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1.
Cancer Res ; 80(4): 675-688, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31948940

RESUMO

Suppression of gluconeogenesis elevates glycolysis and is commonly observed in tumors derived from gluconeogenic tissues including liver and kidney, yet the definitive regulatory mechanism remains elusive. Here, we screened an array of transcription regulators and identified the enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) as a key factor that inhibits gluconeogenesis in cancer cells. Specifically, EZH2 repressed the expression of a rate-limiting gluconeogenic enzyme fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase 1 (FBP1) and promoted tumor growth primarily through FBP1 suppression. Furthermore, EZH2 was upregulated by genotoxins that commonly induce hepatic and renal tumorigenesis. Genotoxin treatments augmented EZH2 acetylation, leading to reduced association between EZH2 and its E3 ubiquitin ligase SMURF2. Consequently, EZH2 became less ubiquitinated and more stabilized, promoting FBP1 attenuation and tumor formation. Intriguingly, FBP1 physically interacted with EZH2, competed for EZH2 binding, and dissembled the polycomb complex. Therefore, FBP1 suppresses polycomb-initiated transcriptional responses and constitutes a double-negative feedback loop indispensable for EZH2-promoted tumorigenesis. Finally, EZH2 and FBP1 levels were inversely correlated in tumor tissues and accurately predicted patient survival. This work reveals an unexpected cross-talk between epigenetic and metabolic events, and identifies a new feedback circuitry that highlights EZH2 inhibitors as liver and kidney cancer therapeutics. SIGNIFICANCE: A novel feedback loop involving EZH2 and suppression of the gluconeogenesis enzyme FBP1 promotes hepatocellular cancer growth.See related commentary by Leithner, p. 657.

2.
Cancer Lett ; 468: 27-40, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604115

RESUMO

Patients with recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) have more co-existing distant metastasis than those of no-recurrence and are more likely to suffer distant metastasis after re-irradiation than patients with newly diagnosed NPC. However, the relationship between radioresistance and distant metastasis and the mechanisms involved in radioresistance-associated metastasis are still unclear. In this study, we proved that C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) expression was significantly elevated in HONE1-IR cells and recurrent NPC tumour. Inhibition of CCL2 enhanced sensitivity to radiotherapy in NPC cells. Moreover, autocrine CCL2 promoted NPC cell adaptive radioresistance, metastasis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Additionally, p53 activated CCL2 transcription. High CCL2 expression was highly associated with poorer locoregional recurrence free survival, progression free survival and overall survival in patients with newly diagnosed NPC. Notably, high CCL2 expression was an independent prognostic factor for distant metastasis free survival in recurrent NPC patients. Our results provide insights into the autocrine signalling mechanisms of CCL2 and suggest that inhibition of autocrine CCL2 may be a candidate treatment strategy for management of radioresistant NPC.

