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1.
Phys Rev Lett ; 124(10): 105901, 2020 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32216396

RESUMO

It has been known for more than a decade that phonons can produce an off-diagonal thermal conductivity in the presence of a magnetic field. Recent studies of thermal Hall conductivity, κ_{xy}, in a variety of contexts, however, have assumed a negligibly small phonon contribution. We present a study of κ_{xy} in quantum paraelectric SrTiO_{3}, which is a nonmagnetic insulator and find that its peak value exceeds what has been reported in any other insulator, including those in which the signal has been qualified as "giant." Remarkably, κ_{xy}(T) and κ(T) peak at the same temperature and the former decreases faster than the latter at both sides of the peak. Interestingly, in the case of La_{2}CuO_{4} and α-RuCl_{3}, κ_{xy}(T) and κ(T) peak also at the same temperature. We also studied KTaO_{3} and found a small signal, indicating that a sizable κ_{xy}(T) is not a generic feature of quantum paraelectrics. Combined to other observations, this points to a crucial role played by antiferrodistortive domains in generating κ_{xy} of this solid.

2.
Science ; 367(6475): 309-312, 2020 01 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31949080

RESUMO

Allotropes of carbon, such as diamond and graphene, are among the best conductors of heat. We monitored the evolution of thermal conductivity in thin graphite as a function of temperature and thickness and found an intimate link between high conductivity, thickness, and phonon hydrodynamics. The room-temperature in-plane thermal conductivity of 8.5-micrometer-thick graphite was 4300 watts per meter-kelvin-a value well above that for diamond and slightly larger than in isotopically purified graphene. Warming enhances thermal diffusivity across a wide temperature range, supporting partially hydrodynamic phonon flow. The enhancement of thermal conductivity that we observed with decreasing thickness points to a correlation between the out-of-plane momentum of phonons and the fraction of momentum-relaxing collisions. We argue that this is due to the extreme phonon dispersion anisotropy in graphite.

3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(40): 19869-19874, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31515452

RESUMO

Analyses of thermal diffusivity data on complex insulators and on strongly correlated electron systems hosted in similar complex crystal structures suggest that quantum chaos is a good description for thermalization processes in these systems, particularly in the high-temperature regime where the many phonon bands and their interactions dominate the thermal transport. Here we observe that for these systems diffusive thermal transport is controlled by a universal Planckian timescale [Formula: see text] and a unique velocity [Formula: see text] Specifically, [Formula: see text] for complex insulators, and [Formula: see text] in the presence of strongly correlated itinerant electrons ([Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] are the phonon and electron velocities, respectively). For the complex correlated electron systems we further show that charge diffusivity, while also reaching the Planckian relaxation bound, is largely dominated by the Fermi velocity of the electrons, hence suggesting that it is only the thermal (energy) diffusivity that describes chaos diffusivity.

4.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3021, 2019 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31289269

RESUMO

Magnetic domain walls are topological solitons whose internal structure is set by competing energies which sculpt them. In common ferromagnets, domain walls are known to be of either Bloch or Néel types. Little is established in the case of Mn3Sn, a triangular antiferromagnet with a large room-temperature anomalous Hall effect, where domain nucleation is triggered by a well-defined threshold magnetic field. Here, we show that the domain walls of this system generate an additional contribution to the Hall conductivity tensor and a transverse magnetization. The former is an electric field lying in the same plane with the magnetic field and electric current and therefore a planar Hall effect. We demonstrate that in-plane rotation of spins inside the domain wall would explain both observations and the clockwise or anticlockwise chirality of the walls depends on the history of the field orientation and can be controlled.

5.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 31(40): 405702, 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31252425

RESUMO

It has been known for decades that thermal conductivity of insulating crystals becomes proportional to the inverse of temperature when the latter is comparable to, or higher than, the Debye temperature. This behavior has been understood as resulting from Umklapp scattering among phonons. We put under scrutiny the magnitude of the thermal diffusion constant in this regime and find that it does not fall below a threshold set by the square of sound velocity times the Planckian time ([Formula: see text]). The conclusion, based on scrutinizing the ratio in cubic crystals with high thermal resistivity, appears to hold even in glasses where Umklapp events are not conceivable. Explaining this boundary, reminiscent of a recently-noticed limit for charge transport in metals, is a challenge to theory.

