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1.
Cells ; 10(7)2021 06 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206914

RESUMO

Whilst the importance of keratinocytes as a first-line defense has been widely investigated, little is known about their interactions with non-resident immune cells. In this study, the impact of human keratinocytes on T cell effector functions was analyzed in an antigen-specific in vitro model of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) to nickel sulfate. Keratinocytes partially inhibited T cell proliferation and cytokine production. This effect was dependent on the keratinocyte/T cell ratio and was partially reversible by increasing the number of autologous dendritic cells. The inhibition of T cell proliferation by keratinocytes was independent of the T cell subtype and antigen presentation by different professional antigen-presenting cells. Autologous and heterologous keratinocytes showed comparable effects, while the fixation of keratinocytes with paraformaldehyde abrogated the immunosuppressive effect. The separation of keratinocytes and T cells by a transwell chamber, as well as a cell-free keratinocyte supernatant, inhibited T cell effector functions to the same amount as directly co-cultured keratinocytes, thus proving that soluble factor/s account for the observed suppressive effects. In conclusion, keratinocytes critically control the threshold of inflammatory processes in the skin by inhibiting T cell proliferation and cytokine production.


Assuntos
Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/patologia , Queratinócitos/patologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Apresentação do Antígeno/imunologia , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Comunicação Celular , Proliferação de Células , Forma Celular , Microambiente Celular , Dermatite de Contato/imunologia , Dermatite de Contato/patologia , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade/patologia , Queratinócitos/ultraestrutura , Modelos Biológicos , Pele/imunologia , Pele/patologia , Solubilidade , Linfócitos T/ultraestrutura
2.
Allergy ; 76(6): 1718-1730, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33037672

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Common ragweed has been spreading as a neophyte in Europe. Elevated CO2 levels, a hallmark of global climate change, have been shown to increase ragweed pollen production, but their effects on pollen allergenicity remain to be elucidated. METHODS: Ragweed was grown in climate-controlled chambers under normal (380 ppm, control) or elevated (700 ppm, based on RCP4.5 scenario) CO2 levels. Aqueous pollen extracts (RWE) from control- or CO2 -pollen were administered in vivo in a mouse model for allergic disease (daily for 3-11 days, n = 5) and employed in human in vitro systems of nasal epithelial cells (HNECs), monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs), and HNEC-DC co-cultures. Additionally, adjuvant factors and metabolites in control- and CO2 -RWE were investigated using ELISA and untargeted metabolomics. RESULTS: In vivo, CO2 -RWE induced stronger allergic lung inflammation compared to control-RWE, as indicated by lung inflammatory cell infiltrate and mediators, mucus hypersecretion, and serum total IgE. In vitro, HNECs stimulated with RWE increased indistinctively the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-8, IL-1ß, and IL-6). In contrast, supernatants from CO2 -RWE-stimulated HNECs, compared to control-RWE-stimulated HNECS, significantly increased TNF and decreased IL-10 production in DCs. Comparable results were obtained by stimulating DCs directly with RWEs. The metabolome analysis revealed differential expression of secondary plant metabolites in control- vs CO2 -RWE. Mixes of these metabolites elicited similar responses in DCs as compared to respective RWEs. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that elevated ambient CO2 levels elicit a stronger RWE-induced allergic response in vivo and in vitro and that RWE increased allergenicity depends on the interplay of multiple metabolites.


Assuntos
Ambrosia , Dióxido de Carbono , Alérgenos , Europa (Continente) , Pólen
3.
Hautarzt ; 70(3): 169-184, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30659336

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Among the many risk factors for the development of atopic eczema (AE), the influence of air pollution has recently been discussed more often. A systematic review about this topic however is lacking. AIMS: Which effects of outdoor air pollution (particles, nitric oxides, sulfur dioxide, ozone or general traffic exhaust emissions) on AE can be demonstrated in a systematic analysis of available environmental epidemiologic studies? METHODS: All environmental epidemiologic studies on AE and air pollution found in the literature database PubMed were identified. The most important key figures of these studies were tabulated, the quality of evidence was graded and the studies described. RESULTS: A total of 57 studies were identified. Only one of the 15 cross-sectional studies with a large-scale exposure assessment found a significant association between AE and air pollution. In contrast 23 of 30 studies with small-scale exposure assessment found a significant association between AE and traffic related emissions-especially from trucks. Of the 30 studies, 14 were cohort studies (1 adult, 13 birth cohorts). The sole adult cohort found an association with intrinsic AE. In the East Asian cohorts (all published since 2015), an association between maternal exposure to traffic-related pollution and incidence of AE in the offspring was found. This was less clear in cohorts from Europe/US or simply not investigated. In 5/5 panel studies (all from South Korea), symptom severity of AE was found to be significantly and positively related to outdoor air pollution. CONCLUSIONS: In a systematic analysis of environmental epidemiologic studies about air pollution and AE rather good evidence was found that, based on small-scale exposure measurements, especially truck traffic emissions increased AE prevalence, while large-scale exposure to larger particles (PM10) or SO2 was without effect. Considering pathophysiologic aspects traffic exhaust emissions seem to affect both skin barrier function and activation of immune responses.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Dermatite Atópica/induzido quimicamente , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Veículos Automotores , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Dióxido de Enxofre/efeitos adversos
4.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 143(1): 369-377.e5, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30012513