3.
Lancet Oncol ; 21(2): 306-316, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31879220

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Extranodal natural killer T-cell lymphoma (NKTCL; nasal type) is an aggressive malignancy with a particularly high prevalence in Asian and Latin American populations. Epstein-Barr virus infection has a role in the pathogenesis of NKTCL, and HLA-DPB1 variants are risk factors for the disease. We aimed to identify additional novel genetic variants affecting risk of NKTCL. METHODS: We did a genome-wide association study of NKTCL in multiple populations from east Asia. We recruited a discovery cohort of 700 cases with NKTCL and 7752 controls without NKTCL of Han Chinese ancestry from 19 centres in southern, central, and northern regions of China, and four independent replication samples including 717 cases and 12 650 controls. Three of these independent samples (451 cases and 5301 controls) were from eight centres in the same regions of southern, central, and northern China, and the fourth (266 cases and 7349 controls) was from 11 centres in Hong Kong, Taiwan, Singapore, and South Korea. All cases had primary NKTCL that was confirmed histopathologically, and matching with controls was based on geographical region and self-reported ancestry. Logistic regression analysis was done independently by geographical regions, followed by fixed-effect meta-analyses, to identify susceptibility loci. Bioinformatic approaches, including expression quantitative trait loci, binding motif and transcriptome analyses, and biological experiments were done to fine-map and explore the functional relevance of genome-wide association loci to the development of NKTCL. FINDINGS: Genetic data were gathered between Jan 1, 2008, and Jan 23, 2019. Meta-analysis of all samples (a total of 1417 cases and 20 402 controls) identified two novel loci significantly associated with NKTCL: IL18RAP on 2q12.1 (rs13015714; p=2·83 × 10-16; odds ratio 1·39 [95% CI 1·28-1·50]) and HLA-DRB1 on 6p21.3 (rs9271588; 9·35 × 10-26 1·53 [1·41-1·65]). Fine-mapping and experimental analyses showed that rs1420106 at the promoter of IL18RAP was highly correlated with rs13015714, and the rs1420106-A risk variant had an upregulatory effect on IL18RAP expression. Cell growth assays in two NKTCL cell lines (YT and SNK-6 cells) showed that knockdown of IL18RAP inhibited cell proliferation by cell cycle arrest in NKTCL cells. Haplotype association analysis showed that haplotype 47F-67I was associated with reduced risk of NKTCL, whereas 47Y-67L was associated with increased risk of NKTCL. These two positions are component parts of the peptide-binding pocket 7 (P7) of the HLA-DR heterodimer, suggesting that these alterations might account for the association at HLA-DRB1, independent of the previously reported HLA-DPB1 variants. INTERPRETATION: Our findings provide new insights into the development of NKTCL by showing the importance of inflammation and immune regulation through the IL18-IL18RAP axis and antigen presentation involving HLA-DRB1, which might help to identify potential therapeutic targets. Taken in combination with additional genetic and other risk factors, our results could potentially be used to stratify people at high risk of NKTCL for targeted prevention. FUNDING: Guangdong Innovative and Entrepreneurial Research Team Program, National Natural Science Foundation of China, National Program for Support of Top-Notch Young Professionals, Chang Jiang Scholars Program, Singapore Ministry of Health's National Medical Research Council, Tanoto Foundation, National Research Foundation Singapore, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Recruitment Program for Young Professionals of China, First Affiliated Hospital and Army Medical University, US National Institutes of Health, and US National Cancer Institute.

4.
Int J Biol Markers ; 34(4): 398-405, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31674884

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of programmed death-1 (PD-1), programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), and P16 in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). METHODS: A total of 95 paraffin-embedded samples of tumorous tissue of HNSCC were collected. Expression levels of PD-1, PD-L1, and P16 were determined by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: A significantly higher proportion of PD-1 among patients infected with the human papillomavirus was found. PD-L1 expression is closely associated with the primary site of the tumor, postoperative recurrence, survival, PD-1 expression and P16 expression. Univariable analysis indicated that T stage, N stage, tumor node metastasis stage, tumor differentiation, and PD-L1 expression were all shown to be prognostic variables for overall survival in patients with HNSCC. In the multivariate analysis, only N stage (P = 0.010) and PD-L1 expression (P = 0.001) were found to be independent prognostic variables for overall survival. In addition, for disease recurrence, multivariate analysis showed that only PD-L1 expression was the associated independent risk factor. For the patients with negative PD-L1 expression, Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that they had significantly worse outcomes in terms of overall survival (P = 0.001). Similarly, compared with the patients with positive PD-L1 expression, those with negative PD-L1 expression had a higher probability of recurrence (P = 0.026). CONCLUSIONS: The expression of PD-L1, PD-1, and P16 in HNSCC is significantly correlated. Human papillomavirus infection (P16 positive) is negatively related to postoperative recurrence. HNSCC patients with positive PD-L1/PD-1 expression tend to have better overall survival outcomes and lower probability of recurrence, providing more evidence for the PD-l-targeted immunotherapy of HNSCC.