6.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 30(31): 313001, 2018 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29939150

RESUMO

In this paper, we first review fundamental aspects of magnetoresistance in multi-valley systems based on the semiclassical theory. Then we will review experimental evidence and theoretical understanding of magnetoresistance in an archetypal multi-valley system, where the electric conductivity is set by the sum of the contributions of different valleys. Bulk bismuth has three valleys with an extremely anisotropic effective mass. As a consequence the magnetoconductivity in each valley is extremely sensitive to the orientation of the magnetic field. Therefore, a rotating magnetic field plays the role of a valley valve tuning the contribution of each valley to the total conductivity. In addition to this simple semiclassical effect, other phenomena arise in the high-field limit as a consequence of an intricate Landau spectrum. In the vicinity of the quantum limit, the orientation of magnetic field significantly affects the distribution of carriers in each valley, namely, the valley polarization is induced by the magnetic field. Moreover, experiment has found that well beyond the quantum limit, one or two valleys become totally empty. This is the only case in condensed matter physics where a Fermi sea is completely dried up by a magnetic field without a metal-insulator transition. There have been two long-standing problems on bismuth near the quantum limit: the large anisotropic Zeeman splitting of holes, and the extra peaks in quantum oscillations, which cannot be assigned to any known Landau levels. These problems are solved by taking into account the interband effect due to the spin-orbit couplings for the former, and the contributions from the twinned crystal for the latter. Up to here, the whole spectrum can be interpreted within the one-particle theory. Finally, we will discuss transport and thermodynamic signatures of breaking of the valley symmetry in this system. By this term, we refer to the observed spontaneous loss of threefold symmetry at high magnetic field and low temperature. Its theoretical understanding is still missing. We will discuss possible explanations.

7.
Sci Adv ; 4(6): eaat3374, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29942862

RESUMO

The travel of heat in insulators is commonly pictured as a flow of phonons scattered along their individual trajectory. In rare circumstances, momentum-conserving collision events dominate, and thermal transport becomes hydrodynamic. One of these cases, dubbed the Poiseuille flow of phonons, can occur in a temperature window just below the peak temperature of thermal conductivity. We report on a study of heat flow in bulk black phosphorus between 0.1 and 80 K. We find a thermal conductivity showing a faster than cubic temperature dependence between 5 and 12 K. Consequently, the effective phonon mean free path shows a nonmonotonic temperature dependence at the onset of the ballistic regime, with a size-dependent Knudsen minimum. These are hallmarks of Poiseuille flow previously observed in a handful of solids. Comparing the phonon dispersion in black phosphorus and silicon, we show that the phase space for normal scattering events in black phosphorus is much larger. Our results imply that the most important requirement for the emergence of Poiseuille flow is the facility of momentum exchange between acoustic phonon branches. Proximity to a structural transition can be beneficial for the emergence of this behavior in clean systems, even when they do not exceed silicon in purity.

8.
Phys Rev Lett ; 120(12): 125901, 2018 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29694090

RESUMO

We present a study of thermal conductivity, κ, in undoped and doped strontium titanate in a wide temperature range (2-400 K) and detecting different regimes of heat flow. In undoped SrTiO_{3}, κ evolves faster than cubic with temperature below its peak and in a narrow temperature window. Such behavior, previously observed in a handful of solids, has been attributed to a Poiseuille flow of phonons, expected to arise when momentum-conserving scattering events outweigh momentum-degrading ones. The effect disappears in the presence of dopants. In SrTi_{1-x}Nb_{x}O_{3}, a significant reduction in lattice thermal conductivity starts below the temperature at which the average inter-dopant distance and the thermal wavelength of acoustic phonons become comparable. In the high-temperature regime, thermal diffusivity becomes proportional to the inverse of temperature, with a prefactor set by sound velocity and Planckian time (τ_{p}=(ℏ/k_{B}T)).

9.
Phys Rev Lett ; 119(5): 056601, 2017 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28949739

RESUMO

We present a study of electric, thermal and thermoelectric response in noncollinear antiferromagnet Mn_{3}Sn, which hosts a large anomalous Hall effect (AHE). Berry curvature generates off-diagonal thermal (Righi-Leduc) and thermoelectric (Nernst) signals, which are detectable at room temperature and invertible with a small magnetic field. The thermal and electrical Hall conductivities respect the Wiedemann-Franz law, implying that the transverse currents induced by the Berry curvature are carried by Fermi surface quasiparticles. In contrast to conventional ferromagnets, the anomalous Lorenz number remains close to the Sommerfeld number over the whole temperature range of study, excluding any contribution by inelastic scattering and pointing to the Berry curvature as the unique source of AHE. The anomalous off-diagonal thermo-electric and Hall conductivities are strongly temperature dependent and their ratio is close to k_{B}/e.

