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1.
Eur Urol Oncol ; 2019 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411984

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Decipher genomic classifier (GC) is increasingly being used to determine metastasis risk in men with localized prostate cancer (PCa). Whether GCs predict for the presence of occult metastatic disease at presentation or subsequent metastatic progression is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine if GC scores predict extraprostatic 68Ga prostate-specific membrane antigen (68Ga-PSMA-11) positron emission tomography (PET) positivity at presentation. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Between December 2015 and September 2018, 91 PCa patients with both GC scores and pretreatment 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET scans were identified. Risk stratification was performed using the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN), Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment (CAPRA), and GC scores. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Logistic regression was used to identify factors correlated with PSMA-positive disease. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: The NCCN criteria identified 23 (25.3%) and 68 patients (74.7%) as intermediate and high risk, while CAPRA scores revealed 28 (30.8%) and 63 (69.2%) as low/intermediate and high risk, respectively. By contrast, only 45 patients (49.4%) had high-risk GC scores. PSMA-avid pelvic nodal involvement was identified in 27 patients (29.7%). Higher GC score was significantly associated with pelvic nodal involvement (odds ratio [OR] 1.38 per 0.1 units; p=0.009) and any PSMA-avid nodal involvement (pelvic or distant; OR 1.40 per 0.1 units; p=0.007). However, higher GC score was not significantly associated with PSMA-avid osseous metastases (OR 1.11 per 0.1 units; p=0.50). Limitations include selection bias for patients able to receive both tests and the sample size. CONCLUSIONS: Each 0.1-unit increase in GC score was associated with an approximate 40% increase in the odds of PSMA-avid lymph node involvement. These data suggest that patients with GC high risk might benefit from more nodal imaging and treatment intensification, potentially via pelvic nodal dissection, pelvic nodal irradiation, and/or the addition of chemohormonal agents. PATIENT SUMMARY: Patients with higher genomic classifier scores were found to have more metastatic lymph node involvement on prostate-specific membrane antigen imaging.

2.
Cancer ; 125(18): 3234-3241, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154669

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nivolumab demonstrated durable responses and safety in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with Child-Pugh class A cirrhosis in the CheckMate 040 trial, with rates of hepatotoxicity that were similar to those of non-HCC populations. To the authors' knowledge, the safety and efficacy of nivolumab has not been established in patients with Child-Pugh class B (CPB) cirrhosis, a population with limited therapeutic options and a poor prognosis. METHODS: The authors conducted a retrospective case series of patients with advanced HCC and CPB cirrhosis who were treated with nivolumab and enrolled in the University of California at San Francisco Hepatobiliary Tissue Bank and Registry. Safety endpoints included rates of grade ≥3 adverse events (AEs) (graded according to the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events [version 4.03]) and serious AEs, immune-related AEs (irAE), steroid requirement, and discontinuation. Efficacy endpoints included time on treatment, the objective response rate according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) version 1.1, overall survival, and progression-free survival. RESULTS: A total of 18 patients were included, with 72% of them (13 of 18 patients) previously treated with sorafenib. The majority of patients (94%; 17 of 18 patients) experienced a grade ≥3 AE, with treatment-related grade ≥3 AEs reported in 28% of patients (5 of 18 patients). irAEs were reported to occur in approximately 50% of patients (9 of 18 patients), and 28% (5 of 18 patients) required steroids. Treatment-related AEs required discontinuation in 4 patients (22%). The median time on treatment was 2.3 months (95% CI, 1.9 months to upper bound not estimable). The objective response rate was 17% (3 of 18 patients), including 2 partial responses and 1 complete response. The median overall survival from the time of nivolumab initiation was 5.9 months (95% CI, 3 months to upper bound not estimable), with a median progression-free survival of 1.6 months (95% CI, 1.4-3.5 months). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with CPB HCC experienced high rates of AEs, although the frequency of irAEs was similar to that of patients with Child-Pugh class A HCC in the CheckMate 040 trial. A subset of patients experienced prolonged tumor responses. Nivolumab warrants further study in patients with CPB HCC.