5.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw ; 17(6): 703-710, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200353

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The goal of this study was to explore the value of adding neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) or adjuvant chemotherapy (ACT) to concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) with different risks of treatment failure. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 2,263 eligible patients with stage III-IVb NPC treated with CCRT ± NACT or ACT were included in this retrospective study. Distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), overall survival, and progression-free survival were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method and differences were compared using the log-rank test. RESULTS: Patients in the low-risk group (stage N0-1 disease and Epstein-Barr virus [EBV] DNA <4,000 copies/mL) who received NACT followed by CCRT achieved significantly better 5-year DMFS than those treated with CCRT alone (96.2% vs 91.3%; P= .008). Multivariate analyses also demonstrated that additional NACT was the only independent prognostic factor for DMFS (hazard ratio, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.22-0.80; P=.009). In both the intermediate-risk group (stage N0-1 disease and EBV DNA ≥4,000 copies/mL and stage N2-3 disease and EBV DNA <4,000 copies/mL) and the high-risk group (stage N2-3 disease and EBV DNA ≥4,000 copies/mL), comparison of NACT or ACT + CCRT versus CCRT alone indicated no significantly better survival for all end points. CONCLUSIONS: The addition of NACT to CCRT could reduce distant failure in patients with low risk of treatment failure.

6.
Nat Genet ; 51(7): 1131-1136, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209392

RESUMO

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is ubiquitous worldwide and is associated with multiple cancers, including nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The importance of EBV viral genomic variation in NPC development and its striking epidemic in southern China has been poorly explored. Through large-scale genome sequencing of 270 EBV isolates and two-stage association study of EBV isolates from China, we identify two non-synonymous EBV variants within BALF2 that are strongly associated with the risk of NPC (odds ratio (OR) = 8.69, P = 9.69 × 10-25 for SNP 162476_C; OR = 6.14, P = 2.40 × 10-32 for SNP 163364_T). The cumulative effects of these variants contribute to 83% of the overall risk of NPC in southern China. Phylogenetic analysis of the risk variants reveals a unique origin in Asia, followed by clonal expansion in NPC-endemic regions. Our results provide novel insights into the NPC endemic in southern China and also enable the identification of high-risk individuals for NPC prevention.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/complicações , Genoma Viral , Herpesvirus Humano 4/genética , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/virologia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/virologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteínas Virais/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/virologia , Herpesvirus Humano 4/classificação , Herpesvirus Humano 4/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/genética , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/genética
7.
Cancer Med ; 8(6): 2705-2716, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30950204

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to use whole-exome sequencing to derive a molecular classifier for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and evaluate its clinical performance. We performed whole-exome sequencing on 82 primary NPC tumors from Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center (Guangzhou cohort) to obtain somatic single-nucleotide variants, indels, and copy number variants. A novel molecular classifier was then developed and validated in another NPC cohort (Hong Kong cohort, n = 99). Survival analysis was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using the log-rank test. Cox proportional hazards model was adopted for univariate and multivariate analyses. We identified three prominent NPC genetic subtypes: RAS/PI3K/AKT (based on RAS, AKT1, and PIK3CA mutations), cell-cycle (based on CDKN2A/CDKN2B deletions, and CDKN1B and CCND1 amplifications), and unclassified (based on dominant mutations in epigenetic regulators, such as KMT2C/2D, or the Notch signaling pathway, such as NOTCH1/2). These subtypes differed in survival analysis, with good, intermediate, and poor progression-free survival in the unclassified, cell-cycle, and RAS/PI3K/AKT subgroups, respectively, among the Guangzhou, Hong Kong, and combined cohorts (n = 82, P = 0.0342; n = 99, P = 0.0372; and n = 181, P = 0.0023; log-rank test). We have uncovered genetic subtypes of NPC with distinct mutations and/or copy number changes, reflecting discrete paths of NPC tumorigenesis and providing a roadmap for developing new prognostic biomarkers and targeted therapies.