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endotoxin (LPS) released from gram-negative bacteria causes strong immunologic and inflammatory effects and, when airborne, can contribute to respiratory conditions, such as allergic asthma. OBJECTIVES: We sought to identify the source of airborne endotoxin and the effect of this endotoxin on allergic sensitization. METHODS: We determined LPS levels in outdoor air on a daily basis for 4 consecutive years in Munich (Germany) and Davos (Switzerland). Air was sampled as particulate matter (PM) greater than 10 µm (PM > 10) and PM between 2.5 and 10 µm. LPS levels were determined by using the recombinant Factor C assay. RESULTS: More than 60% of the annual endotoxin exposure was detected in the PM > 10 fraction, showing that bacteria do not aerosolize as independent units or aggregates but adhered to large particles. In Munich 70% of annual exposure was detected between June 12th and August 28th. Multivariate modeling showed that endotoxin levels could be explained by phenological parameters (ie, plant growth). Indeed, days with high airborne endotoxin levels correlated well with the amount of Artemisia pollen in the air. Pollen collected from plants across Europe (100 locations) showed that the highest levels of endotoxin were detected on Artemisia vulgaris (mugwort) pollen, with little on other pollen. Microbiome analysis showed that LPS concentrations on mugwort pollen were related to the presence of Pseudomonas species and Pantoea species communities. In a mouse model of allergic disease, the presence of LPS on mugwort pollen was needed for allergic sensitization. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of airborne endotoxin stems from bacteria dispersed with pollen of only one plant: mugwort. This LPS was essential for inducing inflammation of the lung and allergic sensitization.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Lipopolissacarídeos , Material Particulado , Pólen , Animais , Artemisia/química , Artemisia/imunologia , Artemisia/microbiologia , Asma/imunologia , Asma/microbiologia , Alemanha , Humanos , Lipopolissacarídeos/química , Lipopolissacarídeos/imunologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Pantoea/imunologia , Material Particulado/química , Material Particulado/imunologia , Pólen/química , Pólen/imunologia , Pólen/microbiologia , Pseudomonas/imunologia
5.
Sci Rep ; 7: 44005, 2017 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28276465

RESUMO

The mechanisms how environmental compounds influence the human immune system are unknown. The environmentally sensitive transcription factor aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) has immune-modulating functions and responds to small molecules. Cytochrome P4501 enzymes (CYP1) act downstream of the AHR and metabolize small molecules. However, it is currently unknown whether CYP1 activity is relevant for immune modulation. We studied the interdependence of CYP1 and AHR in human primary immune cells using pharmacological methods. CYP1 inhibition increased the expression levels of the stem cell factor receptor (c-Kit) and interleukin (IL)-22 but decreased IL-17. Single cell analyses showed that CYP1 inhibition especially promoted CD4+ helper T (Th) cells that co-express c-Kit and IL-22 simultaneously. The addition of an AHR antagonist reversed all these effects. In addition to T cells, we screened other human immune cells for CYP and found cell-specific fingerprints, suggesting that similar mechanisms are present in multiple immune cells. We describe a feedback loop yet unknown in human immune cells where CYP1 inhibition resulted in an altered AHR-dependent immune response. This mechanism relates CYP1-dependent metabolism of environmental small molecules to human immunity.


Assuntos
Família 1 do Citocromo P450/metabolismo , Interleucinas/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-kit/metabolismo , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/metabolismo , Família 1 do Citocromo P450/antagonistas & inibidores , Retroalimentação Fisiológica , Humanos , Cultura Primária de Células , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/imunologia
6.
Plant Cell Environ ; 39(1): 147-64, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26177592