3.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; 213(2): 266-274, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039025

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of 68Ga-labeled prostate-specific membrane antigen 11 (PSMA-11) PET for disease detection in patients with prostate cancer who have biochemically recurrent disease after radiation therapy or prostatectomy. SUBJECTS AND METHODS. One hundred fifty patients underwent 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT or PET/MRI, and the images were interpreted by two blinded board-certified radiologists. Each reader evaluated for the presence or absence of PSMA-positive disease within the prostate bed, pelvic lymph nodes, bones, and soft tissues (extrapelvic lymph nodes and visceral structures). The presence or absence of disease was confirmed by histopathologic analysis if available. For patients who did not have pathologic analysis, a composite of imaging and clinical follow-up was used as the reference standard. RESULTS. The median prostate-specific antigen level was 2.1 ng/mL. Forty-three patients had pathologic correlation, and for 29 patients a composite of imaging and follow-up was used to determine the presence or absence of disease. With substantial to almost perfect interreader reliability by region (κ = 0.78-0.87), 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET had high sensitivity per region (up to 100%) and per patient (up to 89.8%). It also had high positive predictive value per region (up to 100%) and per patient (up to 91.5%). Sensitivity was highest for bone metastases and lowest for soft-tissue metastases. Positive predictive value was highest for bone metastases and lowest for prostate bed recurrence. CONCLUSION. Gallium-68-labeled PSMA-11 PET is sensitive for prostate cancer metastases in patients with biochemically recurrent prostate cancer. It has high positive predictive value and substantial to almost perfect interrater reliability.

4.
Mol Imaging Biol ; 2019 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30993558

RESUMO

PURPOSE: There are several important positron emission tomography (PET) imaging scenarios that require imaging with very low photon statistics, for which both quantitative accuracy and visual quality should not be neglected. For example, PET imaging with the low photon statistics is closely related to active efforts to significantly reduce radiation exposure from radiopharmaceuticals. We investigated two examples of low-count PET imaging: (a) imaging [90Y]microsphere radioembolization that suffers the very small positron emission fraction of Y-90's decay processes, and (b) cancer imaging with [68Ga]citrate with uptake time of 3-4 half-lives, necessary for visualizing tumors. In particular, we investigated a type of penalized likelihood reconstruction algorithm, block sequential regularized expectation maximization (BSREM), for improving both image quality and quantitative accuracy of these low-count PET imaging cases. PROCEDURES: The NEMA/IEC Body phantom filled with aqueous solution of Y-90 or Ga-68 was scanned to mimic the low-count scenarios of corresponding patient data acquisitions on a time-of-flight (TOF) PET/magnetic resonance imaging system. Contrast recovery, background variation, and signal-to-noise ratio were evaluated in different sets of count densities using both conventional TOF ordered subset expectation (TOF-OSEM) and TOF-BSREM algorithms. The regularization parameter, beta, in BSREM that controls the tradeoff between image noise and resolution was evaluated to find a value for improved confidence in image interpretation. Visual quality assessment of the images obtained from patients administered with [68Ga]citrate (n = 6) was performed. We also made preliminary visual image quality assessment for one patient with [90Y]microspheres. In Y-90 imaging, the effect of 511-keV energy window selection for minimizing the number of random events was also evaluated. RESULTS: Quantitatively, phantom images reconstructed with TOF-BSREM showed improved contrast recovery, background variation, and signal-to-noise ratio values over images reconstructed with TOF-OSEM. Both phantom and patient studies of delayed imaging of [68Ga]citrate show that TOF-BSREM with beta = 500 gives the best tradeoff between image noise and image resolution based on visual assessment by the readers. The NEMA-IQ phantom study with [90Y]microspheres shows that the narrow energy window (460-562 keV) recovers activity concentrations in small spheres better than the regular energy window (425-650 keV) with the beta value of 2000 using the TOF-BSREM algorithm. For the images obtained from patients with [68Ga]citrate using TOF-BSREM with beta = 500, the visual analogue scale (VAS) was improved by 17 % and the Likert score was increased by 1 point on average, both in comparison to corresponding scores for images reconstructed using TOF-OSEM. CONCLUSION: Our investigation shows that the TOF-BSREM algorithm improves the image quality and quantitative accuracy in low-count PET imaging scenarios. However, the beta value in this algorithm needed to be adjusted for each radiopharmaceutical and counting statistics at the time of scans.