8.
Biol Sex Differ ; 10(1): 13, 2019 03 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30909962

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The male predominance in the incidence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) suggests the contribution of the X chromosome to the susceptibility of NPC. However, no X-linked susceptibility loci have been examined by genome-wide association studies (GWASs) for NPC by far. METHODS: To understand the contribution of the X chromosome in NPC susceptibility, we conducted an X chromosome-wide association analysis on 1615 NPC patients and 1025 healthy controls of Guangdong Chinese, followed by two validation analyses in Taiwan Chinese (n = 562) and Malaysian Chinese (n = 716). RESULTS: Firstly, the proportion of variance of X-linked loci over phenotypic variance was estimated in the discovery samples, which revealed that the phenotypic variance explained by X chromosome polymorphisms was estimated to be 12.63% (non-dosage compensation model) in males, as compared with 0.0001% in females. This suggested that the contribution of X chromosome to the genetic variance of NPC should not be neglected. Secondly, association analysis revealed that rs5927056 in DMD gene achieved X chromosome-wide association significance in the discovery sample (OR = 0.81, 95% CI 0.73-0.89, P = 1.49 × 10-5). Combined analysis revealed rs5927056 for DMD gene with suggestive significance (P = 9.44 × 10-5). Moreover, the female-specific association of rs5933886 in ARHGAP6 gene (OR = 0.62, 95%CI: 0.47-0.81, P = 4.37 × 10-4) was successfully replicated in Taiwan Chinese (P = 1.64 × 10-2). rs5933886 also showed nominally significant gender × SNP interaction in both Guangdong (P = 6.25 × 10-4) and Taiwan datasets (P = 2.99 × 10-2). CONCLUSION: Our finding reveals new susceptibility loci at the X chromosome conferring risk of NPC and supports the value of including the X chromosome in large-scale association studies.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos X , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/genética , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/genética , Caracteres Sexuais , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , China , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Loci Gênicos , Humanos , Malásia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Taiwan
9.
Cell Death Dis ; 10(2): 58, 2019 01 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30683844

RESUMO

SHROOM2 is a key mediator of RhoA-ROCK pathway that regulates cell motility and actin cytoskeleton organization. However, the functions of SHROOM2 beyond RhoA/ROCK signaling remain poorly understood. Here, we report that SHROOM2 not only participates in RhoA-ROCK-induced stress fiber formation and focal adhesion, but also had an unanticipated role in suppressing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and tumor metastasis. Depletion of SHROOM2 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells enhances mesenchymal characteristics and reduces epithelial markers, concomitant with increased motility, enabling the development of invasion and tumor metastasis, which are largely ROCK-independent, as ROCK inhibitor Y-27632 did not cause EMT phenotype; furthermore, combination of ROCK inhibition and SHROOM2 depletion resulted in the most robust increases in cell migration and invasion, indicating that SHROOM2 and ROCK work synergistically rather than epistatic. Analysis of clinical samples suggested that SHROOM2 is downregulated in NPC and the expression of SHROOM2 in metastatic NPC was even lower than in the primary tumors. Our findings uncover a non-canonical role of SHROOM2 as a potent antagonist for EMT and NPC metastasis.

10.
J Cell Biochem ; 120(4): 6661-6670, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30368911

RESUMO

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is prevalent among populations from southern China and is influenced by both genetic and environmental risk factors. The monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), a member of cysteine-cysteine chemokine family, plays critical roles in cancers. A polymorphism within the MCP-1 promoter, rs1024611, has been shown to be significantly associated with the risk of several cancers. Our purpose was to assess the role of rs1024611 in NPC susceptibility. By polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method, we genotyped rs1024611 in 593 patients with NPC (cases) and 480 cancer-free subjects (controls) among Guangxi population from southern China. We observed that the G allele of rs1024611 was significantly associated with the increased risk of NPC in an additive model and dominant model, respectively (P = 0.018 and 0.010, odds ratio = 1.25 and 1.41, respectively). No appreciable variation of the effects was found across the subgroups stratified by age, sex, nationality, smoking and drinking status, and smoking level. In addition, significantly higher messenger RNA (mRNA) expression level of MCP-1 was observed in NPC tissues than that in normal nasopharyngeal tissues, and the G allele of rs1024611 was significantly associated with elevated mRNA expression level of MCP-1 in Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphocytes. In conclusion, our findings suggested that rs1024611 at the MCP-1 promoter may be a risk factor for NPC. Further studies with larger sample size are necessary to confirm these findings.

