Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 156
Filtrar
1.
N Engl J Med ; 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597037

RESUMO

Genome sequencing is often pivotal in the diagnosis of rare diseases, but many of these conditions lack specific treatments. We describe how molecular diagnosis of a rare, fatal neurodegenerative condition led to the rational design, testing, and manufacture of milasen, a splice-modulating antisense oligonucleotide drug tailored to a particular patient. Proof-of-concept experiments in cell lines from the patient served as the basis for launching an "N-of-1" study of milasen within 1 year after first contact with the patient. There were no serious adverse events, and treatment was associated with objective reduction in seizures (determined by electroencephalography and parental reporting). This study offers a possible template for the rapid development of patient-customized treatments. (Funded by Mila's Miracle Foundation and others.).

2.
Genet Med ; 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481752

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Clinicians and researchers must contextualize a patient's genetic variants against population-based references with detailed phenotyping. We sought to establish globally scalable technology, policy, and procedures for sharing biosamples and associated genomic and phenotypic data on broadly consented cohorts, across sites of care. METHODS: Three of the nation's leading children's hospitals launched the Genomic Research and Innovation Network (GRIN), with federated information technology infrastructure, harmonized biobanking protocols, and material transfer agreements. Pilot studies in epilepsy and short stature were completed to design and test the collaboration model. RESULTS: Harmonized, broadly consented institutional review board (IRB) protocols were approved and used for biobank enrollment, creating ever-expanding, compatible biobanks. An open source federated query infrastructure was established over genotype-phenotype databases at the three hospitals. Investigators securely access the GRIN platform for prep to research queries, receiving aggregate counts of patients with particular phenotypes or genotypes in each biobank. With proper approvals, de-identified data is exported to a shared analytic workspace. Investigators at all sites enthusiastically collaborated on the pilot studies, resulting in multiple publications. Investigators have also begun to successfully utilize the infrastructure for grant applications. CONCLUSIONS: The GRIN collaboration establishes the technology, policy, and procedures for a scalable genomic research network.

3.
Arch Dis Child ; 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484632

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Individuals with X-linked myotubular myopathy (XLMTM) who survive infancy require extensive supportive care, including ventilator assistance, wheelchairs and feeding tubes. Half die before 18 months of age. We explored respiratory support and associated mortality risk in RECENSUS, particularly among patients ≤5 years old who received respiratory support at birth; this subgroup closely matches patients in the ASPIRO trial of gene therapy for XLMTM. DESIGN: RECENSUS is an international, retrospective study of patients with XLMTM. Descriptive and time-to-event analyses examined survival on the basis of age, respiratory support, tracheostomy use, predicted mutational effects and life-sustaining care. RESULTS: Outcomes for 145 patients were evaluated. Among 126 patients with respiratory support at birth, mortality was 47% overall and 59% among those ≤5 years old. Median survival time was shorter for patients ≤5 years old than for those >5 years old (2.2 years (IQR 0.7-5.6) vs 30.2 years (IQR 19.4-30.2)). The most common cause of death was respiratory failure (66.7%). Median survival time was longer for patients with a tracheostomy than for those without (22.8 years (IQR 8.7-30.2) vs 1.8 years (IQR 0.2-not estimable)). The proportion of patients living without a tracheostomy was 50% at age 6 months and 28% at age 2 years. Median survival time was longer with provision of life-sustaining care than without (19.4 years (IQR 3.1-not estimable) vs 0.2 years (IQR 0.1-2.1)). CONCLUSIONS: High mortality, principally due to respiratory failure, among patients with XLMTM ≤5 years old despite respiratory support underscores the need for early diagnosis, informed decision-making and disease-modifying therapies. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02231697.

4.
J Neuromuscul Dis ; 6(3): 271-287, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282429

RESUMO

The recent availability and development of mutant and transgenic zebrafish strains that model human muscular dystrophies has created new research opportunities for therapeutic development. Not only do these models mimic many pathological aspects of human dystrophies, but their small size, large clutch sizes, rapid ex utero development, body transparency, and genetic tractability enable research approaches that would be inconceivable with mammalian model systems. Here we discuss the use of zebrafish models of muscular dystrophy to rapidly screen hundreds to thousands of bioactive compounds in order to identify novel therapeutic candidates that modulate pathologic phenotypes. We review the justification and rationale behind this unbiased approach, including how zebrafish screens have identified FDA-approved drugs that are candidates for treating Duchenne and limb girdle muscular dystrophies. Not only can these drugs be re-purposed for treating dystrophies in a fraction of the time and cost of new drug development, but their identification has revealed novel, unexpected directions for future therapy development. Phenotype-driven zebrafish drug screens are an important compliment to the more established mammalian, target-based approaches for rapidly developing and validating therapeutics for muscular dystrophies.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127036