5.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; : 1-7, 2019 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30835523

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to compare the quality of bowel opacification from three different positive oral contrast agents-barium sulfate, diatrizoate, and iohexol-at abdominopelvic CT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Abdominopelvic CT examinations with three different oral contrast agents (each contrast agent: n = 300 patients) of 900 patients were retrospectively evaluated by two independent readers. For four segments of the gastrointestinal tract (i.e., the stomach, jejunum, ileum, and colon), readers recorded qualitative data (grade of nonuniform lumen opacification, types of inhomogeneous opacifications, presence of artifacts, and distribution of contrast agent) and quantitative data (CT attenuation of lumen [in Hounsfield units]). The results were compared among the three contrast agents using the Mann-Whitney U test and repeated-measures ANOVA with a post hoc Bonferroni correction. RESULTS: Fewer artifacts were detected with iohexol (4.3%) as the oral contrast agent than with diatrizoate (13.0%) and barium sulfate (14.3%) (each, p < 0.05). Barium showed a greater frequency of bowel lumen heterogeneity (388/831 segments, 47%) than iohexol (155/679, 23%) and diatrizoate (185/763, 24% segments) (p < 0.001). Barium showed higher CT attenuation than iohexol and diatrizoate in the stomach but lower CT attenuation in the ileum (each, p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The frequency of inhomogeneous bowel opacification was lower for iohexol than for diatrizoate or barium sulfate. Barium showed the highest frequency of bowel lumen heterogeneity. The iodinated agents showed greater increases in mean CT attenuation from the proximal bowel segments to the distal bowel segments than barium sulfate.

6.
Clin Nucl Med ; 44(3): e133-e135, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30624275

RESUMO

We present the case of an 87-year-old man with a history of melanoma metastatic to the lungs found to have an FDG-negative liver lesion that was initially thought to be benign. Follow-up CT revealed growth of the liver lesion despite excellent response to nivolumab therapy of the pulmonary melanoma metastases. Biopsy of the lesion confirmed primary hepatocellular carcinoma. Follow-up F-FDG PET/CT showed minimal FDG uptake, slightly above liver background, and subsequent Ga-PSMA-11 PET/MR showed focal, intense uptake of radiotracer in a different region of the tumor. These imaging findings support intratumor metabolic heterogeneity with radiotracer uptake in different tumor locations.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Ácido Edético/análogos & derivados , Fluordesoxiglucose F18/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Oligopeptídeos/metabolismo , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Transporte Biológico , Biópsia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Ácido Edético/metabolismo , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Masculino , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons
7.
JCI Insight ; 3(21)2018 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30385712

RESUMO

Noninvasive tools that target tumor cells could improve the management of glioma. Cancer generally has a high demand for Fe(III), an essential nutrient for a variety of biochemical processes. We tested whether 68Ga-citrate, an Fe(III) biomimetic that binds to apo-transferrin in blood, detects glioma in preclinical models and patients using hybrid PET/MRI. Mouse PET/CT studies showed that 68Ga-citrate accumulates in subcutaneous U87MG xenografts in a transferrin receptor-dependent fashion within 4 hours after injection. Seventeen patients with WHO grade III or IV glioma received 3.7-10.2 mCi 68Ga-citrate and were imaged with PET/MR 123-307 minutes after injection to establish that the radiotracer can localize to human tumors. Multiple contrast-enhancing lesions were PET avid, and tumor to adjacent normal white matter ratios were consistently greater than 10:1. Several contrast-enhancing lesions were not PET avid. One minimally enhancing lesion and another tumor with significantly reduced enhancement following bevacizumab therapy were PET avid. Advanced MR imaging analysis of one patient with contrast-enhancing glioblastoma showed that metabolic hallmarks of viable tumor spatially overlaid with 68Ga-citrate accumulation. These early data underscore that high-grade glioma may be detectable with a radiotracer that targets Fe(III) transport.

