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1.
Ann N Y Acad Sci ; 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647584

RESUMO

Assessment of telomere length (TL) in peripheral blood leukocytes is part of the diagnostic algorithm applied to patients with acquired bone marrow failure syndromes (BMFSs) and dyskeratosis congenita (DKC). Monochrome multiplex-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (MM-qPCR) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (flow-FISH) are methodologies available for TL screening. Dependent on TL expressed in relation to percentiles of healthy controls, further genetic testing for inherited mutations in telomere maintenance genes is recommended. However, the correct threshold to trigger this genetic workup is still under debate. Here, we prospectively compared MM-qPCR and flow-FISH regarding their capacity for accurate identification of DKC patients. All patients (n = 105) underwent genetic testing by next-generation sequencing and in 16 patients, mutations in DKC-relevant genes were identified. Whole leukocyte TL of patients measured by MM-qPCR was found to be moderately correlated with lymphocyte TL measured by flow-FISH (r² = 0.34; P < 0.0001). The sensitivity of both methods was high, but the specificity of MM-qPCR (29%) was significantly lower compared with flow-FISH (58%). These results suggest that MM-qPCR of peripheral blood cells is inferior to flow-FISH for clinical routine screening for suspected DKC in adult patients with BMFS due to lower specificity and a higher rate of false-positive results.

2.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 658, 2019 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272418

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Expression of Bcr-Abl in hematopoietic stem cells is sufficient to cause chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) induce molecular remission in the majority of CML patients. However, the disease driving stem cell population is not fully targeted by TKI therapy, and leukemic stem cells (LSC) capable of re-inducing the disease can persist. Single-cell RNA-sequencing technology recently identified an enriched inflammatory gene signature with TNFα and TGFß being activated in TKI persisting quiescent LSC. Here, we studied the effects of human TNFα antibody infliximab (IFX), which has been shown to induce anti-inflammatory effects in mice, combined with TKI treatment on LSC function. METHODS: We first performed GSEA-pathway analysis using our microarray data of murine LSK cells (lin-; Sca-1+; c-kit+) from the SCLtTA/Bcr-Abl CML transgenic mouse model. Bcr-Abl positive cell lines were generated by retroviral transduction. Clonogenic potential was assessed by CFU (colony forming unit). CML mice were treated with nilotinib or nilotinib plus infliximab, and serial transplantation experiments were performed. RESULTS: Likewise to human CML, TNFα signaling was specifically active in murine CML stem cells, and ectopic expression of Bcr-Abl in murine and human progenitor cell lines induced TNFα expression. In vitro exposure to human (IFX) or murine (MP6-XT22) TNFα antibody reduced clonogenic growth of CML cells. Interestingly, TNFα antibody treatment enhanced TKI-induced effects on immature cells in vitro. Additionally, in transplant and serial transplant experiments, using our transgenic CML mouse model, we could subsequently show that IFX therapy boosted TKI-induced effects and further reduced the proportion of malignant stem cells in vivo. CONCLUSION: TNFα signaling is induced in CML stem cells, and anti-inflammatory therapy enhances TKI-induced decline of LSC, confirming that successful targeting of persisting CML stem cells can be enhanced by addressing their malignant microenvironment simultaneously.

3.
Cytokine ; 120: 192-201, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31100684

RESUMO

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease of complex and still poorly understood etiology. Loss of upper and lower motoneurons results in death within few years after diagnosis. Recent studies have proposed neuroprotective and disease-slowing effects of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) treatment in ALS mouse models as well as humans. In this study, six ALS patients were monitored up to 3.5 years during continuous high-dose G-CSF administration. Repetitive analyses were performed including blood count parameters, CD34+ hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) and colony forming cell (CFC) counts, serum cytokine levels and leukocyte telomere length. We demonstrate that continuous G-CSF therapy was well tolerated and safe resulting in only mild adverse events during the observation period. However, no mobilization of CD34+ HSPC was detected as compared to baseline values. CFC mobilization was equally low and even a decrease of myeloid precursors was observed in some patients. Assessment of telomere length within ALS patients' leukocytes revealed that G-CSF did not significantly shorten telomeres, while those of ALS patients were shorter compared to age-matched healthy controls, irrespective of G-CSF treatment. During G-CSF stimulation, TNF-alpha, CRP, IL-16, sVCAM-1, sICAM-1, Tie-2 and VEGF were significantly increased in serum whereas MCP-1 levels decreased. In conclusion, our data show that continuous G-CSF treatment fails to increase circulating CD34+ HSPC in ALS patients. Cytokine profiles revealed G-CSF-mediated immunomodulatory and proteolytic effects. Interestingly, despite intense G-CSF stimulation, telomere length was not significantly shortened.