RESUMO

Next-generation sequencing has led to transformative advances in our ability to diagnose rare diseases by simultaneously sequencing dozens, hundreds, or even entire genomes worth of genes to efficiently identify pathogenic mutations. These studies amount to multiple hypothesis testing on a massive scale and not infrequently lead to discovery of multiple genetic variants whose relative contributions to a patient's disease are unclear. Panel testing, in particular, can be problematic because each of the many genes being sequenced might represent a plausible explanation for a given case. We performed targeted gene panel analysis of 43 established neuromuscular disease genes in a patient with congenital fiber-type disproportion (CFTD) and fatal infantile cardiomyopathy. Initial review of variants identified changes in four genes that could be considered relevant candidates to cause this child's disease. Further analysis revealed that two of these are likely benign, but a homozygous frameshift variant in the myosin light chain 2 gene, MYL2, and a heterozygous nonsense mutation in the nebulin gene, NEB, met criteria to be classified as likely pathogenic or pathogenic. Recessive MYL2 mutations are a rare cause of CFTD associated with both skeletal and cardiomyopathy, whereas recessive NEB mutations cause nemaline myopathy. Although the proband's phenotype is likely largely explained by the MYL2 variant, the heterozygous pathogenic NEB variant cannot be ruled out as a contributing factor. This case illustrates the complexity when analyzing large numbers of variants from targeted gene panels in which each of the genes might plausibly contribute to the patient's clinical presentation.

6.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(9): 1398-1405, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30979967

RESUMO

Clinical exome sequencing (CES) is increasingly being utilized; however, a large proportion of patients remain undiagnosed, creating a need for a systematic approach to increase the diagnostic yield. We have reanalyzed CES data for a clinically heterogeneous cohort of 102 probands with likely Mendelian conditions, including 74 negative cases and 28 cases with candidate variants, but reanalysis requested by clinicians. Reanalysis was performed by an interdisciplinary team using a validated custom-built pipeline, "Variant Explorer Pipeline" (VExP). This reanalysis approach and results were compared with existing literature. Reanalysis of candidate variants from CES in 28 cases revealed 1 interpretation that needed to be reclassified. A confirmed or potential genetic diagnosis was identified in 24 of 75 CES-negative/reclassified cases (32.0%), including variants in known disease-causing genes (n = 6) or candidate genes (n = 18). This yield was higher compared with similar studies demonstrating the utility of this approach. In summary, reanalysis of negative CES in a research setting enhances diagnostic yield by about a third. This study suggests the need for comprehensive, continued reanalysis of exome data when molecular diagnosis is elusive.

7.
Dev Cell ; 49(1): 10-29, 2019 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30930166

RESUMO

Single-cell gene expression analyses of mammalian tissues have uncovered profound stage-specific molecular regulatory phenomena that have changed the understanding of unique cell types and signaling pathways critical for lineage determination, morphogenesis, and growth. We discuss here the case for a Pediatric Cell Atlas as part of the Human Cell Atlas consortium to provide single-cell profiles and spatial characterization of gene expression across human tissues and organs. Such data will complement adult and developmentally focused HCA projects to provide a rich cytogenomic framework for understanding not only pediatric health and disease but also environmental and genetic impacts across the human lifespan.

8.
Hum Mutat ; 40(7): 962-974, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30932294

RESUMO

Congenital myopathies are early onset, slowly progressive neuromuscular disorders of variable severity. They are genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous and caused by pathogenic variants in several genes. Multi-minicore Disease, one of the more common congenital myopathies, is frequently caused by recessive variants in either SELENON, encoding the endoplasmic reticulum glycoprotein selenoprotein N or RYR1, encoding a protein involved in calcium homeostasis and excitation-contraction coupling. The mechanism by which recessive SELENON variants cause Multiminicore disease (MmD) is unclear. Here, we extensively investigated muscle physiological, biochemical and epigenetic modifications, including DNA methylation, histone modification, and noncoding RNA expression, to understand the pathomechanism of MmD. We identified biochemical changes that are common in patients harboring recessive RYR1 and SELENON variants, including depletion of transcripts encoding proteins involved in skeletal muscle calcium homeostasis, increased levels of Class II histone deacetylases (HDACs) and DNA methyltransferases. CpG methylation analysis of genomic DNA of patients with RYR1 and SELENON variants identified >3,500 common aberrantly methylated genes, many of which are involved in calcium signaling. These results provide the proof of concept for the potential use of drugs targeting HDACs and DNA methyltransferases to treat patients with specific forms of congenital myopathies.