8.
J Nucl Med ; 2018 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30464040

RESUMO

Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) targeting agents comprise a rapidly emerging class of radiopharmaceuticals for prostate cancer diagnostic imaging. Unlike most other PSMA agents with a urea-backbone, CTT1057 is based on a phosphoramidate scaffold that irreversibly binds to PSMA. We conducted a first-in-human Phase I study of CTT1057 in patients with localized and metastatic prostate cancer. Methods: Two patient cohorts were recruited. Cohort A were patients with biopsy-proven localized prostate cancer preceding radical prostatectomy, and cohort B were patients with metastatic castrate resistant prostate cancer. Cohort A patients were imaged on multiple time points after intravenous (IV) injection with 362 ± 8 MBq CTT1057 to evaluate the kinetics of CTT1057 and estimate radiation dose profiles. Mean organ-absorbed doses and effective doses were calculated using OLINDA. CTT1057 uptake in the prostate gland and regional lymph nodes was correlated with pathology, PSMA staining, and results of conventional imaging. In cohort B, patients were imaged 60 to 120 minutes after injection of CTT1057. PET images were assessed for overall image quality, and areas of abnormal uptake were contrasted with conventional imaging. Results: No radiotracer-related adverse events were reported in either cohort. Five patients were enrolled in cohort A and 15 in cohort B. In cohort A, the average total effective dose was 0.023 mSv/MBq. The kidneys exhibited the highest absorbed dose, 0.067 mGy/MBq. Absorbed doses of the liver, red marrow, and salivary glands were 0.016, 0.007, and 0.015 mGy/MBq, respectively. For cohort B, CTT1057 PET detected 97 metastatic lesions (median SUVmax: 12.17; IQR: 5.9 - 19.02). Of 56 bone metastases detected on CTT1057 PET, 44 (78.5%) were also detectable on whole body bone scan. Of 32 positive lymph nodes visualized on CTT1057 PET, 8 (25%) were enlarged by size criteria on CT. Conclusion: CTT1057 is a promising novel phosphoramidate PSMA-targeting 18F-labeled PET radiopharmaceutical that demonstrates similar biodistribution to urea-based PSMA-targeted agents with lower exposure to the kidneys and salivary glands. CTT1057 detects metastatic lesions with higher sensitivity than conventional imaging. Further prospective studies with CTT1057 are warranted to eludicate its role in cancer imaging.

9.
Radiology ; : 180958, 2018 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30398430

RESUMO

Purpose To develop and validate a deep learning algorithm that predicts the final diagnosis of Alzheimer disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment, or neither at fluorine 18 (18F) fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET of the brain and compare its performance to that of radiologic readers. Materials and Methods Prospective 18F-FDG PET brain images from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) (2109 imaging studies from 2005 to 2017, 1002 patients) and retrospective independent test set (40 imaging studies from 2006 to 2016, 40 patients) were collected. Final clinical diagnosis at follow-up was recorded. Convolutional neural network of InceptionV3 architecture was trained on 90% of ADNI data set and tested on the remaining 10%, as well as the independent test set, with performance compared to radiologic readers. Model was analyzed with sensitivity, specificity, receiver operating characteristic (ROC), saliency map, and t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding. Results The algorithm achieved area under the ROC curve of 0.98 (95% confidence interval: 0.94, 1.00) when evaluated on predicting the final clinical diagnosis of AD in the independent test set (82% specificity at 100% sensitivity), an average of 75.8 months prior to the final diagnosis, which in ROC space outperformed reader performance (57% [four of seven] sensitivity, 91% [30 of 33] specificity; P < .05). Saliency map demonstrated attention to known areas of interest but with focus on the entire brain. Conclusion By using fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose PET of the brain, a deep learning algorithm developed for early prediction of Alzheimer disease achieved 82% specificity at 100% sensitivity, an average of 75.8 months prior to the final diagnosis. © RSNA, 2018 Online supplemental material is available for this article. See also the editorial by Larvie in this issue.

10.
Clin Nucl Med ; 2018 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30394930

RESUMO

We present a case of a 61-year-old man with history of prostate cancer and rising PSA levels referred for restaging. Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT identified 2 lung nodules with low and moderate PSMA uptake. Subsequent F-FDG PET/CT showed high hypermetabolism in the nodule with low PSMA uptake, and low hypermetabolism in the nodule with moderate PSMA uptake. The isolated pulmonary findings and metabolic appearance is an atypical presentation of prostate cancer metastases and raised concern for a second primary malignancy. Fine-needle aspiration of the F-FDG active lung nodule confirmed metastatic prostatic adenocarcinoma that subsequently responded to androgen deprivation therapy and abiraterone acetate.