5.
Blood Adv ; 2(13): 1572-1579, 2018 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29980572

RESUMO

Telomere length (TL) in peripheral blood (PB) cells of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) has been shown to correlate with disease stage, prognostic scores, response to therapy, and disease progression. However, due to considerable genetic interindividual variability, TL varies substantially between individuals, limiting its use as a robust prognostic marker in individual patients. Here, we compared TL of BCR-ABL-, nonleukemic CD34+CD38- hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) in the bone marrow of CML patients at diagnosis to their individual BCR-ABL+ leukemic stem cell (LSC) counterparts. We observed significantly accelerated telomere shortening in LSC compared with nonleukemic HSC. Interestingly, the degree of LSC telomere shortening was found to correlate significantly with the leukemic clone size. To validate the diagnostic value of nonleukemic cells as internal controls and to rule out effects of tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment on these nontarget cells, we prospectively assessed TL in 134 PB samples collected in deep molecular remission after TKI treatment within the EURO-SKI study (NCT01596114). Here, no significant telomere shortening was observed in granulocytes compared with an age-adjusted control cohort. In conclusion, this study provides proof of principle for accelerated telomere shortening in LSC as opposed to HSC in CML patients at diagnosis. The fact that the degree of telomere shortening correlates with leukemic clone's size supports the use of TL in leukemic cells as a prognostic parameter pending prospective validation. TL in nonleukemic myeloid cells seems unaffected even by long-term TKI treatment arguing against a reduction of telomere-mediated replicative reserve in normal hematopoiesis under TKI treatment.

6.
Expert Rev Hematol ; 11(8): 625-636, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29958021

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Germ line predisposition to myeloid neoplasms has been incorporated in the WHO 2016 classification of myeloid neoplasms and acute leukemia. The new category of disease is named hereditary myeloid disorder (HMD). Although most myeloid neoplasms are sporadic, germ line mutations and familial predisposition can contribute to development of chronic myeloid diseases and acute myeloid leukemia. This finding and upcoming frequent use of genome wide detection of molecular aberrations will lead to a higher detection rate of a genetic predisposition and influence treatment decisions. Hereditary predisposition is responsible for 5-10% of myeloid malignancies. Management of affected patients begins by the awareness of treating physicians of the problem and a precise work up of the patient and family members. Areas covered: This review focuses on current knowledge about germ line predisposition for myeloid neoplasms including diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic aspects in adult patients. Essential information for clinical routine is provided. Expert commentary: Compared to a patient without predisposition, adaptation of treatment strategy for patients with an HMD is often necessary, especially to avoid higher risk of relapse or higher toxicity during chemotherapy or transplantation. Mistakes in choice of a related donor can be omitted. Relatives at risk of developing a HMD need specific surveillance.

7.
Eur Surg Res ; 59(1-2): 83-90, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29886505

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate telomere length in hepatocytes as a biomarker for liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy (PH) in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty male Wistar rats underwent a 70% PH. One-month-old rats were assigned to group Y (n = 30) and 4-month-old rats were assigned to group O (n = 30). The rats were euthanized, and their livers were then harvested at postoperative day (POD) 1, 2, 3, 4, or 7. Telomere lengths and established parameters for liver regeneration (residual liver weight and levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen [PCNA], Ki67, and interleukin [IL]-6) were measured. RESULTS: We observed a significant increase in residual liver weight in group Y compared to that in group O (p = 0.001). The levels of Ki67 (p = 0.016), PCNA (p < 0.0001), and IL-6 (p < 0.001) were significantly higher in group Y. Furthermore, the rats in group Y had significantly earlier peak values of Ki67 and PCNA. Telomeres were significantly longer at the time of PH in group Y (p = 0.001). We showed a correlation between telomere length at the day of PH and liver regeneration. Animals with longer telomeres at the time of PH had better liver regeneration (p = 0.015). In group Y, animals with increased liver regeneration (median cut-off: > 122%) did not show any significant difference in telomere length (p = 0.587) compared to rats with regular regeneration (< 122%). However, in the older animals, rats with increased regeneration had significantly longer telomeres (p = 0.019) than rats with regular regeneration. CONCLUSION: Telomere length in rat hepatocytes depends on age, and animals with long telomeres had earlier and better regeneration of healthy liver tissue than rats with short telomeres. Our data confirms that telomere length in rat hepatocytes could be used as a possible predictive marker for liver regeneration, and could help to identify older individuals with a high capacity for hepatic regeneration.