RESUMO

Ragweed pollen is the main cause of allergenic diseases in Northern America, and the weed has become a spreading neophyte in Europe. Climate change and air pollution are speculated to affect the allergenic potential of pollen. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of NO2 , a major air pollutant, under controlled conditions, on the allergenicity of ragweed pollen. Ragweed was exposed to different levels of NO2 throughout the entire growing season, and its pollen further analysed. Spectroscopic analysis showed increased outer cell wall polymers and decreased amounts of pectin. Proteome studies using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry indicated increased amounts of several Amb a 1 isoforms and of another allergen with great homology to enolase Hev b 9 from rubber tree. Analysis of protein S-nitrosylation identified nitrosylated proteins in pollen from both conditions, including Amb a 1 isoforms. However, elevated NO2 significantly enhanced the overall nitrosylation. Finally, we demonstrated increased overall pollen allergenicity by immunoblotting using ragweed antisera, showing a significantly higher allergenicity for Amb a 1. The data highlight a direct influence of elevated NO2 on the increased allergenicity of ragweed pollen and a direct correlation with an increased risk for human health.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/imunologia , Ambrosia/imunologia , Antígenos de Plantas/imunologia , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/imunologia , Poluição do Ar , Alérgenos/efeitos dos fármacos , Alérgenos/genética , Ambrosia/efeitos dos fármacos , Ambrosia/genética , Antígenos de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Antígenos de Plantas/genética , Mudança Climática , Análise por Conglomerados , Eletroforese em Gel Bidimensional , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/imunologia , Estações do Ano
7.
Allergo J Int ; 24: 46-53, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26709369

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: ImmunoCAP ISAC 112, is a commercially available molecular allergy IgE multiplex test. Data on the comparison of this rather novel test with extract-based as well as molecular ImmunoCAP singleplex IgE tests is missing. OBJECTIVE: To perform a comparison between the ISAC multiplex IgE assay and the ImmunoCAP singleplex test results. METHODS: Serum samples of 101 adults with grass pollen allergy were analysed for sIgE to 112 allergenic molecules represented on the ISAC test as well as to common atopy-related extract-based allergy tests with the ImmunoCAP System (house dust mite [d1], cat [e1], dog [e5], cow's milk [f2], hen's egg [f1], hazelnut [f17], celery [f85], Alternaria alternate [m6], as well as pollen from birch [t3], hazel [t4], mugwort [w6], and ragweed [w1]). Subsequently statistical analysis was performed with the Spearman rank correlation test and the Clopper-Pearson method in order to compare the ISAC multiplex results with the sIgE singleplex results. RESULTS: The positive percent agreements (PPA) and negative percent agreement (NPA) of corresponding allergens between the ISAC sIgE test and the extract-based singleplex ImmunoCAP results at cutoff 0.1 kUA/l varied between 60-100 % for PPA and 78-97 % for NPA. CONCLUSION: When taking into account corresponding allergens molecular testing with the ISAC multiplex test correlates well with ImmunoCAP singleplex results.

8.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 136(1): 87-95.e6, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25956508

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Allergies to grass pollen are the number one cause of outdoor hay fever. The human immune system reacts with symptoms to allergen from pollen. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the natural variability in release of the major group 5 allergen from grass pollen across Europe. METHODS: Airborne pollen and allergens were simultaneously collected daily with a volumetric spore trap and a high-volume cascade impactor at 10 sites across Europe for 3 consecutive years. Group 5 allergen levels were determined with a Phl p 5-specific ELISA in 2 fractions of ambient air: particulate matter of greater than 10 µm in diameter and particulate matter greater than 2.5 µm and less than 10 µm in diameter. Mediator release by ambient air was determined in FcεRI-humanized basophils. The origin of pollen was modeled and condensed to pollen potency maps. RESULTS: On average, grass pollen released 2.3 pg of Phl p 5 per pollen. Allergen release per pollen (potency) varied substantially, ranging from less than 1 to 9 pg of Phl p 5 per pollen (5% to 95% percentile). The main variation was locally day to day. Average potency maps across Europe varied between years. Mediator release from basophilic granulocytes correlated better with allergen levels per cubic meter (r(2) = 0.80, P < .001) than with pollen grains per cubic meter (r(2) = 0.61, P < .001). In addition, pollen released different amounts of allergen in the non-pollen-bearing fraction of ambient air, depending on humidity. CONCLUSION: Across Europe, the same amount of pollen released substantially different amounts of group 5 grass pollen allergen. This variation in allergen release is in addition to variations in pollen counts. Molecular aerobiology (ie, determining allergen in ambient air) might be a valuable addition to pollen counting.