10.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(1): 76-93, 2019 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30609409

RESUMO

Genomic sequencing provides many opportunities in newborn clinical care, but the challenges of interpreting and reporting newborn genomic sequencing (nGS) results need to be addressed for its broader and effective application. The BabySeq Project is a pilot randomized clinical trial that explores the medical, behavioral, and economic impacts of nGS in well newborns and those admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Here we present childhood-onset and actionable adult-onset disease risk, carrier status, and pharmacogenomics findings from nGS of 159 newborns in the BabySeq Project. nGS revealed a risk of childhood-onset disease in 15/159 (9.4%) newborns; none of the disease risks were anticipated based on the infants' known clinical or family histories. nGS also revealed actionable adult-onset disease risk in 3/85 (3.5%) newborns whose parents consented to receive this information. Carrier status for recessive diseases and pharmacogenomics variants were reported in 88% and 5% of newborns, respectively. Additional indication-based analyses were performed in 29/32 (91%) NICU newborns and 6/127 (5%) healthy newborns who later had presentations that prompted a diagnostic analysis. No variants that sufficiently explained the reason for the indications were identified; however, suspicious but uncertain results were reported in five newborns. Testing parental samples contributed to the interpretation and reporting of results in 13/159 (8%) newborns. Our results suggest that nGS can effectively detect risk and carrier status for a wide range of disorders that are not detectable by current newborn screening assays or predicted based on the infant's known clinical or family history, and the interpretation of results can substantially benefit from parental testing.

11.
Pediatrics ; 143(Suppl 1): S6-S13, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30600265

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There is interest in applying genomic sequencing (GS) to newborns' clinical care. Here we explore parents' and clinicians' attitudes toward and perceptions of the risks, benefits, and utility of newborn GS compared with newborn screening (NBS) prior to receiving study results. METHODS: The BabySeq Project is a randomized controlled trial used to explore the impact of integrating GS into the clinical care of newborns. Parents (n = 493) of enrolled infants (n = 309) and clinicians (n = 144) completed a baseline survey at enrollment. We examined between-group differences in perceived utility and attitudes toward NBS and GS. Open-ended responses about risks and benefits of each technology were categorized by theme. RESULTS: The majority of parents (71%) and clinicians (51%) agreed that there are health benefits of GS, although parents and clinicians agreed more that there are risks associated with GS (35%, 70%) than with NBS (19%, 39%; all P < .05). Parents perceived more benefit and less risk of GS than did clinicians. Clinicians endorsed concerns about privacy and discrimination related to genomic information more strongly than did parents, and parents anticipated benefits of GS that clinicians did not. CONCLUSIONS: Parents and clinicians are less confident in GS than NBS, but parents perceive a more favorable risk/benefit ratio of GS than do clinicians. Clinicians should be aware that parents' optimism may stem from their perceived benefits beyond clinical utility.

12.
Pediatrics ; 143(Suppl 1): S27-S32, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30600268

RESUMO

The authors of current professional guidelines generally do not support the return of information about genetic carrier status for infants and children because of a perceived lack of immediate benefit and an abundance of caution regarding potential harm and desire to protect the children's future autonomy. The advent of genomic sequencing, used either as a diagnostic or a screening tool, and the increasing use of this technology in childhood creates the potential for the identification of carrier status in the pediatric period. As part of the BabySeq Project, researchers are exploring the implications of genomic sequencing in both newborns who are healthy and newborns who are sick and developing policies and procedures for the return of carrier status information to the parents and physicians of newborns. In this commentary, we review the history of carrier testing in children and explore the potential benefits, risks, and challenges of returning such results both for the children, their parents, and potential future siblings.

13.
Pediatrics ; 143(Suppl 1): S37-S43, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30600270

RESUMO

The return of information from genomic sequencing in children, especially in early life, brings up complex issues around parental autonomy, the child's future autonomy, the best interest standard, and the best interests of the family. These issues are particularly important in considering the return of genomic results for adult-onset-only conditions in children. The BabySeq Project is a randomized trial used to explore the medical, behavioral, and economic impacts of integrating genomic sequencing into the care of newborns who are healthy or sick. We discuss a case in which a variant in a gene for an actionable, adult-onset-only condition was detected, highlighting the ethical issues surrounding the return of such finding in a newborn to the newborn's parents.