11.
NPJ Breast Cancer ; 4: 24, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30131973

RESUMO

Radiomics is an emerging technology for imaging biomarker discovery and disease-specific personalized treatment management. This paper aims to determine the benefit of using multi-modality radiomics data from PET and MR images in the characterization breast cancer phenotype and prognosis. Eighty-four features were extracted from PET and MR images of 113 breast cancer patients. Unsupervised clustering based on PET and MRI radiomic features created three subgroups. These derived subgroups were statistically significantly associated with tumor grade (p = 2.0 × 10-6), tumor overall stage (p = 0.037), breast cancer subtypes (p = 0.0085), and disease recurrence status (p = 0.0053). The PET-derived first-order statistics and gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) textural features were discriminative of breast cancer tumor grade, which was confirmed by the results of L2-regularization logistic regression (with repeated nested cross-validation) with an estimated area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.76 (95% confidence interval (CI) = [0.62, 0.83]). The results of ElasticNet logistic regression indicated that PET and MR radiomics distinguished recurrence-free survival, with a mean AUC of 0.75 (95% CI = [0.62, 0.88]) and 0.68 (95% CI = [0.58, 0.81]) for 1 and 2 years, respectively. The MRI-derived GLCM inverse difference moment normalized (IDMN) and the PET-derived GLCM cluster prominence were among the key features in the predictive models for recurrence-free survival. In conclusion, radiomic features from PET and MR images could be helpful in deciphering breast cancer phenotypes and may have potential as imaging biomarkers for prediction of breast cancer recurrence-free survival.

13.
Oncologist ; 23(9): 998-1003, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29622700

RESUMO

Biliary tract cancers such as cholangiocarcinoma represent a heterogeneous group of cancers that can be difficult to diagnose. Recent comprehensive genomic analyses in large cholangiocarcinoma cohorts have defined important molecular subgroups within cholangiocarcinoma that may relate to anatomic location and etiology [1], [2], [3], [4] and may predict responsiveness to targeted therapies in development [5], [6], [7]. These emerging data highlight the potential for tumor genomics to inform diagnosis and treatment options in this challenging tumor type. We report the case of a patient with a germline BRCA1 mutation who presented with a cholangiocarcinoma driven by the novel YWHAZ-BRAF fusion. Hybrid capture-based DNA sequencing and copy number analysis performed as part of clinical care demonstrated that two later-occurring tumors were clonally derived from the primary cholangiocarcinoma rather than distinct new primaries, revealing an unusual pattern of late metachronous metastasis. We discuss the clinical significance of these genetic alterations and their relevance to therapeutic strategies. KEY POINTS: Hybrid capture-based next-generation DNA sequencing assays can provide diagnostic clarity in patients with unusual patterns of metastasis and recurrence in which the pathologic diagnosis is ambiguous.To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a YWHAZ-BRAF fusion in pancreaticobiliary cancer, and a very rare case of cholangiocarcinoma in the setting of a germline BRCA1 mutation.The patient's BRCA1 mutation and YWHAZ-BRAF fusion constitute potential targets for future therapy.