Assuntos
Ar/análise , Basófilos/fisiologia , Material Particulado/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Pólen/química , Receptores de IgE/metabolismo , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/imunologia , Degranulação Celular , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Umidade , Poaceae/imunologia , Receptores de IgE/genética , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano
9.
PLoS One ; 10(5): e0120038, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25978036

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pollen released by allergenic members of the botanically unrelated families of Asteraceae and Cupressaceae represent potent elicitors of respiratory allergies in regions where these plants are present. As main allergen sources the Asteraceae species ragweed and mugwort, as well as the Cupressaceae species, cypress, mountain cedar, and Japanese cedar have been identified. The major allergens of all species belong to the pectate lyase enzyme family. Thus, we thought to investigate cross-reactivity pattern as well as sensitization capacities of pectate lyase pollen allergens in cohorts from distinct geographic regions. METHODS: The clinically relevant pectate lyase pollen allergens Amb a 1, Art v 6, Cup a 1, Jun a 1, and Cry j 1 were purified from aqueous pollen extracts, and patients' sensitization pattern of cohorts from Austria, Canada, Italy, and Japan were determined by IgE ELISA and cross-inhibition experiments. Moreover, we performed microarray experiments and established a mouse model of sensitization. RESULTS: In ELISA and ELISA inhibition experiments specific sensitization pattern were discovered for each geographic region, which reflected the natural allergen exposure of the patients. We found significant cross-reactivity within Asteraceae and Cupressaceae pectate lyase pollen allergens, which was however limited between the orders. Animal experiments showed that immunization with Asteraceae allergens mainly induced antibodies reactive within the order, the same was observed for the Cupressaceae allergens. Cross-reactivity between orders was minimal. Moreover, Amb a 1, Art v 6, and Cry j 1 showed in general higher immunogenicity. CONCLUSION: We could cluster pectate lyase allergens in four categories, Amb a 1, Art v 6, Cup a 1/Jun a 1, and Cry j 1, respectively, at which each category has the potential to sensitize predisposed individuals. The sensitization pattern of different cohorts correlated with pollen exposure, which should be considered for future allergy diagnosis and therapy.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/imunologia , Pólen/imunologia , Polissacarídeo-Liases/imunologia , Ambrosia/imunologia , Animais , Antígenos de Plantas/imunologia , Artemisia/imunologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
10.
World Allergy Organ J ; 8(1): 2, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25610519

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pollen allergens are delivered to epithelial surfaces of the upper respiratory tract in conjunction with multiple endogenous adjuvants. We previously demonstrated pollen-mediated modulation of cytokine and chemokine production of dendritic cells, contributing to a Th2-dominated micromilieu. As T helper cell differentiation not only depends on dendritic cell-derived cytokines but also on cell-cell-contact mediated mechanisms, we studied the expression of notch ligands and myeloid differentiation primary response protein 88 (MyD88) in dendritic cells matured in the presence of aqueous birch pollen extracts and pollen-associated E1-phytoprostanes. METHODS: Human monocyte-derived dendritic cells were stimulated with aqueous birch pollen extracts in the absence or presence of lipopolysaccharide, and mRNA expression levels of notch ligands delta-1 and -4, jagged-1 and -2 and of myd88 were determined. Regulation of Delta-4 and MyD88 by aqueous pollen extracts was assessed on protein level. The contribution of notch signaling to T helper cell differentiation was analyzed in allogeneic T cell stimulation assays. RESULTS: In immature dendritic cells, stimulation with pollen extracts resulted in an induction of both delta and jagged notch ligands. The lipopolysaccharide-induced up-regulation of delta-1 and -4 and of myd88 was decreased by aqueous pollen extracts, whereas jagged expression was induced. Reduction of Delta-4 and MyD88 by aqueous pollen extracts was confirmed on protein level. The Th2-skewing activity was contained in a fraction of aqueous pollen extracts enriched for molecules <3 kDa and was distinct from the previously identified E1-phytoprostanes. Reduction of notch signaling in dendritic cells matured in the presence aqueous pollen extract leads to inhibition of IL-10 and to induction of IL-5 production in naïve T cells differentiated by these dendritic cells. CONCLUSIONS: Pollen derived, non-allergenic factors reduce the dendritic cell's expression of Th1 instructing Delta-like notch ligands and of MyD88, thereby promoting Th2 skewing of T helper cell responses.