11.
Int J Cancer ; 144(9): 2161-2168, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30521064

RESUMO

The prevalence of Lynch syndrome (LS) varies significantly in different populations, suggesting that ethnic features might play an important role. We enrolled 3330 consecutive Chinese patients who had surgical resection for newly diagnosed colorectal cancer. Universal screening for LS was implemented, including immunohistochemistry for mismatch repair (MMR) proteins, BRAFV600E mutation test and germline sequencing. Among the 3250 eligible patients, MMR protein deficiency (dMMR) was detected in 330 (10.2%) patients. Ninety-three patients (2.9%) were diagnosed with LS. Nine (9.7%) patients with LS fulfilled Amsterdam criteria II and 76 (81.7%) met the revised Bethesda guidelines. Only 15 (9.7%) patients with absence of MLH1 on IHC had BRAFV600E mutation. One third (33/99) of the MMR gene mutations have not been reported previously. The age of onset indicates risk of LS in patients with dMMR tumors. For patients older than 65 years, only 2 patients (5.7%) fulfilling revised Bethesda guidelines were diagnosed with LS. Selective sequencing of all cases with dMMR diagnosed at or below age 65 years and only of those dMMR cases older than 65 years who fulfill revised Bethesda guidelines results in 8.2% fewer cases requiring germline testing without missing any LS diagnoses. While the prevalence of LS in Chinese patients is similar to that of Western populations, the spectrum of constitutional mutations and frequency of BRAFV600E mutation is different. Patients older than 65 years who do not meet the revised Bethesda guidelines have a low risk of LS, suggesting germline sequencing might not be necessary in this population.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA/genética , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , China/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/diagnóstico , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência
12.
Leukemia ; 33(6): 1451-1462, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30546078

RESUMO

Extranodal natural killer T-cell lymphoma (nasal type; NKTCL) is an aggressive malignancy strongly associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. However, the role of EBV in NKTCL development is unclear, largely due to the lack of information about EBV genome and transcriptome in NKTCL. Here, using high-throughput sequencing, we obtained whole genome (n = 27) and transcriptome datasets (n = 18) of EBV derived from NKTCL tumor biopsies. We assembled 27 EBV genomes and detected an average of 1,152 single nucleotide variants and 44.8 indels (<50 bp) of EBV per sample. We also identified frequent focal EBV genome deletions and integrated EBV fragments in the host genome. Moreover, Phylogenetic analysis revealed that NKTCL-derived EBVs are closely clustered; transcriptome analysis revealed less activation of both latent and lytic genes and larger amount of T-cell epitope alterations in NKTCL, as compared with other EBV-associated cancers. Furthermore, we observed transcriptional defects of the BARTs miRNA by deletion, and the disruption of host NHEJ1 by integrated EBV fragment, implying novel pathogenic mechanisms of EBV. Taken together, we reported for the first time global mutational and transcriptional profiles of EBV in NKTCL clinical samples, revealing important somatic events of EBV and providing insights to better understanding of EBV's contribution in tumorigenesis.


