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1.
Exp Mol Pathol ; 106: 63-77, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30528563

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Osteosarcoma (OS) is a common malignant bone tumor in children and adolescents. Pathogenesis and prognosis of OS can be associated with several environmental and genetic factors. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are crucial genetic changes that can be involved in clinical and therapeutic outcomes of OS. The aim of this review is to present a synopsis of the role of SNPs in pathogenesis and prognosis of OS tumor cells as well as their potential as therapeutic targets to improve the outcomes of patients. METHOD: The content used in this paper has been obtained by an electronic databases search of English language (1998-2018) articles using the terms "Single nucleotide polymorphisms", "Osteosarcoma", "Pathogenesis", "Prognosis", and "Clinical Outcomes". DISCUSSION: SNPs can affect a number of biological processes such as proliferation, apoptosis, adhesion, invasion, and drug resistance of OS tumor cells, playing a key role in pathogenesis, prognosis, and clinical outcomes after chemotherapy in this disease. CONCLUSION: Considering the importance of SNPs in OS pathophysiology, these genetic changes may be used as potential pathogenic and prognostic biomarkers for OS. It is hoped that targeting these changes using new therapeutic approaches leads to the effective treatment of this debilitating tumor. However, better understanding of OS biology and further clinical trials are needed to achieve this goal.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas/genética , Osteossarcoma/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Antígenos CD/genética , Antígenos de Neoplasias/genética , Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Ósseas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ósseas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Ósseas/fisiopatologia , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/fisiologia , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/genética , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Genes Supressores de Tumor , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/fisiologia , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/fisiologia , Osteossarcoma/tratamento farmacológico , Osteossarcoma/mortalidade , Osteossarcoma/fisiopatologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Prognóstico , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Microambiente Tumoral
2.
Blood Cells Mol Dis ; 74: 1-4, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30293687

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) has been described as a rare complication after splenectomy. PVT associated risk factors after splenectomy in hematological disorders are poorly recognized. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and risk factors of PVT incidence in splenectomized patients. METHODS: One hundred twelve splenectomized patients with various hematologic diseases between 2008 and 2018 were enrolled in this study. Diagnosis was confirmed by Doppler ultrasonography (DUSG) and risk factors for PVT were sought based on the comparison of clinical and laboratory features between patients without and with PVT. RESULT: PVT was diagnosed in 4 (3.57%) patients in spite of receiving antiplatelet therapy. Patients with PVT were ß-thalassemia major (n = 2) and ß-thalassemia intermedia (n = 2). ß-thalassemia patients had a 3.5 times higher odds for PVT (95% CI: 2.41-5.33). No significant differences between patients with and without PVT in terms of age, gender and laboratory features were found. CONCLUSION: According to our data, ß-thalassemia, especially intermediate form, may be a risk factor for PVT and it can occur in spite of receiving antiplatelet therapy. Given that ß-thalassemia patients are at risk, early PVT detection may be useful for reduction of fatal PVT complication in splenectomized patients.


Assuntos
Doenças Hematológicas/complicações , Veia Porta/patologia , Esplenectomia/efeitos adversos , Trombose Venosa/etiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Trombose Venosa/diagnóstico , Talassemia beta/complicações
3.
Oncol Rev ; 12(2): 373, 2018 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30405895

RESUMO

Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are clonal stem cell disorders characterized by the presence of JAK2V617F mutation. Thrombohemorrhagic as well as autoimmune or inflammatory phenomena are common clinical outcomes of these disorders. Recent studies have shown that abnormality in frequency and function of blood cells manifested by an alteration in CD markers' expression patterns play a key role in these complications. So, there may be a relationship between CD markers' expressions and prognosis of JAK2V617F positive MPNs. Therefore, in this review, we have focused on these abnormalities from the perspective of changing expressions of CD markers and assessment of the relationship between these changes with prognosis of JAK2V617F positive MPNs. It can be stated that the abnormal expression of a large number of CD markers can be used as a prognostic biomarker for clinical outcomes including thrombohememorrhagic events, as well as autoimmune and leukemic transformation in JAK2V617F positive MPNs. Considering the possible role of CD markers' expressions in JAK2V617F MPNs prognosis, further studies are needed to confirm the relationship between the expression of CD markers with prognosis to be able to find an appropriate therapeutic approach via targeting CD markers.