14.
Genet Med ; 2018 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30514889

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Diagnosing monogenic diseases facilitates optimal care, but can involve the manual evaluation of hundreds of genetic variants per case. Computational tools like Phrank expedite this process by ranking all candidate genes by their ability to explain the patient's phenotypes. To use these tools, busy clinicians must manually encode patient phenotypes from lengthy clinical notes. With 100 million human genomes estimated to be sequenced by 2025, a fast alternative to manual phenotype extraction from clinical notes will become necessary. METHODS: We introduce ClinPhen, a fast, high-accuracy tool that automatically converts clinical notes into a prioritized list of patient phenotypes using Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) terms. RESULTS: ClinPhen shows superior accuracy and 20× speedup over existing phenotype extractors, and its novel phenotype prioritization scheme improves the performance of gene-ranking tools. CONCLUSION: While a dedicated clinician can process 200 patient records in a 40-hour workweek, ClinPhen does the same in 10 minutes. Compared with manual phenotype extraction, ClinPhen saves an additional 3-5 hours per Mendelian disease diagnosis. Providers can now add ClinPhen's output to each summary note attached to a filled testing laboratory request form. ClinPhen makes a substantial contribution to improvements in efficiency critically needed to meet the surging demand for clinical diagnostic sequencing.

15.
Am J Hum Genet ; 2018 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30503522

RESUMO

Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) is a rare bone marrow failure disorder that affects 7 out of 1,000,000 live births and has been associated with mutations in components of the ribosome. In order to characterize the genetic landscape of this heterogeneous disorder, we recruited a cohort of 472 individuals with a clinical diagnosis of DBA and performed whole-exome sequencing (WES). We identified relevant rare and predicted damaging mutations for 78% of individuals. The majority of mutations were singletons, absent from population databases, predicted to cause loss of function, and located in 1 of 19 previously reported ribosomal protein (RP)-encoding genes. Using exon coverage estimates, we identified and validated 31 deletions in RP genes. We also observed an enrichment for extended splice site mutations and validated their diverse effects using RNA sequencing in cell lines obtained from individuals with DBA. Leveraging the size of our cohort, we observed robust genotype-phenotype associations with congenital abnormalities and treatment outcomes. We further identified rare mutations in seven previously unreported RP genes that may cause DBA, as well as several distinct disorders that appear to phenocopy DBA, including nine individuals with biallelic CECR1 mutations that result in deficiency of ADA2. However, no new genes were identified at exome-wide significance, suggesting that there are no unidentified genes containing mutations readily identified by WES that explain >5% of DBA-affected case subjects. Overall, this report should inform not only clinical practice for DBA-affected individuals, but also the design and analysis of rare variant studies for heterogeneous Mendelian disorders.

16.
BMC Med Genet ; 19(1): 197, 2018 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30424743

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: TRRAP encodes a multidomain protein kinase that works as a genetic cofactor to influence DNA methylation patterns, DNA damage repair, and chromatin remodeling. TRRAP protein is vital to early neural developmental processes, and variants in this gene have been associated with schizophrenia and childhood disintegrative disorder. CASE PRESENTATION: Here, we report on a patient with a de novo nonsynonymous TRRAP single-nucleotide variant (EST00000355540.3:c.5957G > A, p.Arg1986Gln) and early onset major depression accompanied by a psychotic episode (before age 10) that occurred in the context of longer standing nonverbal learning disability and a past history of obsessions and compulsions. CONCLUSIONS: The de novo variant and presentation of very early onset psychosis indicate a rare Mendelian disorder inheritance model. The genotype and behavioral abnormalities of this patient are reviewed.

17.
Genet Med ; 2018 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30209271

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Newborn genomic sequencing (nGS) has great potential to improve pediatric care. Parental interest and concerns about genomics are relatively unexplored. Understanding why parents decline research consent for nGS may reveal implementation barriers. METHODS: We evaluated parental interest in a randomized trial of nGS in well-baby and intensive care unit nursery settings. Interested families attended an informational enrollment session (ES) with a genetic counselor prior to consenting. Reason(s) for declining participation and sociodemographic associations were analyzed. RESULTS: Of 3860 eligible approached families, 10% attended ES, 67% of whom enrolled. Of 1760 families queried for decline reasons, 58% were uninterested in research. Among 499 families considering research, principal reasons for decline prior to ES included burdensome study logistics (48%), feeling overwhelmed postpartum (17%), and lack of interest/discomfort with genetic testing (17%). Decliners after ES more often cited concerns about privacy/insurability (41%) and uncertain/unfavorable results (23%). CONCLUSION: Low interest in research and study logistics were major initial barriers to postpartum enrollment and are likely generic to many postpartum research efforts. Concerns over privacy and result implications were most commonly cited in decliners after ES. Understanding parental concerns around research nGS may inform future integration of nGS into newborn screening, predictive testing, and pediatric diagnostics.