Assuntos
Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/genética , Genoma Viral , Herpesvirus Humano 4/genética , Linfoma Extranodal de Células T-NK/genética , Células T Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Proteínas Virais/genética , Adulto , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/complicações , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/virologia , Feminino , Regulação Viral da Expressão Gênica , Genômica/métodos , Humanos , Linfoma Extranodal de Células T-NK/epidemiologia , Linfoma Extranodal de Células T-NK/virologia , Masculino , Mutação , Células T Matadoras Naturais/virologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
13.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 111(6): 620-628, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30299488

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Radiation-induced brain injury is a nonnegligible issue in the management of cancer patients treated by partial or whole brain irradiation. In particular, temporal lobe injury (TLI), a deleterious late complication in nasopharyngeal carcinoma, greatly affects the long-term life quality of these patients. Although genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have successfully identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with radiation toxicity, genetic variants contributing to the radiation-induced brain injury have not yet been assessed. METHODS: We recruited and performed follow-up for a prospective observational cohort, Genetic Architecture of Radiotherapy Toxicity and Prognosis, using magnetic resonance imaging for TLI diagnosis. We conducted genome-wide association analysis in 1082 patients and validated the top associations in two independent cohorts of 1119 and 741 patients, respectively. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: We identified a promoter variant rs17111237 (A > G, minor allele frequency [MAF] = 0.14) in CEP128 associated with TLI risk (hazard ratio = 1.45, 95% confidence interval = 1.26 to 1.66, Pcombined=3.18 × 10-7) which is in moderate linkage disequilibrium (LD) with rs162171 (MAF = 0.18, R2 = 0.69), the top signal in CEP128 (hazard ratio = 1.46, 95% confidence interval = 1.29-1.66, Pcombined= 6.17 × 10-9). Combining the clinical variables with the top SNP, we divided the patients into different subgroups with varying risk with 5-year TLI-free rates ranging from 33.7% to 95.5%. CEP128, a key component of mother centriole, tightly interacts with multiple radiation-resistant genes and plays an important role in maintaining the functional cilia, which otherwise will lead to a malfunction of the neural network. We found that A > G alteration at rs17111237 impaired the promoter activity of CEP128 and knockdown of CEP128 decreased the clonogenic cell survival of U87 cells under radiation. Noteworthy, 12.7% (27/212) of the GWAS-based associated genes (P < .001) were enriched in the neurogenesis pathway. CONCLUSIONS: This three-stage study is the first GWAS of radiation-induced brain injury that implicates the genetic susceptibility gene CEP128 involved in TLI development and provides the novel insight into the underlying mechanisms of radiation-induced brain injury.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas/genética , Lesões por Radiação/genética , Lobo Temporal/efeitos da radiação , Adulto , Lesões Encefálicas/etiologia , Lesões Encefálicas/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/genética , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/patologia , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/radioterapia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/genética , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/patologia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/radioterapia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Lesões por Radiação/etiologia , Lesões por Radiação/patologia , Lobo Temporal/patologia
15.
Cancer Manag Res ; 10: 4523-4535, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30349385

RESUMO

Background: Global data demonstrate minimal improvement in the survival rate for oral cavity cancer (OCC) patients. We wished to know whether or not clinical features and survival rate have changed over time for OCC patients receiving initial treatment and follow-up at a large cancer center in China. Methods: Clinical features and survival data were collected on patients diagnosed during the successive decades of 1960-1969 (n=253), 1970-1979 (n=497), 1980-1989 (n= 659), 1990-1999 (n=793), and 2000-2009 (n=1,160) at the Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center. Results: Over time, the overall 5-year survival rate for OCC patients was 52.0%. According to tumor localization, this rate was 71.4% for lip cancer, 56.3% for oral tongue cancer, and 42.7% for other parts of the oral cavity. From the 1960s to the 2000s, the 5-year survival rate steadily improved from 47.8% to 55.6% (P<0.001). Survival steadily decreased with age and was higher for women than for men in the 3 most recent decades. The survival rate for male patients was constant over time, while the rate for female patients improved dramatically. Obvious trends in clinical features over time included the following: increasing age of patients, increasing proportions of localized disease at diagnosis, decreasing proportions of diagnoses of lip cancer, decreasing proportions of diagnoses of squamous cell carcinoma, and decreasing proportions of non-surgical treatment approaches. Conclusion: The survival rate has steadily improved for OCC patients at this cancer center.