11.
Allergo J Int ; 24: 108-120, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27226949

RESUMO

Ambrosia artemisiifolia (ragweed) is a neophyte in Europe and Germany, which originated from the United States of America. In the USA the rate of sensitization against ragweed equals that of grass pollen, and without containment the rate of allergic sensitizations against ragweed pollen will clearly increase. Currently, the most frequent sensitizations in Germany are against grass pollen, followed by sensitizations against house dust mite and birch pollen. Ragweed pollen evokes symptoms at about 10 pollen/m3, grass pollen at about 15 pollen/m3. These concentrations of ragweed pollen are only reached on limited occasions in Germany. Ragweed cross-reacts with mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris) and a correct diagnosis is only feasible with the ragweed specific allergen Amb a 1. Due to cross reactivity with mugwort, new sensitizations against ragweed pollen are not needed to evoke allergic symptoms. The neophyte encounters an already mugwort-sensitized population, extends the pollen season and may provoke new sensitizations. Ragweed sensitizations are characterized by an increased tendency to also affect the lower airways, which is less with mugwort sensitizations. Thus containment of ragweed is needed. Ragweed seeds are imported or spread by contaminated bird feed, the transport of ragweed contaminated soil (also in tyre treads) and agricultural products from infested areas. States bordering on ragweed positive areas, like Brandenburg and Bavaria, are especially at risk and invasion is already underway. Ragweed seeds survive up to 40 years in soil, and so extended timescales for eradication and observations are needed. Germany is, compared to other countries like France (Rhone-Valley), Italy (Po-Valley), Ukraine and Hungary, limited in respect to ragweed infestation. Conditions in Germany are therefore favourable for the containment of ragweed. Switzerland implemented legislation against birdseed contamination by ragweed early during the plants expansion, and obligatory ragweed registration- and eradication showed that ragweed containment is possible. Without counter measures ragweed expansion in Germany will take place, resulting in more allergic disease. Considering the increasing number of allergic individuals, even without ragweed invasion, containment of the neophyte should be actively persued. Unfortunately, time is running out.

12.
Part Fibre Toxicol ; 11: 39, 2014 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25204642

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological and experimental studies suggest that exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP) might aggravate the allergic inflammation of the lung in asthmatics. METHODS: We exposed 12 allergic asthmatics in two subgroups in a double-blinded randomized cross-over design, first to freshly generated ultrafine carbon particles (64 µg/m³; 6.1 ± 0.4 × 105 particles/cm³ for 2 h) and then to filtered air or vice versa with a 28-day recovery period in-between. Eighteen hours after each exposure, grass pollen was instilled into a lung lobe via bronchoscopy. Another 24 hours later, inflammatory cells were collected by means of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). ( TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT00527462) RESULTS: For the entire study group, inhalation of UFP by itself had no significant effect on the allergen induced inflammatory response measured with total cell count as compared to exposure with filtered air (p = 0.188). However, the subgroup of subjects, which inhaled UFP during the first exposure, exhibited a significant increase in total BAL cells (p = 0.021), eosinophils (p = 0.031) and monocytes (p = 0.013) after filtered air exposure and subsequent allergen challenge 28 days later. Additionally, the potential of BAL cells to generate oxidant radicals was significantly elevated at that time point. The subgroup that was exposed first to filtered air and 28 days later to UFP did not reveal differences between sessions. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate that pre-allergen exposure to UFP had no acute effect on the allergic inflammation. However, the subgroup analysis lead to the speculation that inhaled UFP particles might have a long-term effect on the inflammatory course in asthmatic patients. This should be reconfirmed in further studies with an appropriate study design and sufficient number of subjects.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Asma/complicações , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Pneumonia/induzido quimicamente , Hipersensibilidade Respiratória/etiologia , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Asma/fisiopatologia , Testes de Provocação Brônquica , Carbono/administração & dosagem , Carbono/química , Carbono/toxicidade , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/administração & dosagem , Material Particulado/química , Projetos Piloto , Pneumonia/complicações , Pneumonia/imunologia , Pneumonia/fisiopatologia , Hipersensibilidade Respiratória/complicações , Hipersensibilidade Respiratória/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade Respiratória/fisiopatologia , Mucosa Respiratória/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Respiratória/imunologia , Mucosa Respiratória/fisiopatologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
13.
Chem Immunol Allergy ; 100: 228-33, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24925402

RESUMO

Pollen grains only represent a small fraction of the total amount of the viable biological particles present in the air, but pollen are the most important aeroallergens in the outdoor environment. The analysis of pollen has traditionally been carried out by microscopy, which can be traced back to the 17th century. Modern advances in molecular analysis could improve information for allergy sufferers and health care professionals. Pollen allergy (pollinosis) was first described in the 19th century. The prevalence of respiratory diseases increased dramatically during the latter part of the 20th century and millions of individuals are now affected. A number of scientists devised equipment to examine airborne biological particles during the 19th century, but aerobiological monitoring only became standardized during the 20th century. Airborne pollen are routinely monitored in many parts of the world, such as North America and Europe, and the first limited network has also been created for monitoring airborne allergen concentrations. Monitoring of the environment is often based on a combination of measurements and model results. Source-based models can increase our knowledge of airborne pollen because they can explain situations and processes that are almost impossible to understand using observations alone.