14.
J Urol ; 199(3): 699-705, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28941918

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to estimate the impact of lesion visibility with transrectal ultrasound on the prediction of clinically significant prostate cancer with transrectal ultrasound-magnetic resonance imaging fusion biopsy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This HIPAA (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act) compliant, institutional review board approved, retrospective study was performed in 178 men who were 64.7 years old with prostate specific antigen 8.9 ng/ml. They underwent transrectal ultrasound-magnetic resonance imaging fusion biopsy from January 2013 to September 2016. Visible lesions on magnetic resonance imaging were assigned a PI-RADS™ (Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System), version 2 score of 3 or greater. Transrectal ultrasound was positive when a hypoechoic lesion was identified. We used a 3-level, mixed effects logistic regression model to determine how transrectal ultrasound-magnetic resonance imaging concordance predicted the presence of clinically significant prostate cancer. The diagnostic performance of the 2 methods was estimated using ROC curves. RESULTS: A total of 1,331 sextants were targeted by transrectal ultrasound-magnetic resonance imaging fusion or systematic biopsies, of which 1,037 were negative, 183 were Gleason score 3 + 3 and 111 were Gleason score 3 + 4 or greater. Clinically significant prostate cancer was diagnosed by transrectal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging alone at 20.5% and 19.7% of these locations, respectively. Men with positive imaging had higher odds of clinically significant prostate cancer than men without visible lesions regardless of modality (transrectal ultrasound OR 14.75, 95% CI 5.22-41.69, magnetic resonance imaging OR 12.27, 95% CI 6.39-23.58 and the 2 modalities OR 28.68, 95% CI 14.45-56.89, all p <0.001). The ROC AUC to detect clinically significant prostate cancer using the 2 methods (0.85, 95% CI 0.81-0.89) was statistically greater than that of transrectal ultrasound alone (0.80, 95% CI 0.76-0.85, p = 0.001) and magnetic resonance imaging alone (0.83, 95% CI 0.79-0.87, p = 0.04). The sensitivity and specificity of transrectal ultrasound were 42.3% and 91.6%, and the sensitivity and specificity of magnetic resonance imaging were 62.2% and 84.1%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Lesion visibility on magnetic resonance imaging or transrectal ultrasound denotes a similar probability of clinically significant prostate cancer. This probability is greater when each examination is positive.

15.
Clin Imaging ; 50: 57-61, 2018 Jul - Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29276962

RESUMO

We compared the prevalence of a baseline diagnosis of cancer in patients with and without misty mesentery (MM) and determined its association with the development of a new cancer. This was a retrospective, HIPAA-compliant, IRB-approved case-control study of 148 cases and 4:1 age- and gender-matched controls. Statistical tests included chi-square, t-test, hazard models, and C-statistic. Patients with MM were less likely to have cancer at baseline (RR=0.74, p=0.003), but more likely to develop a new malignancy on follow-up (RR=2.13, p=0.003; survival analysis HR 1.74, p=0.05). MM may confer an increased probability of later developing cancer, particularly genitourinary tumors.


Assuntos
Mesentério/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mesentério/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
16.
Mol Imaging Biol ; 20(3): 492-500, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29192363

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Newer high-performance time-of-flight (TOF) positron emission tomography (PET) systems have the capability to preserve diagnostic image quality with low count density, while maintaining a high raw photon detection sensitivity that would allow for a reduction in injected dose or rapid data acquisition. To assess this, we performed quantitative and visual assessments of the PET images acquired using a highly sensitive (23.3 cps/kBq) large field of view (25-cm axial) silicon photomultiplier (SiPM)-based TOF PET (400-ps timing resolution) integrated with 3 T-MRI in comparison to PET images acquired on non-TOF PET/x-ray computed tomography (CT) systems. PROCEDURES: Whole-body 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose ([18F]FDG) PET/CT was acquired for 15 patients followed by whole body PET/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with an average injected dose of 325 ± 84 MBq. The PET list mode data from PET/MRI were reconstructed using full datasets (4 min/bed) and reduced datasets (2, 1, 0.5, and 0.25 min/bed). Qualitative assessment between PET/CT and PET/MR images were made. A Likert-type scale between 1 and 5, 1 for non-diagnostic, 3 equivalent to PET/CT, and 5 superior quality, was used. Maximum and mean standardized uptake values (SUVmax and SUVmean) of normal tissues and lesions detected were measured and compared. RESULTS: Mean visual assessment scores were 3.54 ± 0.32, 3.62 ± 0.38, and 3.69 ± 0.35 for the brain and 3.05 ± 0.49, 3.71 ± 0.45, and 4.14 ± 0.44 for the whole-body maximum intensity projections (MIPs) for 1, 2, and 4 min/bed PET/MR images, respectively. The SUVmean values for normal tissues were lower and statistically significant for images acquired at 4, 2, 1, 0.5, and 0.25 min/bed on the PET/MR, with values of - 18 ± 28 % (p < 0.001), - 16 ± 29 % (p = 0.001), - 16 ± 31 % (p = 0.002), - 14 ± 35 % (p < 0.001), and - 13 ± 34 % (p = 0.002), respectively. SUVmax and SUVpeak values of all lesions were higher and statistically significant (p < 0.05) for 4, 2, 1, 0.50, and 0.25 min/bed PET/MR datasets. CONCLUSION: High-sensitivity TOF PET showed comparable but still better visual image quality even at a much reduced activity in comparison to lower-sensitivity non-TOF PET. Our data translates to a seven times reduction in either injection dose for the same time or total scan time for the same injected dose. This "ultra-sensitivity" PET system provides a path to clinically acceptable extremely low-dose FDG PET studies (e.g., sub 1 mCi injection or sub-mSv effective dose) or PET studies as short as 1 min/bed (e.g., 6 min of total scan time) to cover whole body without compromising diagnostic performance.