16.
Blood ; 132(11): 1146-1158, 2018 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30054295

RESUMO

Mature T-cell lymphomas, including peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) and extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma (NKTL), represent a heterogeneous group of non-Hodgkin lymphomas with dismal outcomes and limited treatment options. To determine the extent of involvement of the JAK/STAT pathway in this malignancy, we performed targeted capture sequencing of 188 genes in this pathway in 171 PTCL and NKTL cases. A total of 272 nonsynonymous somatic mutations in 101 genes were identified in 73% of the samples, including 258 single-nucleotide variants and 14 insertions or deletions. Recurrent mutations were most frequently located in STAT3 and TP53 (15%), followed by JAK3 and JAK1 (6%) and SOCS1 (4%). A high prevalence of STAT3 mutation (21%) was observed specifically in NKTL. Novel STAT3 mutations (p.D427H, E616G, p.E616K, and p.E696K) were shown to increase STAT3 phosphorylation and transcriptional activity of STAT3 in the absence of cytokine, in which p.E616K induced programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression by robust binding of activated STAT3 to the PD-L1 gene promoter. Consistent with these findings, PD-L1 was overexpressed in NKTL cell lines harboring hotspot STAT3 mutations, and similar findings were observed by the overexpression of p.E616K and p.E616G in the STAT3 wild-type NKTL cell line. Conversely, STAT3 silencing and inhibition decreased PD-L1 expression in STAT3 mutant NKTL cell lines. In NKTL tumors, STAT3 activation correlated significantly with PD-L1 expression. We demonstrated that STAT3 activation confers high PD-L1 expression, which may promote tumor immune evasion. The combination of PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies and STAT3 inhibitors might be a promising therapeutic approach for NKTL, and possibly PTCL.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/biossíntese , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Proteínas de Neoplasias/biossíntese , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/biossíntese , Transdução de Sinais , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Linfoma Extranodal de Células T-NK , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/genética
17.
Cancer Res ; 78(13): 3469-3483, 2018 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29735548

RESUMO

Genetic susceptibility underlies the pathogenesis of cancer. We and others have previously identified a novel susceptibility gene TNFRSF19, which encodes an orphan member of the TNF receptor superfamily known to be associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and lung cancer risk. Here, we show that TNFRSF19 is highly expressed in NPC and is required for cell proliferation and NPC development. However, unlike most of the TNF receptors, TNFRSF19 was not involved in NFκB activation or associated with TRAF proteins. We identified TGFß receptor type I (TßRI) as a specific binding partner for TNFRSF19. TNFRSF19 bound the kinase domain of TßRI in the cytoplasm, thereby blocking Smad2/3 association with TßRI and subsequent signal transduction. Ectopic expression of TNFRSF19 in normal epithelial cells conferred resistance to the cell-cycle block induced by TGFß, whereas knockout of TNFRSF19 in NPC cells unleashed a potent TGFß response characterized by upregulation of Smad2/3 phosphorylation and TGFß target gene transcription. Furthermore, elevated TNFRSF19 expression correlated with reduced TGFß activity and poor prognosis in patients with NPC. Our data reveal that gain of function of TNFRSF19 in NPC represents a mechanism by which tumor cells evade the growth-inhibitory action of TGFß.Significance:TNFRSF19, a susceptibility gene for nasopharyngeal carcinoma and other cancers, functions as a potent inhibitor of the TGFß signaling pathway.Graphical Abstract: http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/canres/78/13/3469/F1.large.jpg Cancer Res; 78(13); 3469-83. ©2018 AACR.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/patologia , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/patologia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/patologia , Receptor do Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta Tipo I/metabolismo , Receptores do Fator de Necrose Tumoral/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Biópsia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nasofaringe/patologia , Fosforilação , Receptores do Fator de Necrose Tumoral/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Proteína Smad2/metabolismo , Proteína Smad3/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 110(9): 975-984, 2018 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29471527