4.
Histol Histopathol ; : 18035, 2018 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30187905

RESUMO

Human leukocyte antigens (HLA), which are a group of antigen-presenting proteins, are classified into two main groups: classic (including HLA-I, HLA-II, HLA-III) and non-classic. These molecules are expressed on the surface of several immune cells, which contribute to the defense of body against foreign antigens. Changing expressions of these molecules on tumor cells can be related to reduced ability of the immune system in killing tumor cells, as well as metastasis induction of many solid tumors. The purpose of this review article is to assess the possible relationship between changing expressions of HLA molecules with cancer metastasis and relapse. It can be stated that the changes in the expressions of HLA molecules on tumor cells are an important mechanism for tumor cell escape from immune cells. Therefore, these changes can be associated with tumor development, metastasis, or relapse. Given the essential role of HLA molecule expression in cancer metastasis and relapse, identification of prognostic value of these alterations as well as targeting HLA molecules with new therapeutic approaches may lead to the prevention of these complications.

5.
APMIS ; 126(6): 523-532, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29924452

RESUMO

Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is an autoimmune bleeding disorder associated with platelet destruction. Abnormalities in frequency and function of different immune cells can play a crucial role in this disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of CD markers' expressions by immune cells in ITP. Peripheral blood samples were collected from 25 ITP patients before and after treatment. The expression of CD markers was evaluated by flow cytometry technique. The expression of CD38 and CD56 was significantly lower before treatment than after it (p = 0.025 and p = 0.036, respectively). Furthermore, a positive correlation was found between CD38 expression with platelet count before (r = 0.496, p = 0.012) and after treatment (r = 0.404, p = 0.045). No significant relationship was found between this marker and platelet count while CD4 expression was higher before treatment than after it (p = 0.002). In conclusion, CD38 may have independent prognostic value in ITP and we suggest that it can be a prognostic marker for this disease.


Assuntos
ADP-Ribosil Ciclase 1/metabolismo , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Antígenos CD4/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Antígeno CD56/metabolismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Seguimentos , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Lactente , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Contagem de Plaquetas , Prognóstico , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/tratamento farmacológico
6.
Biochem Genet ; 56(3): 149-175, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29388070

RESUMO

Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a hematopoietic stem cell malignancy characterized by the expression of the BCR-ABL1 fusion gene with different chimeric transcripts. Despite the crucial impact of constitutively active tyrosine kinase in CML pathogenesis, aberrant DNA methylation of certain genes plays an important role in disease progression and the development of drug resistance. This article reviews recent findings relevant to the effect of DNA methylation pattern of regulatory genes on various cellular activities such as cell proliferation and survival, as well as cell-signaling molecules in CML. These data might contribute to defining the role of aberrant DNA methylation in disease initiation and progression. However, further studies are needed on the validation of specific aberrant methylation markers regarding the prognosis and prediction of response among the CML patients.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Proliferação de Células , Metilação de DNA , DNA de Neoplasias , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , DNA de Neoplasias/genética , DNA de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Humanos , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/genética , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/metabolismo , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/mortalidade , Taxa de Sobrevida
7.
Histol Histopathol ; 33(9): 895-908, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29460950

RESUMO

Leukemias, a heterogeneous group of hematological disorders, are characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis and morphologic abnormalities of hematopoietic cells. Thrombocytopenia is a common problem among leukemia types that can lead to hemorrhagic complications in patients. The purpose of this review article is to identify the conditions associated with the incidence of thrombocytopenia in leukemias. It can be stated that although translocations have been considered responsible for this complication in many studies, other factors such as bone marrow failure, genes polymorphism, a mutation in some transcription factors, and the adverse effects of treatment could be associated with pathogenesis and poor prognosis of thrombocytopenia in leukemias. Considering the importance of thrombocytopenia in leukemias, it is hoped that the recognition of risk factors increasing the incidence of this complication in leukemic patients would be useful for prevention and treatment of this disorder.

8.
APMIS ; 125(12): 1042-1055, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28960510

RESUMO

Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura (ITP) is a common autoimmune bleeding disorder characterized by a reduction in peripheral blood platelet counts. In this disease, autoantibodies (Auto-Abs) are produced against platelet GPIIb/GPIIIa by B cells, which require interaction with T cells. In this review, the importance of B and T lymphocytes in ITP prognosis has been studied. Relevant literature was identified by a PubMed search (1990-2016) of English-language papers using the terms B and T lymphocyte, platelet, CD markers and immune thrombocytopenic purpura. T and B lymphocytes are the main immune cells in the body. Defective function causes disrupted balance of different subgroups of lymphocytes, and abnormal expression of surface markers of these cells results in self-tolerance dysfunction, as well as induction of Auto-Abs against platelet glycoproteins (PG). Given the role of B and T cells in production of autoantibodies against PG, it can be stated that the detection of changes in CD markers' expression in these cells can be a good approach for assessing prognosis in ITP patients.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/imunologia , Autoanticorpos/biossíntese , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Plaquetas/imunologia , Humanos , Prognóstico , Linfócitos T/imunologia
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