heterogenous courses and outcomes of perinatal panic disorders require intensive monitoring of affected mother-infant-dyads who may benefit from early targeted interventions to prevent an escalation of dyadic problems.

10.
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 29(2): 179-186, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31054127

RESUMO

Traumatic events (TEs) have been associated with suicide attempts (SAs). However, the empirical status of some TEs is inconclusive. This also concerns community adolescents and young adults, known to be a high-risk group for SAs. We examined associations between (a) a range of prior TEs (physical attack, rape/sexual abuse, serious accident, and witnessing somebody else experiencing a TE) and a subsequent SA, and (b) the number of prior TEs and an SA, and (c) we estimated attributable proportions of SAs, in relation to each TE. Over a 10-year period, the Early Developmental Stages of Psychopathology (EDSP) study prospectively assessed community members, aged 14-24 years at baseline. Starting with 3021 subjects, each individual was assessed up to four times. Assessment was based on the Munich-Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Temporal associations were estimated using the Cox model with time-dependent covariates. Attributable proportions were based on the results of the Cox models. All four TEs elevated the risk for a subsequent SA, adjusting for confounders. Highest risk was found for the combined TE rape/sexual abuse. Results showed that 56-90% of SAs could be attributed to TEs in the exposed group; on the population level, attributable proportions ranged between 6.9% and 23.5%. Different TEs have been shown to elevate the risk of an SA in a young community sample. Our results suggest that both health professionals and health policy decision-makers consider specific TEs and the number of prior TEs as risk factors for SAs.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância/estatística & dados numéricos , Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Affect Disord ; 265: 570-578, 2020 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31786028

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of machine learning (ML) algorithms to study suicidality has recently been recommended. Our aim was to explore whether ML approaches have the potential to improve the prediction of suicide attempt (SA) risk. Using the epidemiological multiwave prospective-longitudinal Early Developmental Stages of Psychopathology (EDSP) data set, we compared four algorithms-logistic regression, lasso, ridge, and random forest-in predicting a future SA in a community sample of adolescents and young adults. METHODS: The EDSP Study prospectively assessed, over the course of 10 years, adolescents and young adults aged 14-24 years at baseline. Of 3021 subjects, 2797 were eligible for prospective analyses because they participated in at least one of the three follow-up assessments. Sixteen baseline predictors, all selected a priori from the literature, were used to predict follow-up SAs. Model performance was assessed using repeated nested 10-fold cross-validation. As the main measure of predictive performance we used the area under the curve (AUC). RESULTS: The mean AUCs of the four predictive models, logistic regression, lasso, ridge, and random forest, were 0.828, 0.826, 0.829, and 0.824, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Based on our comparison, each algorithm performed equally well in distinguishing between a future SA case and a non-SA case in community adolescents and young adults. When choosing an algorithm, different considerations, however, such as ease of implementation, might in some instances lead to one algorithm being prioritized over another. Further research and replication studies are required in this regard.

12.
Int J Methods Psychiatr Res ; 29(1): e1804, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31808242

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The Behavior and Mind Health (BeMIND) study is a population-based cohort study of adolescents and young adults from Dresden, Germany. The aim is to investigate psychological and behavioral factors linked to a range of mental disorders and health behaviors and their interaction with social-environmental and genetic/biologic factors. METHODS: A random sample of 14-21 year olds was drawn from the population registry in 2015. The baseline investigation was completed 11/2015-12/2016 (N = 1,180). Assessments include standardized diagnostic interview, cognitive-affective tasks, questionnaires, biosamples, and ecologic momentary assessment in real life with combined actigraphic/geographic monitoring. In the family study component, parents completed similar assessments and provided information on child's early development. RESULTS: The participation rate (minimum response proportion) was 21.7%; the cooperation rate was 43.4%. Acceptance and completion of study components were high. General health data indicate that more than 80% reported no or only mild impairment due to mental or somatic health problems in the past year; about 20% ever sought treatment for mental health problems or chronic somatic illnesses, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Data from BeMIND baseline and follow-up investigations will provide novel insights into contributors to health and disease as adolescents grow into adulthood.