RESUMO

Background: Previous studies demonstrated that prognosis of germline deficiency in mismatch repair protein (dMMR) was different from that of sporadic dMMR. The underlying mechanism has not been studied. Methods: From a prospectively maintained database, we collected dMMR colorectal cancer (CRC) patients identified by postoperative immunohistochemistry screening. According to genetic test, patients were grouped as Lynch-associated or sporadic dMMR. We compared the clinical-pathological features, prognosis, and immunoreactive differences between the two groups. By whole-exome sequencing and neoantigen detection pipeline, mutational frequencies and neoantigen burdens were also compared. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: Sixty-seven sporadic dMMR and 85 Lynch-associated CRC patients were included in the study. Sporadic dMMR patients were older (P < .001) and their tumors were poorly differentiated (P = .03). The survival was better in the Lynch-associated group (P = .001). After adjustment, the difference still remained statistically significant (hazard ratio = 0.29, 95% confidence interval = 0.09 to 0.95, P = .04). The scores of Crohn's-like reaction (CRO; P < .001), immunoreactions in the invasive margin (IM; P = .01), tumor stroma (TS; P = .009), and cancer nest (CN; P = .02) of the Lynch-associated group were statistically significantly higher. The numbers of CD3+, CD8+, Foxp3+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in IM; CD3+, CD4+ TILs in TS; and CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ TILs in CN were statistically significantly higher in Lynch-associated dMMR patients. Based on the 16 patients who under went whole-exome sequencing, there were also more somatic mutations and neoantigen burdens in the Lynch-associated group compared with the sporadic dMMR group (439/pt vs 68/pt, P = .006; 628/pt vs 97/pt, P = .009). Conclusions: There are heterogeneities in dMMR CRCs. Lynch-associated dMMR patients present with more somatic mutations and neoantigens compared with sporadic dMMR, which probably results in stronger immunoreactions and survival improvement.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/complicações , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/complicações , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias Colorretais/complicações , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Feminino , Heterogeneidade Genética , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Adulto Jovem
20.
Cancer Res Treat ; 50(4): 1304-1315, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29334605

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term clinical outcome and toxicity of induction chemotherapy (IC) followed by concomitant chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) compared with CCRT alone for the treatment of children and adolescent locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (LACANPC). Materials and Methods: A total of 194 locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients youngerthan 21 years who received CCRT with or without IC before were included in the study population. Overall survival (OS) rate, progression-free survival (PFS) rate, locoregional recurrence-free survival (LRFS) rate, and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) rate were assessed by the Kaplan-Meier method and a log-rank test. Treatment toxicities were clarified and compared between two groups. RESULTS: One hundred and thiry of 194 patients received IC+CCRT. Patients who were younger and with more advanced TNM stage were more likely to receive IC+CCRT and intensive modulated radiotherapy. The addition of IC before CCRT failed to improve survival significantly. The matched analysis identified 43 well-balanced patients in both two groups. With a median follow-up of 51.5 months, no differences were found between the IC+CCRT group and the CCRT group in 5-year OS (83.7% vs. 74.6%, p=0.153), PFS (79.2% vs. 73.4%, p=0.355), LRFS (97.7% vs. 88.2%, p=0.083), and DMFS (81.6% vs. 81.6%, p=0.860). N3 was an independent prognostic factor predicting poorer OS, PFS, and DMFS. The addition of IC was associated with increased rates of grade 3 to 4 neutropenia. CONCLUSION: This study failed to demonstrate that adding IC before CCRT could provide a significant additional survival benefit for LACANPC patients. Further investigations are warranted.


Assuntos
Quimiorradioterapia/métodos , Quimioterapia de Indução/métodos , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/terapia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/terapia , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/patologia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
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