Assuntos
Pólen/imunologia , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/patologia , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Alérgenos/química , Alérgenos/história , Alérgenos/imunologia , Monitoramento Ambiental , História do Século XVII , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Pólen/anatomia & histologia , Pólen/química , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/história , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/imunologia
14.
Chem Immunol Allergy ; 100: 268-77, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24925407

RESUMO

It may be a coincidence, but it is a fact that the first clear characterization of hay fever began in England where modern industrialization started in Europe. Only at the end of the 20th century were associations of the increasing prevalence of allergy with outdoor air pollution discussed. The seminal study came from Japan from the group of T. Miyamoto linking the increase in Japanese cedar pollinosis to an increased prevalence of Diesel cars and probably exposure to Diesel exhaust in epidemiological, animal experimental and in vitro studies. In Germany first epidemiological studies were done in North Rhine-Westphalia and Bavaria in 1987 and 1988 showing a striking prevalence of allergic disease of up to 10-20% in preschool children. After German reunification the most surprising observation was a lower prevalence of hay fever in East German children compared to the West, although there was a much higher air pollution with SO2 and large particulate matter. Modern smog as found over West German cities most likely originating from traffic exhaust and consisting of fine and ultrafine particles was shown to be associated with higher incidence rates of allergy and allergic sensitization. In the 10 years after reunification there was a steep increase of allergy prevalence in East German children reaching almost the same level as in West Germany. Obviously, a multitude of lifestyle factors - beyond air pollution - may be involved in the explanation of this phenomenon. Surprisingly the skin manifestation of atopy, namely atopic eczema, was more frequent in East German children compared to the West, thus differing from airway allergy. Meanwhile in vitro studies and animal experiments have shown that a variety of air pollutants mostly from environmental tobacco smoke (indoors) and from traffic exhaust (outdoors) can stimulate immune cells inducing a Th2-dominated response besides their irritative effects. While 50 years ago in allergy textbooks a clear distinction was made between 'toxic' or 'allergic', the newly developed concept of allergotoxicology has stimulated research tremendously, meaning 'the investigation of effects of toxic substances upon the induction, elicitation and maintenance of allergic reactions'.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Hipersensibilidade/etiologia , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Alérgenos/imunologia , Animais , Poluentes Ambientais/história , História do Século XX , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/epidemiologia , Hipersensibilidade/história , Imunoglobulina E/metabolismo , Metais/toxicidade , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Prevalência , Dióxido de Enxofre/química , Dióxido de Enxofre/toxicidade , Células Th2/imunologia , Células Th2/metabolismo , Emissões de Veículos
15.
BMC Plant Biol ; 14: 176, 2014 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24972689

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pollen of common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) is a main cause of allergic diseases in Northern America. The weed has recently become spreading as a neophyte in Europe, while climate change may also affect the growth of the plant and additionally may also influence pollen allergenicity. To gain better insight in the molecular mechanisms in the development of ragweed pollen and its allergenic proteins under global change scenarios, we generated SuperSAGE libraries to identify differentially expressed transcripts. RESULTS: Ragweed plants were grown in a greenhouse under 380 ppm CO2 and under elevated level of CO2 (700 ppm). In addition, drought experiments under both CO2 concentrations were performed. The pollen viability was not altered under elevated CO2, whereas drought stress decreased its viability. Increased levels of individual flavonoid metabolites were found under elevated CO2 and/or drought. Total RNA was isolated from ragweed pollen, exposed to the four mentioned scenarios and four SuperSAGE libraries were constructed. The library dataset included 236,942 unique sequences, showing overlapping as well as clear differently expressed sequence tags (ESTs). The analysis targeted ESTs known in Ambrosia, as well as in pollen of other plants. Among the identified ESTs, those encoding allergenic ragweed proteins (Amb a) increased under elevated CO2 and drought stress. In addition, ESTs encoding allergenic proteins in other plants were also identified. CONCLUSIONS: The analysis of changes in the transcriptome of ragweed pollen upon CO2 and drought stress using SuperSAGE indicates that under global change scenarios the pollen transcriptome was altered, and impacts the allergenic potential of ragweed pollen.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/imunologia , Ambrosia/genética , Ambrosia/fisiologia , Dióxido de Carbono/farmacologia , Secas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Pólen/imunologia , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Ambrosia/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia de Fase Reversa , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Baixo/genética , Etiquetas de Sequências Expressas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Biblioteca Gênica , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Metabolismo Secundário/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência de Tecidos/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência de Tecidos/genética , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Cima/genética
16.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 9: 2815-32, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24940059