Assuntos
Sintomas Comportamentais/epidemiologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros , Projetos de Pesquisa , Actigrafia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/epidemiologia , Avaliação Momentânea Ecológica , Feminino , Mapeamento Geográfico , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Meio Social , Adulto Jovem
13.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(10): e1914386, 2019 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664450

RESUMO

Importance: Suicidal behavior is a leading cause of death among adolescents and young adults. In light of the ideation-to-action framework, the delineation of frequency and temporal characteristics of such behavior during this developmental period is crucial. Objectives: To provide lifetime and 12-month prevalence estimates of suicidal behavior, including ideation, plan, and attempt, in adolescents and young adults of the general population, and to provide information about age at onset, temporal characteristics of suicidal behavior, including duration (number of years between onset and last occurrence) and frequency (number of episodes), and transition patterns across suicidal behaviors. Design, Setting, and Participants: A cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted in a random community sample of 1180 adolescents and young adults aged 14 to 21 years assessed in 2015 to 2016 in Dresden, Germany. Data analysis was performed from October 2018 to March 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: Lifetime and 12-month suicidal behavior (ideation, plan, and attempt) were assessed with a standardized diagnostic interview (Munich-Composite International Diagnostic Interview) by trained clinical interviewers. The onset, frequency, and duration of suicidal behavior were assessed by questionnaire. Results: Of the 1180 participants (495 male [weighted percentage, 51.7%]; mean [SD] age, 17.9 [2.3] years), 130 participants (10.7%; 95% CI, 9.0%-12.8%), 65 participants (5.0%; 95% CI, 3.9%-6.5%), and 41 participants (3.4%; 95% CI, 2.4%-4.7%) reported lifetime suicidal ideation, plan, and attempt, respectively. Any lifetime suicidal behavior was reported by 138 participants (11.5%; 95% CI, 9.7%-13.7%). Age-specific cumulative incidence estimates indicated an increase in suicidal behavior during adolescence, starting at age 10 years (<1%), increasing slightly until the age of 12 years (2.2%), and then increasing sharply thereafter until age 20 years (13.5%). There were different patterns among female and male participants for ideation, plan, and attempt, with an overall higher incidence among female participants for ideation (hazard ratio, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.02-2.22; P = .04), for plan (hazard ratio, 3.31; 95% CI, 1.72-6.36; P < .001), and, among those older than 14 years, for attempt (hazard ratio, 3.07; 95% CI, 1.11-8.49; P = .03). Of those with suicidal ideation, 66.0% reported persistent or recurrent ideation over more than 1 year with 75.0% reporting more than 1 episode. Of the participants with lifetime suicidal ideation, 47.0% reported a suicide plan and 23.9% reported a suicide attempt. The transition to suicide plan or attempt occurred mainly in the year of onset of suicidal ideation or plan; of those who transitioned, 74.9% transitioned from ideation to plan, 71.2% transitioned from ideation to attempt, and 85.4% transitioned from plan to attempt in the same year. Conclusions and Relevance: There is an urgent public health need for timely identification of suicidal behavior in adolescents and young adults to terminate persistent or recurrent suicidal tendencies and to interrupt the ideation-to-action transition.


Assuntos
Ideação Suicida , Tentativa de Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Affect Disord ; 245: 905-911, 2019 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30699875