17.
Mol Imaging ; 16: 1536012117736703, 2017 Jan-Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29169313

RESUMO

Recent technical advances in positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) technology allow much improved time-of-flight (TOF) and regularized iterative PET reconstruction regularized iterative reconstruction (RIR) algorithms. We evaluated the effect of TOF and RIR on standardized uptake values (maximum and peak SUV [SUVmax and SUVpeak]) and their metabolic tumor volume dependencies and visual image quality for 18F-fluorocholine PET/MRI in patients with newly diagnosed prostate cancer. Fourteen patients were administered with 3 MBq/kg of 18F-fluorocholine and scanned dynamically for 30 minutes. Positron emission tomography images were divided to early and late time points (1-6 minutes summed and 7-30 minutes summed). The values of the different SUVs were documented for dominant PET-avid lesions, and metabolic tumor volume was estimated using a 50% isocontour and SUV threshold of 2.5. Image quality was assessed via visual acuity scoring (VAS). We found that incorporation of TOF or RIR increased lesion SUVs. The lesion to background ratio was not improved by TOF reconstruction, while RIR improved the lesion to background ratio significantly ( P < .05). The values of the different VAS were all significantly higher ( P < .05) for RIR images over TOF, RIR over non-TOF, and TOF over non-TOF. In conclusion, our data indicate that TOF or RIR should be incorporated into current protocols when available.


Assuntos
Fluordesoxiglucose F18/metabolismo , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/metabolismo , Idoso , Algoritmos , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Imagem Multimodal , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Radiol Bras ; 50(5): 299-307, 2017 Sep-Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29085163

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the predictions of dominant Gleason pattern ≥ 4 or non-organ confined disease with Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS v2) with or without proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (1H-MRSI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-nine men underwent 3-tesla endorectal multiparametric MRI including 1H-MRSI and prostatectomy. Two radiologists assigned PI-RADS v2 and 1H-MRSI scores to index lesions. Statistical analyses used logistic regressions, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, and 2x2 tables for diagnostic accuracies. RESULTS: The sensitivity and specificity of 1H-MRSI and PI-RADS v2 for high-grade prostate cancer (PCa) were 85.7% (57.1%) and 92.9% (100%), and 56% (68.0%) and 24.0% (24.0%). The sensitivity and specificity of 1H-MRSI and PI-RADS v2 for extra-prostatic extension (EPE) were 64.0% (40%) and 20.0% (48%), and 50.0% (57.1%) and 71.4% (64.3%). The area under the ROC curves (AUC) for prediction of high-grade prostate cancer were 0.65 and 0.61 for PI-RADS v2 and 0.72 and 0.70 when combined with 1H-MRSI (readers 1 and 2, p = 0.04 and 0.21). For prediction of EPE the AUC were 0.54 and 0.60 for PI-RADS v2 and 0.55 and 0.61 when combined with 1H-MRSI (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: 1H-MRSI might improve the discrimination of high-grade prostate cancer when combined to PI-RADS v2, particularly for PI-RADS v2 score 4 lesions, but it does not affect the prediction of EPE.