18.
BMC Pediatr ; 18(1): 225, 2018 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29986673

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The greatest opportunity for lifelong impact of genomic sequencing is during the newborn period. The "BabySeq Project" is a randomized trial that explores the medical, behavioral, and economic impacts of integrating genomic sequencing into the care of healthy and sick newborns. METHODS: Families of newborns are enrolled from Boston Children's Hospital and Brigham and Women's Hospital nurseries, and half are randomized to receive genomic sequencing and a report that includes monogenic disease variants, recessive carrier variants for childhood onset or actionable disorders, and pharmacogenomic variants. All families participate in a disclosure session, which includes the return of results for those in the sequencing arm. Outcomes are collected through review of medical records and surveys of parents and health care providers and include the rationale for choice of genes and variants to report; what genomic data adds to the medical management of sick and healthy babies; and the medical, behavioral, and economic impacts of integrating genomic sequencing into the care of healthy and sick newborns. DISCUSSION: The BabySeq Project will provide empirical data about the risks, benefits and costs of newborn genomic sequencing and will inform policy decisions related to universal genomic screening of newborns. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study is registered in ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02422511 . Registration date: 10 April 2015.

19.
Eur J Med Genet ; 2018 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29960046

RESUMO

Genomic sequencing has allowed for the characterization of new gene-to-disease relationships, as well as the identification of variants in established disease genes in patients who do not fit the classically-described phenotype. This is especially true in rare syndromes where the clinical spectrum is not fully known. After a lengthy and costly diagnostic odyssey, patients with atypical presentations may be left with many questions even after a genetic diagnosis is identified. We present a 22-year old male with hypotonia, developmental delay, seizure disorder, and dysmorphic facial features who enrolled in our rare disease research center at 18 years of age, where exome sequencing revealed a novel, likely pathogenic variant in the OPHN1 gene. Through efforts by the study team and collaborations with the larger genetics community, contacts with other families with OPHN1 variants were eventually made, and outreach by these families expanded the patient network. This partnership between families and researchers facilitated the gathering of phenotypic information, allowing for comparison of clinical presentations among three new patients and those previously reported in the literature. These comparisons found previously unreported commonalities between the newly identified patients, such as the presence of otitis media and the lack of genitourinary abnormalities (i.e. hypoplastic scrotum, microphallus, cryptorchidism), which had been noted to be classic features of patients with OPHN1 variants. As genomic sequencing becomes more common, connecting patients with novel variants in the same gene will facilitate phenotypic analysis and continue to refine the clinical spectrum associated with that gene.

20.
PLoS One ; 13(6): e0199712, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29944715

RESUMO

Zebrafish are a preferred vertebrate model for delineating genotype-phenotype relationships. One of the most studied features of zebrafish is their exceptional swimming ability. By 7 days postfertilization (dpf), zebrafish spend over two-thirds of their time engaged in spontaneous swimming activity and several months later they are capable of attaining some of the fastest swimming velocities relative to body length ever recorded in the laboratory. However, laboratory-assembled flumes capable of achieving the slow flow velocities characteristics of larvae as well as the relatively fast maximal velocities of adults have not been described in sufficient detail to allow easy replication. Here we describe an easily assembled, open-source zebrafish-scaled flume for assessing swimming performance. The flume uses two independent spherical-impeller pumps modulated by a microcontroller to achieve flow velocities ranging from 1 to 70 cm s-1. The microcontroller also monitors water temperature and flow velocity and sends these data to a personal computer for real-time display and storage. Incremental protocols for assessing maximal swimming speed (Umax) were developed, stored in custom software, and then uploaded to the microcontroller in order to assess performance of larval (14, 21, 28 dpf), juvenile (35, 42 dpf), and adult (8, 22 month) zebrafish. The flume had sufficient range and sensitivity to detect developmental changes in Umax of larvae and juveniles, an 18-24% faster Umax of adult males vs. females, and a 14-20% age-related reduction in Umax for the oldest zebrafish. Detailed information is provided to assemble and operate this low-cost, versatile, and reliable tool for assessing zebrafish swimming performance.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA