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1.
Food Chem ; 305: 125458, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505416

RESUMO

The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the effects of feeding flaxseed meal (FSM) and turmeric rhizome powder (TRP) supplementation on tissue lipid profile, lipid metabolism, health indices, oxidative stability, and physical properties of broiler chicken meat. The 100 g FSM along with 10.0 g TRP supplementation significantly increased the ω-3 PUFA, particularly ALA, EPA, DPA, and DHA of broiler chicken meat due to the corresponding increase ∆9 and Δ5 + Δ6 desaturase activities. The increased activities of the desaturases resulted in significantly better health indices of the broiler chicken meat. The feeding of 100 g FSM along with 10.0 g TRP supplementation reduced the atherogenic and thrombogenic indices of broiler chicken meat. The 100 g FSM feeding reduced the oxidative stability, water holding capacity, extract release volume of broiler chicken meat and increased drip loss, whereas, 10.0 g TRP supplementation reversed these negative effects of FSM.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31701396

RESUMO

A feeding trial of 10 weeks duration was undertaken on laying hens (n = 240) to evaluate feeding value of rice distiller's dried grains with soluble (rDDGS) with or without enzyme supplementation (α-amylase, ß-glucanase, xylanase, carboxymethylcellulase, pectinase, proteinase, α-galactosidase, ß-galactosidase, lipase, and phytase), following 4 × 2 factorial design, on egg production, nutrient utilization, and cost economics of egg production. The birds were randomly assigned to eight dietary treatments with 30 birds/treatment. The birds were housed individually in layer cages and each bird was taken as an experimental unit. Eight experimental diets were prepared by incorporating four levels (0, 50, 75, and 100 g/kg) of rDDGS with and without enzyme supplementation. The results revealed a significant (P < 0.01) increase of egg mass, feed intake, egg production, and body weight gain in dietary treatments with up to 75 g rDDGS though the values were statistically similar to the hens fed 100 g rDDGS. Enzyme supplementation resulted in significant (P < 0.01) improvement of egg mass, egg production, feed conversion ratio (FCR) per dozen eggs, FCR per kilogramme egg mass, and net FCR. The significantly (P < 0.01) higher yolk index was observed at 100 g rDDGS level, while shell thickness improved significantly (P < 0.01) up to 75 g rDDGS level. No significant effect of rDDGS inclusion was observed on shape index, albumin index, and Haugh unit. Enzyme supplementation significantly improved the shell thickness and yolk colour of eggs. Nitrogen, calcium, and phosphorus retention and dry matter metabolizability did not show any significant treatment effects. There was significant (P < 0.01) reduction in feed-cost per kilogramme egg mass or per dozen eggs with the increased DDGS levels and dietary enzyme supplementation. It was concluded that rDDGS can be used up to 100 g/kg diet of laying hens along with enzyme supplementation for better productivity of layer hens.

3.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 103(6): 1800-1809, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483533

RESUMO

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary soapnut (Sapindus mukorossi) shell powder (SSP), a cheap source of saponins, on growth performance, immunity, serum biochemistry and gut health of broiler chickens. The experimental design was 4×2, employing four saponin levels (0, 100, 150 and 200 mg/kg diet), each provided for two time durations (0-42 day and 21-42 day) resulting into eight dietary treatments. Results revealed no significant effect of dietary saponins on body weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio of birds. The abdominal fat percentage, heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels, faecal total plate count, coliform count and E. coli count decreased (p < .05) progressively with increasing saponin levels and lower values were observed at 150 mg and 200 mg saponin levels. Significant improvement of cell-mediated and humoral immune response was observed in birds fed 150 mg and 200 mg saponin compared to control. The serum glucose concentration was significantly (p < .05) higher in control group compared to other groups. No significant effects of dietary saponin were observed on carcass characteristics, faecal Lactobacillus count, intestinal histomorphometry and cost economics of broiler chicken production. Thus, dietary saponins at 150 mg/kg diet as SSP for three weeks (21-42 days) was optimum for better immunity and welfare of birds without adverse effects on the growth performance.

4.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 101: 972-980, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29635907

RESUMO

Ursolic acid (UA), an ursane-type pentacyclic triterpenoid commonly found in apple peels and holy basil has been shown to possess many beneficial effects. Renal fibrosis is a complication of kidney injury and associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality. In our previous investigation, a lupane-type pentacyclic triterpenoid, betulinic acid (BA) was found to have protective effect on chronic kidney disease (CKD) and renal fibrosis. This prompted us to explore the therapeutic value of UA, a chemically related compound to BA in CKD. CKD was induced by feeding adenine with the feed at a concentration of 0.75% for 28 days. UA at the dose rate of 30 mg/kg in 0.5% carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC) was administered by oral route, simultaneously with adenine feeding for 28 days. Adenine feeding increased the kidney weight to body weight index, decreased the kidney function due to injury as indicated by increased markers like serum urea, uric acid, creatinine, cystatin C and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and initiated the fibrotic response in kidney by increasing the profibrotic proteins viz. transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-ß), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), fibronectin and collagen. However, treatment with UA reversed the damage induced by adenine as shown by reduced kidney injury and fibrosis markers which was further clearly evident in histological picture indicating the suitability of UA for use in CKD.