19.
Radiographics ; 37(7): 2063-2082, 2017 Nov-Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29131768

RESUMO

Abdominal and pelvic hernias may be indolent and detected incidentally, manifest acutely with pain and distress, or cause chronic discomfort. Physical examination findings are often ambiguous and insufficient for optimal triage. Therefore, accurate anatomic delineation and identification of complications are critical for effective treatment planning. Imaging, particularly computed tomography, provides a vital understanding of the hernia's location and size, involved viscera, and severity of associated complications. Reader familiarity with the imaging appearances and anatomic landmarks of hernias is important for correct diagnosis, which may impact preoperative planning and reduce morbidity. This article reviews the appearance of anatomic structures in the abdominal wall and pelvis that are important for diagnosing common and uncommon abdominal and pelvic hernias, and it highlights key imaging features that are helpful for differentiating hernias, mimics, and their complications. Online DICOM image stacks are available for this article . ©RSNA, 2017.


Assuntos
Hérnia/diagnóstico por imagem , Pontos de Referência Anatômicos , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Ultrassonografia
20.
Radiol. bras ; 50(5): 299-307, Sept.-Oct. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-896111

RESUMO

Abstract Objective: To compare the predictions of dominant Gleason pattern ≥ 4 or non-organ confined disease with Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS v2) with or without proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (1H-MRSI). Materials and Methods: Thirty-nine men underwent 3-tesla endorectal multiparametric MRI including 1H-MRSI and prostatectomy. Two radiologists assigned PI-RADS v2 and 1H-MRSI scores to index lesions. Statistical analyses used logistic regressions, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, and 2x2 tables for diagnostic accuracies. Results: The sensitivity and specificity of 1H-MRSI and PI-RADS v2 for high-grade prostate cancer (PCa) were 85.7% (57.1%) and 92.9% (100%), and 56% (68.0%) and 24.0% (24.0%). The sensitivity and specificity of 1H-MRSI and PI-RADS v2 for extra-prostatic extension (EPE) were 64.0% (40%) and 20.0% (48%), and 50.0% (57.1%) and 71.4% (64.3%). The area under the ROC curves (AUC) for prediction of high-grade prostate cancer were 0.65 and 0.61 for PI-RADS v2 and 0.72 and 0.70 when combined with 1H-MRSI (readers 1 and 2, p = 0.04 and 0.21). For prediction of EPE the AUC were 0.54 and 0.60 for PI-RADS v2 and 0.55 and 0.61 when combined with 1H-MRSI (p > 0.05). Conclusion: 1H-MRSI might improve the discrimination of high-grade prostate cancer when combined to PI-RADS v2, particularly for PI-RADS v2 score 4 lesions, but it does not affect the prediction of EPE.


Resumo Objetivo: Comparar as predições de tumor com padrão 4 de Gleason dominante ou de tumor com extensão extraprostática utilizando o sistema Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS v2), combinado ou não a espectroscopia por ressonância magnética (1H-ERM). Materiais e Métodos: Trinta e nove pacientes submeteram-se a RM de 3 tesla com bobina endorretal, incluindo 1H-ERM, e prostatectomia. Dois radiologistas classificaram as principais lesões identificadas em cada caso utilizando PI-RADS v2 e escores de 1H-ERM. As análises estatísticas incluíram regressões logísticas, curvas receiver operating characteristic (ROC) e tabelas 2x2 para acurácia diagnóstica. Resultados: A sensibilidade e a especificidade da 1H-ERM e do PI-RADS v2 para a detecção de câncer de próstata de alto grau foram 85,7% (57,1%) e 92,9% (100%), e 56% (68%) e 24% (24%). A sensibilidade e a especificidade da 1H-ERM e do PI-RADS v2 para a detecção de extensão extraprostática (EEP) foram 64,0% (40%) e 20% (48%), e 50% (57,1%) e 71,4% (64,3%). As áreas das curvas ROC para a predição de câncer de alto grau foram 0,65 e 0,61 para PI-RADS v2 e 0,72 e 0,70 quando combinado com 1H-ERM (radiologistas 1 e 2, p = 0.04 e 0.21). Para a predição de EEP, as áreas das curvas ROC foram 0,54 e 0,60 para PI-RADS v2 e 0,55 e 0,61 quando combinado com 1H-ERM (p > 0.05). Conclusão: É possível que a 1H-ERM melhore a predição de câncer de alto grau quando combinada ao PI-RADS v2, em particular para lesões que recebem um escore PI-RADS v2 4; entretanto, ela não afeta a predição de EEP.

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