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Findings on associations of androgens and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) with anxiety and depressive disorders in the general population remain inconclusive. METHODS: We used data of n = 993 men and n = 980 women from the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP, a prospective-longitudinal general population study from northeastern Germany). Immunoassay-measured serum concentrations of total testosterone, androstenedione and SHBG were assessed when participants were aged 20-80. 12-month, lifetime and incident DSM-IV anxiety and depressive disorders were assessed with the DIA-X/M-CIDI at 10-year follow-up, when participants were aged 29-89. Logistic regressions were adjusted for age, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, waist circumference, hypertension and oral contraceptive use (women only) at baseline and follow-up interval. RESULTS: In men and women, androgens and SHBG were not associated significantly with incident anxiety and depressive disorders. In men, higher total testosterone predicted any 12-month (OR = 1.46) and lifetime (OR = 1.34) anxiety disorder, lifetime social phobia (OR = 2.15), and 12-month (OR = 1.48) and lifetime (OR = 1.39) specific phobia, but neither 12-month nor lifetime depression. Moreover, androstenedione in men interacted with age in predicting lifetime anxiety disorders (OR = 0.98): Higher androstenedione more strongly predicted lifetime anxiety in younger vs. older men. These findings, however, did not survive correction for multiple testing. In women, androgens and SHBG were not associated significantly with 12-month and lifetime anxiety and depressive disorders. LIMITATIONS: The follow-up period was relatively long and other factors might have affected the examined associations. CONCLUSIONS: Higher serum total testosterone in men and androstenedione in younger men may relate to an increased risk of anxiety disorders.


Assuntos
Androgênios/sangue , Transtornos de Ansiedade/sangue , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/sangue , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Globulina de Ligação a Hormônio Sexual/análise , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/sangue , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Androstenodiona/sangue , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fobia Social/sangue , Fobia Social/psicologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Caracteres Sexuais , Testosterona/sangue , Adulto Jovem
15.
Bipolar Disord ; 21(5): 437-448, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30475430

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Although clinical evidence suggests important differences between unipolar mania and bipolar-I disorder (BP-I), epidemiological data are limited. Combining data from nine population-based studies, we compared subjects with mania (M) or mania with mild depression (Md) to those with BP-I with both manic and depressive episodes with respect to demographic and clinical characteristics in order to highlight differences. METHODS: Participants were compared for gender, age, age at onset of mania, psychiatric comorbidity, temperament, and family history of mental disorders. Generalized linear mixed models with adjustment for sex and age as well as for each study source were applied. Analyses were performed for the pooled adult and adolescent samples, separately. RESULTS: Within the included cohorts, 109 adults and 195 adolescents were diagnosed with M/Md and 323 adults and 182 adolescents with BP-I. In both adult and adolescent samples, there was a male preponderance in M/Md, whereas lifetime generalized anxiety and/panic disorders and suicide attempts were less common in M/Md than in BP-I. Furthermore, adults with mania revealed bulimia/binge eating and drug use disorders less frequently than those with BP-I. CONCLUSIONS: The significant differences found in gender and comorbidity between mania and BP-I suggest that unipolar mania, despite its low prevalence, should be established as a separate diagnosis both for clinical and research purposes. In clinical settings, the rarer occurrence of suicide attempts, anxiety, and drug use disorders among individuals with unipolar mania may facilitate successful treatment of the disorder and lead to a more favorable course than that of BP-I disorder.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/epidemiologia , Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idade de Início , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Tentativa de Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Temperamento , Adulto Jovem
17.
Depress Anxiety ; 35(11): 1104-1113, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30107643

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It remains unresolved whether childhood adversities interact with genetic variation in regulator of G-protein signaling 2 (RGS2) rs4606 in predicting various anxiety and depressive disorders and whether diagnostic specificity exists in these interactions. METHODS: The genotype of RGS2 rs4606 was determined for N = 2,263 adults with European ancestry from the Study of Health in Pomerania. Lifetime anxiety and depressive disorders according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, were assessed with the Munich Composite International Diagnostic Interview (DIA-X/M-CIDI). Childhood adversities were assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ, when participants were aged 29-89). RESULTS: Logistic regressions adjusted for sex and age revealed that rs4606 interacted with total childhood adversity in predicting each diagnostic outcome except for panic disorder and generalized anxiety disorder, uncorrected and corrected for multiple testing (odds ratio [OR] = 1.06-1.16). That is, carriers of the GG (vs. CC/CG) genotype were at decreased risk for anxiety and/or depression in the presence of low, but at increased risk in the presence of high total childhood adversity. Respective gene-environment (G × E) interactions were found for (a) comorbid anxiety and depressive disorders (OR = 1.13), but neither pure anxiety nor pure depressive disorders and (b) pure/temporally primary anxiety disorders (OR = 1.07), but not pure/temporally primary depressive disorders. The G × E interaction remained associated with depressive disorders after introducing pure/temporally primary anxiety disorders as additional predictor (OR = 1.09). CONCLUSIONS: rs4606 alters the risk of developing a range of anxiety but also depressive disorders after childhood adversities. A complex risk pattern of genotype, environmental factors, and preexisting anxiety contributes to subsequent depression development.