Assuntos
Rim/patologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/induzido quimicamente , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Triterpenos/uso terapêutico , Adenina , Animais , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Colágeno Tipo I/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento do Tecido Conjuntivo/metabolismo , Creatinina/sangue , Cistatina C/metabolismo , Fibronectinas/metabolismo , Fibrose , Hidroxiprolina/metabolismo , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipocalina-2/sangue , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos Wistar , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/sangue , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/patologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Triterpenos/química , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Ácido Úrico/sangue
5.
Eur J Pharm Sci ; 70: 12-21, 2015 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25585354

RESUMO

Sepsis is a common cause of acute kidney injury (AKI) and is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of betulinic acid, a triterpenoid in sepsis-induced AKI using cecal ligation puncture (CLP) mouse model. Mice subjected to CLP developed histologic AKI at 18h after CLP. There was an increase in renal proinflammatory response (nuclear factor-kappa B expression, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10), matrix metalloproteinase-9, plasma creatinine, renal neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and oxidant stress response (malondialdehyde, inducible nitric oxide synthase, total nitrite and superoxide); decrease in anti-oxidant levels (superoxide dismutase and catalase) at 18h of CLP. However, BA pretreatment at the doses of 10 and 30mg/kg prevented the CLP-induced kidney damage by restoring the aforementioned inflammatory mediators, oxidant and anti-oxidant imbalance. These evidences suggest that, the protective effects of BA on kidney are associated with defending action against inflammatory and oxidative stress response in CLP mice and BA could be potential therapeutic agent in sepsis-induced AKI.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Coinfecção/tratamento farmacológico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico , Triterpenos/uso terapêutico , Lesão Renal Aguda/metabolismo , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Coinfecção/metabolismo , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Sepse/metabolismo , Triterpenos/farmacologia
6.
J Surg Res ; 193(2): 856-67, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25291962

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sepsis commonly progresses to acute lung injury and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Septic acute lung injury is characterized by severe oxidative stress response, remained refractory to present therapies, and new therapies need to be developed to improve further clinical outcomes. We determined the effect of betulinic acid (BA) on oxidative lung injury in mice using cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five groups of mice (six in each group) received three pretreatments at 24-h interval before surgery. Surgery was done 1 h after last dosing. Sham and CLP control group mice received vehicle. BA was administered to other three groups of mice at 3, 10, and 30 mg/kg dose. Lung and plasma samples were collected for analysis by sacrificing the mice at 18 h of surgery. RESULTS: Compared with sham, CLP significantly increased total protein, nitrite, malondialdehyde, isoprostane, superoxide, protein carbonyl, oxidative stress index, inducible nitric oxide synthase protein, and histopathologic changes and reduced the superoxide dismutase, catalase activity, and total thiol levels in lungs and plasma, which were restored by BA pretreatment. CONCLUSIONS: BA pretreatment decreased the levels of oxidants, increased the levels of antioxidants in lungs and plasma thereby reducing the oxidative lung injury in CLP mice. Additionally, BA was found to scavenge the superoxide and nitric oxide radical in vitro. Thus, BA is suggested to be effective in treatment of oxidative lung injury in sepsis.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Lesão Pulmonar/prevenção & controle , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Sepse/complicações , Triterpenos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Dinoprosta/análogos & derivados , Dinoprosta/metabolismo , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Lesão Pulmonar/etiologia , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Camundongos , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Nitritos/metabolismo , Carbonilação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Superóxidos/metabolismo , Triterpenos/farmacologia
7.
Cytokine ; 71(1): 101-8, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25277468

RESUMO

Sepsis commonly progresses to acute lung injury (ALI), an inflammatory lung disease with high morbidity and mortality. Septic ALI is characterized by excessive production of proinflammatory mediators. It remained refractory to present therapies and new therapies need to be developed to improve further clinical outcomes. Betulinic acid (BA), a pentacyclic lupane group triterpenoid has been shown to have anti-inflammatory activities in many studies. However, its therapeutic efficacy in polymicrobial septic ALI is yet unknown. Therefore, we investigated the effects of BA on septic ALI using cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model in mice. Vehicle or BA (3, 10, and 30mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally, 3 times (0, 24 and 48h) before CLP and CLP was done on 49(th)h of the study. Survival rate was observed till 120h post CLP. Lung tissues were collected for analysis by sacrificing mice 18h post CLP. BA at 10 and 30mg/kg dose significantly reduced sepsis-induced mortality and lung injury as implied by attenuated lung histopathological changes, decreased protein and neutrophils infiltration. BA also decreased lung NF-κB expression, cytokine, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 levels. These evidences suggest that, the protective effects of BA on lungs are associated with defending action against inflammatory response and BA could be a potential modulatory agent of inflammation in sepsis-induced ALI.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Coinfecção/tratamento farmacológico , Citocinas/imunologia , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico , Triterpenos/uso terapêutico , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/terapia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Ceco , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Citocinas/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular/genética , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular/metabolismo , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/ultraestrutura , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/genética , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , Camundongos , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Sepse/microbiologia , Sepse/terapia , Triterpenos/administração & dosagem
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