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J Forensic Nurs ; 15(4): 199-205, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31764523


Initial conceptualizations of violence and trauma in forensic nursing have remained relatively narrowly defined since the specialty's inception. The advent of trauma-informed care has been important but has limitations that obfuscate social and structural determinants of health, equity, and social justice. As forensic nursing practice becomes more complex, narrow definitions of violence and trauma limit the effectiveness of trauma-informed care in its current incarnation. In keeping with the nursing model of holistic care, we need ways to teach, practice, and conduct research that can accommodate these increasing levels of complexity, including expanding our conceptualizations of violence and trauma to advance health equity and social justice. The objective of this article is to introduce the concepts of structural violence and trauma- and violence-informed care as equity-oriented critical paradigms to embrace the increasing complexity and health inequities facing forensic nursing practice.

Enfermagem Forense , Equidade em Saúde , Trauma Psicológico/enfermagem , Justiça Social , Vítimas de Crime , Currículo , Educação em Enfermagem , Política de Saúde , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Pesquisa em Enfermagem
Glob Adv Health Med ; 8: 2164956119858034, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31223518


Background: Migraine is a disabling neurological disorder and the sixth biggest cause of disability worldwide. The World Health Organization has declared migraine a major public health problem due to a paucity of knowledge about cause and effective treatment options. Both in incidence and severity, migraine disproportionately affects people occupying marginalized social locations (SL). Managed pharmacologically, migraine is treated with daily preventive and as-needed abortive medications. Both come with high literal and figurative costs: intolerable side effects, medication interactions, and prohibitive prices. Cost prohibitive, ineffective, and unsustainable pharmacological treatment options have contributed to high levels of interest in complementary approaches by people with migraine, but little is known about their motivations, patterns of use or access, or how these may vary by SL. Method: We conducted focus groups with 30 people with migraine to explore their desires and recommendations for migraine clinicians and researchers. We used qualitative content analysis to identify themes.Outcomes: We identified 4 themes: a more holistic, collaborative, long-term treatment approach; medication as a short-term solution; high personal and economic costs of medication; and desire for more information and access to natural approaches. Across SL, participants expressed keen interest in integrative approaches and wanted better access to complementary modalities. Participants in marginalized SL described reliance on traditional/folk remedies, including engagement with family and community healers, who they described as more affordable and culturally accessible. Conclusions: Holistic and integrative approaches were preferred over medication as long-term migraine management strategies. However, people in marginalized SL, while disproportionately disabled by migraine, did not feel as comfortable accessing integrative approaches through currently available channels. Engaging with these communities and using a critical lens to explore barriers to access can develop options to make complementary modalities more approachable, while also attending to systemic blind spots that may unintentionally alienate socially marginalized groups.

Curr Pain Headache Rep ; 22(12): 79, 2018 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30291549


PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite recognition of rising prevalence and significant burden, migraine remains underestimated, underdiagnosed, and undertreated. This is especially true among groups who have been historically, socially, and economically marginalized such as communities of color, women, people experiencing poverty, people with lower levels of education, and people who hold more than one of these marginalized identities. While there is growing public and professional interest in disparities in migraine prevalence, there is a paucity of research focusing on racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities, and the social and structural determinants of health and equity that perpetuate these disparities. From a health equity perspective, migraine research and treatment require an examination not only of biological and behavioral factors, but of these identities and underlying, intersecting social and structural determinants of health. RECENT FINDINGS: Significant disparities in migraine incidence, prevalence, migraine-related pain and disability, access to care, and quality of care persist among marginalized and underserved groups: African Americans, Hispanics, people experiencing poverty, un- or under-employment, the un- and under-insured, people who have been exposed to stressful and traumatic events across the lifespan, and people experiencing multiple, overlapping marginalized identities. These same groups are largely underrepresented in migraine research, despite bearing disproportionate burden. Current approaches to understanding health disparities in migraine largely assume an essentializing approach, i.e., documenting differences between single identity groups-e.g., race or income or education level-rather than considering the mechanisms of disparities: the social and structural determinants of health. While disparities in migraine are becoming more widely acknowledged, we assert that migraine is more aptly understood as a health equity issue, that is, a condition in which many of the health disparities are avoidable. It is important in research and clinical practice to consider perspectives that incorporate a cultural understanding of racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic identity within and across all levels of society. Incorporating perspectives of intersectionality provides a strong foundation for understanding the role of these complex combination of factors on migraine pain and treatment. We urge the adoption of intersectional and systems perspectives in research, clinical practice, and policy to examine (1) interplay of race, gender, and social location as key factors in understanding, diagnosing, and treating migraine, and (2) the complex configurations of social and structural determinants of health that interact to produce health inequities in migraine care. An intentional research and clinical focus on these factors stands to improve how migraine is identified, documented, and treated among marginalized populations.

Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/terapia , Humanos , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/epidemiologia , Grupos Minoritários , Pobreza , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
Nurs Res ; 67(5): 395-403, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30059353


BACKGROUND: A dearth of effective and affordable treatment options has rendered nonpharmacological self-management a crucial part of living with migraine-a debilitating neurobiological condition without cure that disproportionately disables vulnerable women. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to describe the development and use of a systems thinking, problem-structuring data collection approach that was applied to the study of migraine self-management with women in diverse social locations. METHODS: Two systems mapping activities were developed for use in focus groups: one to unpack a migraine episode (system support map) and the other (connection circle [CC]) to construct a mental model of self-management. Later in the process, a strengths-based problem-solving tool was developed to replace the CC. RESULTS: The CCs-often enlightening for affluent participants-left marginalized women feeling overwhelmed and defeated, as a solution to one challenge became the cause of another. Through constant comparison analysis, we recalibrated the approach using a theory, clinical experience, and participant feedback and replaced the CC with a strengths-based problem-solving activity highlighting relationships and trade-offs in a more agential, actionable way. DISCUSSION: Bringing a critical lens and strengths-based approaches to work with vulnerable populations can replace traditional deficit thinking in healthcare, developing options for leveraging resources and understanding complex health behaviors without losing sight of systemic, distributional justice issues. These systems thinking tools can provide a way to extrapolate the complexities of actual self-management behaviors and challenges faced by vulnerable women with migraine versus what they may be instructed to do by a medical model that does not always account for the social and structural determinants of equity and health.

Transtornos de Enxaqueca/terapia , Autogestão , Apoio Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/psicologia , Resolução de Problemas , Análise de Sistemas , Adulto Jovem