10.
Nat Commun ; 8: 15297, 2017 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28524844

RESUMO

The Fermi surface of elemental bismuth consists of three small rotationally equivalent electron pockets, offering a valley degree of freedom to charge carriers. A relatively small magnetic field can confine electrons to their lowest Landau level. This is the quantum limit attained in other dilute metals upon application of sufficiently strong magnetic field. Here we report on the observation of another threshold magnetic field never encountered before in any other solid. Above this field, Bempty, one or two valleys become totally empty. Drying up a Fermi sea by magnetic field in the Brillouin zone leads to a manyfold enhancement in electric conductance. We trace the origin of the large drop in magnetoresistance across Bempty to transfer of carriers between valleys with highly anisotropic mobilities. The non-interacting picture of electrons with field-dependent mobility explains most results but the Coulomb interaction may play a role in shaping the fine details.

11.
Science ; 355(6320): 26-27, 2017 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28059728
12.
Phys Rev Lett ; 116(8): 087003, 2016 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26967438

RESUMO

We report on a study of the Seebeck coefficient and resistivity in the quasi-one-dimensional conductor (TMTSF)_{2} PF_{6} extended deep into the spin-density-wave state. The metal-insulator transition at T_{SDW}=12 K leads to a reduction in carrier concentration by 7 orders of magnitude. Below 1 K, charge transport displays the behavior known as variable range hopping. Until now, the Seebeck response of electrons in this regime has barely been explored and is even less understood. We find that, in this system, residual carriers, hopping from one trap to another, generate a Seebeck coefficient as large as 400 k_{B}/e. The results provide the first solid evidence for a long-standing prediction according to which hopping electrons in the presence of the Coulomb interaction can generate a sizable Seebeck coefficient in the zero-temperature limit.

13.
Rep Prog Phys ; 79(4): 046502, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27010481

RESUMO

The Nernst effect is the transverse electric field produced by a longitudinal thermal gradient in the presence of a magnetic field. At the beginning of this century, Nernst experiments on cuprates were analyzed assuming that: (i) the contribution of quasi-particles to the Nernst signal is negligible; and (ii) Gaussian superconducting fluctuations cannot produce a Nernst signal well above the critical temperature. Both these assumptions were contradicted by subsequent experiments. This paper reviews experiments documenting multiple sources of a Nernst signal, which, according to the Bridgman relation, measures the flow of transverse entropy caused by a longitudinal particle flow. Along the lines of Landauer's approach to transport phenomena, the magnitude of the transverse magneto-thermoelectric response is linked to the quantum of thermoelectric conductance and a number of material-dependent length scales: the mean free path, the Fermi wavelength, the de Broglie thermal wavelength and the superconducting coherence length. Extremely mobile quasi-particles in dilute metals generate a widely-documented Nernst signal. Fluctuating Cooper pairs in the normal state of superconductors have been found to produce a detectable Nernst signal with an amplitude conforming to the Gaussian theory, first conceived by Ussishkin, Sondhi and Huse. In addition to these microscopic sources, mobile Abrikosov vortices, mesoscopic objects simultaneously carrying entropy and magnetic flux, can produce a sizeable Nernst response. Finally, in metals subject to a magnetic field strong enough to truncate the Fermi surface to a few Landau tubes, each exiting tube generates a peak in the Nernst response. The survey of these well-established sources of the Nernst signal is a helpful guide to identify the origin of the Nernst signal in other controversial cases.

14.
Science ; 351(6269): 124, 2016 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26744394
15.
Phys Rev Lett ; 115(21): 216401, 2015 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26636860

RESUMO

The ratio of the Zeeman splitting to the cyclotron energy (M=ΔE_{Z}/ℏω_{c}) for holelike carriers in bismuth has been quantified with great precision by many experiments performed during the past five decades. It exceeds 2 when the magnetic field is along the trigonal axis and vanishes in the perpendicular configuration. Theoretically, however, M is expected to be isotropic and equal to unity in a two-band Dirac model. We argue that a solution to this half-a-century-old puzzle can be found by extending the k·p theory to multiple bands. Our model not only gives a quantitative account of the magnitude and anisotropy of M for holelike carriers in bismuth, but also explains its contrasting evolution with antimony doping and pressure, both probed by new experiments reported here. The present results have important implications for the magnitude and anisotropy of M in other systems with strong spin-orbit coupling.