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Silica (SiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) are widely used in diverse industrial and biomedical applications. Their applicability depends on surface modifications, which can limit potential health problems. OBJECTIVE: To assess the potential impact of SiO2 NP exposure and NPs chemical modifications in allergic airway inflammation. METHODS: Mice were sensitized by five repetitive intraperitoneal injections of ovalbumin/aluminum hydroxide (1 µg) over 42 days, then intratracheally instilled with plain or modified SiO2 NPs (50 µg/mouse), and subsequently aerosol challenged for 20 minutes with ovalbumin. One or 5 days later, allergic inflammation was evaluated by cell differentiation of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, lung function and gene expression and histopathology, as well as electron and confocal microscopy of pulmonary tissue. RESULTS: Plain SiO2 NPs induced proinflammatory and immunomodulatory effects in vivo, highlighted by enhanced infiltration of inflammatory cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, induction of a pulmonary T helper type 2 (Th2) cytokine pattern, differentiation of type 2 macrophages, and by morphological changes in the lung of sensitized mice. These effects were dramatically attenuated using surface-functionalized NPs with amino and phosphate groups, but not with polyethylene glycol. The role of macrophages in taking up SiO2 NPs was confirmed by flow cytometry, confocal microscopy, and gene expression analysis. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that amino and phosphate surface modifications, but not polyethylene glycol (PEG), mitigate the proinflammatory and immunomodulatory effect of SiO2 NPs in allergic airway inflammation, paving the way for new strategies in the production of nanomaterials with lower health impact for humans.


Assuntos
Fatores Imunológicos/toxicidade , Nanopartículas/química , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Pneumonia/induzido quimicamente , Pneumonia/imunologia , Dióxido de Silício/química , Dióxido de Silício/toxicidade , Animais , Feminino , Teste de Materiais , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Pneumonia/prevenção & controle , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Propriedades de Superfície
17.
Clin Transl Allergy ; 4: 17, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26085923

RESUMO

Mountain and maritime climate therapy takes advantage of specific climatic conditions to treat chronic allergic diseases. It was the aim of the study to investigate effects of a 5 day sojourn on atopic diseases at the highest German mountain. In this pilot study 18 patients with grass pollen-induced rhinoconjunctivitis, atopic ezcema or asthma and 11 non-allergic controls were included. Skin physiology parameters, changes of the respiratory and nasal functions, subjective symptoms and blood parameters were measured during a 5-day observation period in the Environmental Research Station Schneefernerhaus (UFS) at the moderate altitude mountain region (Zugspitze; 2650 m alt.) compared to a low altitude area (Munich; 519 m alt.). Several of the skin physiology parameters changed significantly during the observation period (decrease of skin hydration, increase of skin smoothness, skin roughness, skin scaliness and pH-value). In patients with atopic eczema, the SCORAD (Severity Scoring of Atopic Dermatitis) and the scores of the DIELH (Deutsches Instrument zur Erfassung der Lebensqualität bei Hauterkrankungen) did not change significantly. Histamine induced itch decreased significantly. Parameters of nasal function did not change significantly. Several lung parameters showed a slight, but statistically significant improvement (forced expiratory volume in one second/volume capacity [FEV1/VC], peak expiratory flow [PEF], maximum expiratory flow at 50% of vital capacity [MEF 50], maximal mid-expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of vital capacity [MMFEF 25/75]), whereas the vital capacity (VC) decreased significantly. ECP (eosinophil cationic protein) in the serum and parameters of blood count changed significantly. These results show that the benefit of a moderate altitude mountain climate sojourn over a period of 5 days differs in depending on the atopic disease. Especially asthma parameters and itching of the skin improved. It would be interesting to assess the parameters during longer observation periods in alpine climate.

18.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 133(3): 767-76.e7, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24094547

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence on the long-term effects of air pollution exposure on childhood allergy is limited. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between air pollution exposure and allergic sensitization to common allergens in children followed prospectively during the first 10 years of life. METHODS: Five European birth cohorts participating in the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects project were included: BAMSE (Sweden), LISAplus and GINIplus (Germany), MAAS (Great Britain), and PIAMA (The Netherlands). Land-use regression models were applied to assess the individual residential outdoor levels of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5), the mass concentration of particles between 2.5 and 10 µm in size, and levels of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 10 µm (PM10), as well as measurement of the blackness of PM2.5 filters and nitrogen dioxide and nitrogen oxide levels. Blood samples drawn at 4 to 6 years of age, 8 to 10 years of age, or both from more than 6500 children were analyzed for allergen-specific serum IgE against common allergens. Associations were assessed by using multiple logistic regression and subsequent meta-analysis. RESULTS: The prevalence of sensitization to any common allergen within the 5 cohorts ranged between 24.1% and 40.4% at the age of 4 to 6 years and between 34.8% and 47.9% at the age of 8 to 10 years. Overall, air pollution exposure was not associated with sensitization to any common allergen, with odds ratios ranging from 0.94 (95% CI, 0.63-1.40) for a 1 × 10(-5) ∙ m(-1) increase in measurement of the blackness of PM2.5 filters to 1.26 (95% CI, 0.90-1.77) for a 5 µg/m(3) increase in PM2.5 exposure at birth address. Further analyses did not provide consistent evidence for a modification of the air pollution effects by sex, family history of atopy, or moving status. CONCLUSION: No clear associations between air pollution exposure and development of allergic sensitization in children up to 10 years of age were revealed.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Hipersensibilidade/etiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Óxido Nítrico/análise , Estudos Prospectivos
19.
Eur J Dermatol ; 23(6): 812-9, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24201043