Assuntos
Adultos Sobreviventes de Eventos Adversos na Infância , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Transtorno Depressivo , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Proteínas RGS/genética , Adulto , Adultos Sobreviventes de Eventos Adversos na Infância/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/etiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/genética , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/etiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/genética , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
18.
Int J Methods Psychiatr Res ; 27(2): e1613, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29611872

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The Dresden Burnout Study (DBS) is a 12-year longitudinal cohort study that aims to provide a description of the burnout syndrome on the basis of time and symptom criteria with a special focus on the search for biomarkers. Biological and psychosocial approaches are applied to examine the long-term course and consequences of burnout within a population-based German-speaking sample aged 18 to 68 years. METHODS: Demographics and psychosocial data are generated by online assessments, including demographics and questionnaires on burnout, burnout-related constructs, work-environment, and health-related factors. The lab-based biomarker assessment includes endocrine, physiological, immunological, and epigenetic markers obtained from blood and hair samples. In addition, heart rate variability is also measured repeatedly. Within the first 2 years, the DBS collected psychosocial data from over 7,600 participants with biological data obtained from more than 800 individuals. During the following 10 years, detailed assessments of biomarkers and psychosocial factors will be collected in annual study waves. RESULTS: Results will be generated during the following decade. CONCLUSION: The findings of the DBS are expected to pave the road for an in-depth biopsychosocial characterization of burnout and to give insight into the long-term course and potential mental and physical health consequences of the burnout syndrome.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Esgotamento Psicológico/diagnóstico , Protocolos Clínicos , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Autorrelato , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Esgotamento Psicológico/metabolismo , Esgotamento Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
19.
Depress Anxiety ; 35(4): 339-345, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29489041

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Comorbidity of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) with other mental disorders has been demonstrated repeatedly. Few longitudinal studies, however, have evaluated the temporal association of prior OCD and subsequent mental disorders across the age period of highest risk for first onset of mental disorders. We examined associations between prior OCD and a broad range of subsequent mental disorders and simulated proportions of new onsets of mental disorders that could potentially be attributed to prior OCD, assuming a causal relationship. METHODS: Data from 3,021 14- to 24-year-old community subjects were prospectively collected for up to 10 years. DSM-IV OCD and other DSM-IV mental disorders were assessed with the Munich-Composite International Diagnostic Interview. We used adjusted time-dependent proportional hazard models to estimate the temporal associations of prior OCD with subsequent mental disorders. RESULTS: Prior OCD was associated with an increased risk of bipolar disorders (BIP; [hazard ratio, HR = 6.9, 95% confidence interval, CI, (2.8,17.3)], bulimia nervosa [HR = 6.8 (1.3,36.6)], dysthymia [HR = 4.4 (2.1,9.0)], generalized anxiety disorder (GAD; [HR = 3.4 (1.1,10.9)], and social phobia [HR = 2.9 (1.1,7.7)]). Of these outcome disorders, between 65 and 85% could be attributed to OCD in the exposed group, whereas between 1.5 and 7.7% could be attributed to OCD in the total sample. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides strong evidence that prior OCD is associated with an increased risk of subsequent onset of BIP, bulimia nervosa, dysthymia, GAD, and social phobia among adolescents and young adults. Future studies should evaluate if early treatment of OCD can prevent the onset of these subsequent mental disorders.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtorno Bipolar/epidemiologia , Bulimia Nervosa/epidemiologia , Transtorno Distímico/epidemiologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
20.
Dtsch Arztebl Int ; 115(8): 134, 2018 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29526190
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