16.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 27(37): 375501, 2015 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26325595

RESUMO

Several doped semiconductors, in contrast to heavily-doped silicon and germanium, host extremely mobile carriers, which give rise to quantum oscillations detectable in relatively low magnetic fields. The small Fermi energy in these dilute metals quantifies the depth of the Fermi sea. When the carrier density exceeds a threshold, accessible thanks to the long Bohr radius of the parent insulator, the local seafloor is carved by distant dopants. In such conditions, with a random distribution of dopants, the probability of finding an island or a trench depends on on the effective Bohr radius, [Formula: see text] and the carrier density, n. This picture yields an expression for electron mobility with a random distribution of dopants: [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text], in reasonable agreement with the magnitude and concentration dependence of the low-temperature mobility in three dilute metals whose insulating parents are a wide-gap (SrTiO3), a narrow-gap (PbTe) and a 'zero'-gap (TlBiSSe) semiconductor.


Assuntos
Elétrons , Movimento (Física) , Semicondutores , Germânio , Silício
17.
Science ; 349(6251): 945-8, 2015 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26315430

RESUMO

Scattering among electrons generates a distinct contribution to electrical resistivity that follows a quadratic temperature (T) dependence. In strongly correlated electron systems, the prefactor A of this T(2) resistivity scales with the magnitude of the electronic specific heat, γ. Here we show that one can change the magnitude of A by four orders of magnitude in metallic strontium titanate (SrTiO3) by tuning the concentration of the carriers and, consequently, the Fermi energy. The T(2) behavior persists in the single-band dilute limit despite the absence of two known mechanisms for T(2) behavior: distinct electron reservoirs and Umklapp processes. The results highlight the absence of a microscopic theory for momentum decay through electron-electron scattering in various Fermi liquids.

18.
Phys Rev Lett ; 114(17): 176601, 2015 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25978245

RESUMO

We present a study of angle-resolved quantum oscillations of electric and thermoelectric transport coefficients in semimetallic WTe2, which has the particularity of displaying a large B(2) magnetoresistance. The Fermi surface consists of two pairs of electronlike and holelike pockets of equal volumes in a "Russian doll" structure. The carrier density, Fermi energy, mobility, and the mean-free path of the system are quantified. An additional frequency is observed above a threshold field and attributed to the magnetic breakdown across two orbits. In contrast to all other dilute metals, the Nernst signal remains linear in the magnetic field even in the high-field (ωcτ≫1) regime. Surprisingly, none of the pockets extend across the c axis of the first Brillouin zone, making the system a three-dimensional metal with moderate anisotropy in Fermi velocity, yet a large anisotropy in the mean-free path.

19.
Phys Rev Lett ; 110(26): 266601, 2013 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23848904

RESUMO

Different instabilities have been speculated for a three-dimensional electron gas confined to its lowest Landau level. The phase transition induced in graphite by a strong magnetic field, and believed to be a charge density wave, is the only experimentally established case of such instabilities. Studying the magnetoresistance in graphite for the first time up to 80 T, we find that the magnetic field induces two successive phase transitions, consisting of two distinct ordered states each restricted to a finite field window. In both states, an energy gap opens up in the out-of-plane conductivity and coexists with an unexpected in-plane metallicity for a fully gap bulk system. Such peculiar metallicity may arise as a consequence of edge-state transport expected to develop in the presence of a bulk gap.

20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 109(37): 14813-8, 2012 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22927380

RESUMO

The Landau spectrum of bismuth is complex and includes many angle-dependent lines in the extreme quantum limit. The adequacy of single-particle theory to describe this spectrum in detail has been an open issue. Here, we present a study of angle-resolved Nernst effect in bismuth, which maps the angle-resolved Landau spectrum for the entire solid angle up to 28 T. The experimental map is in good agreement with the results of a theoretical model with parabolic dispersion for holes and an extended Dirac Hamiltonian for electrons. The angular dependence of additional lines in the Landau spectrum allows us to uncover the mystery of their origin. They correspond to the lines expected for the hole Landau levels in a secondary crystal tilted by 108°, the angle between twinned crystals in bismuth. According to our results, the electron reservoirs of the two identical tilted crystals have different chemical potentials, and carriers across the twin boundary have different concentrations. An exceptional feature of this junction is that it separates two electron-hole compensated reservoirs. The link between this edge singularity and the states wrapping a three-dimensional electron gas in the quantum limit emerges as an outstanding open question.


Assuntos
Bismuto/química , Modelos Químicos , Teoria Quântica , Cristalografia , Análise Espectral
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