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: Atopic eczema is a common chronic inflammatory disease with itchy skin and altered skin reactions to acetylcholine and nicotinic acid compared to healthy non-atopic individuals. AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate skin reactivity to 11 vasoactive substances and peptides by skin prick and intradermal tests in 20 patients with atopic eczema and 20 healthy controls. METHODS: Skin reactions, blanching, wheal and flare areas were measured by planimetry, 15 minutes after provocation. RESULTS: Patients with atopic eczema had significantly smaller reactions at certain concentrations of the vasodilators acetylcholine, bradykinin, calcitonin gene-related peptide, substance P and vasoactive intestinal peptide for flare, and of substance P and vasoactive intestinal peptide for wheals, in intradermal testing and/or in skin prick testing. Testing of the vasoconstrictors angiotensin-II, arginine-vasopressin, endothelin-1 and noradrenaline in atopic eczema resulted in significantly smaller reactions at certain concentrations for blanching in intradermal testing and/or skin prick testing. Significantly smaller reactions were seen with arginine-vasopressin for wheals and with arginine-vasopressin and noradrenaline for flares in intradermal testing and/or skin prick testing at certain concentrations. Significantly larger wheals were seen with angiotensin-II and endothelin-1 in intradermal testing and/or skin prick testing at certain concentrations. No significant differences were found for prostaglandin E2. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate not only a reduced responsiveness to vasodilators but also to vasoconstrictor substances and peptides in patients with atopic eczema, which may be considered a general feature of atopic eczema skin.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica/fisiopatologia , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasoconstritores/farmacologia , Vasodilatadores/farmacologia , Acetilcolina/farmacologia , Adulto , Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Arginina Vasopressina/farmacologia , Bradicinina/farmacologia , Peptídeo Relacionado com Gene de Calcitonina/farmacologia , Dermatite Atópica/patologia , Dinoprostona/farmacologia , Endotelina-1/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Testes Intradérmicos , Masculino , Norepinefrina/farmacologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Substância P/farmacologia , Peptídeo Intestinal Vasoativo/farmacologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
PLoS One ; 8(11): e80147, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24278250

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence is compelling for a positive correlation between climate change, urbanisation and prevalence of allergic sensitisation and diseases. The reason for this association is not clear to date. Some data point to a pro-allergenic effect of anthropogenic factors on susceptible individuals. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of urbanisation and climate change on pollen allergenicity. METHODS: Catkins were sampled from birch trees from different sites across the greater area of Munich, pollen were isolated and an urbanisation index, NO2 and ozone exposure were determined. To estimate pollen allergenicity, allergen content and pollen-associated lipid mediators were measured in aqueous pollen extracts. Immune stimulatory and modulatory capacity of pollen was assessed by neutrophil migration assays and the potential of pollen to inhibit dendritic cell interleukin-12 response. In vivo allergenicity was assessed by skin prick tests. RESULTS: The study revealed ozone as a prominent environmental factor influencing the allergenicity of birch pollen. Enhanced allergenicity, as assessed in skin prick tests, was mirrored by enhanced allergen content. Beyond that, ozone induced changes in lipid composition and chemotactic and immune modulatory potential of the pollen. Higher ozone-exposed pollen was characterised by less immune modulatory but higher immune stimulatory potential. CONCLUSION: It is likely that future climate change along with increasing urbanisation will lead to rising ozone concentrations in the next decades. Our study indicates that ozone is a crucial factor leading to clinically relevant enhanced allergenicity of birch pollen. Thus, with increasing temperatures and increasing ozone levels, also symptoms of pollen allergic patients may increase further.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Alérgenos/imunologia , Betula/imunologia , Ozônio/análise , Pólen/imunologia , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Humanos , Leucotrieno B4/metabolismo , Testes Cutâneos
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