Assuntos
Hepatectomia , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Regeneração Hepática , Telômero , Animais , Proliferação de Células , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
8.
Immunol Cell Biol ; 96(10): 1060-1071, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29790605

RESUMO

Premature T-cell immunosenescence with CD57+ CD8+ T-cell accumulation has been linked to immunodeficiency and autoimmunity in primary immunodeficiencies including activated PI3 kinase delta syndrome (APDS). To address whether CD57 marks the typical senescent T-cell population seen in adult individuals or identifies a distinct population in APDS, we compared CD57+ CD8+ T cells from mostly pediatric APDS patients to those of healthy adults with similarly prominent senescent T cells. CD57+ CD8+ T cells from APDS patients were less differentiated with more CD27+ CD28+ effector memory T cells showing increased PD1 and Eomesodermin expression. In addition, transition of naïve to CD57+ CD8+ T cells was not associated with the characteristic telomere shortening. Nevertheless, they showed the increased interferon-gamma secretion, enhanced degranulation and reduced in vitro proliferation typical of senescent CD57+ CD8+ T cells. Thus, hyperactive PI3 kinase signaling favors premature accumulation of a CD57+ CD8+ T-cell population, which shows most functional features of typical senescent T cells, but is different in terms of differentiation and relative telomere shortening. Initial observations indicate that this specific differentiation state may offer the opportunity to revert premature T-cell immunosenescence and its potential contribution to inflammation and immunodeficiency in APDS.

9.
Leukemia ; 32(8): 1762-1767, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29749397

RESUMO

Dyskeratosis congenita (DKC) is a paradigmatic telomere disorder characterized by substantial and premature telomere shortening, bone marrow failure, and a dramatically increased risk of developing myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or acute myeloid leukemia (AML). DKC can occur as a late-onset, so-called cryptic form, with first manifestation in adults. Somatic MDS-related mutations are found in up to 35% of patients with acquired aplastic anemia (AA), especially in patients with short telomeres. The aim of our study was to investigate whether cryptic DKC is associated with an increased incidence of MDS-related somatic mutations, thereby linking the accelerated telomere shortening with the increased risk of MDS/AML. Samples from 15 adult patients (median age: 42 years, range: 23-60 years) with molecularly confirmed cryptic DKC were screened using next-generation gene panel sequencing to detect MDS-related somatic variants. Only one of the 15 patients (7%) demonstrated a clinically relevant MDS-related somatic variant. This incidence was dramatically lower than formerly described in acquired AA. Based on our data, we conclude that clonal evolution of subclones carrying MDS-related mutations is not the predominant mechanism for MDS/AML initiation in adult cryptic DKC patients.

10.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 9(1): 108, 2018 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29669575

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Senolytic drugs are thought to target senescent cells and might thereby rejuvenate tissues. In fact, such compounds were suggested to increase health and lifespan in various murine aging models. So far, effects of senolytic drugs have not been analysed during replicative senescence of human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). METHODS: In this study, we tested four potentially senolytic drugs: ABT-263 (navitoclax), quercetin, nicotinamide riboside, and danazol. The effects of these compounds were analysed during long-term expansion of MSCs, until replicative senescence. Furthermore, we determined the effect on molecular markers for replicative senescence, such as senescence-associated beta-galactosidase staining (SA-ß-gal), telomere attrition, and senescence-associated DNA methylation changes. RESULTS: Co-culture experiments of fluorescently labelled early and late passages revealed that particularly ABT-263 had a significant but moderate senolytic effect. This was in line with reduced SA-ß-gal staining in senescent MSCs upon treatment with ABT-263. However, none of the drugs had significant effects on the maximum number of population doublings, telomere length, or epigenetic senescence predictions. CONCLUSIONS: Of the four tested drugs, only ABT-263 revealed a senolytic effect in human MSCs-and even treatment with this compound did not rejuvenate MSCs with regard to telomere length or epigenetic senescence signature. It will be important to identify more potent senolytic drugs to meet the high hopes for regenerative medicine.

11.
Leukemia ; 32(11): 2445-2458, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29654274

RESUMO

Macrophages are key mediators of the therapeutic effects exerted by monoclonal antibodies, such as the anti-CD38 antibody MOR202, currently introduced in multiple myeloma (MM) therapy. Therefore, it is important to understand how antibody-mediated effector functions of myeloma-associated macrophages (MAMs) are regulated. Here, we focused on the effects of vitamin D, a known regulator of macrophage effector functions. Consequently, it was the aim of this study to assess whether modulation of the vitamin D pathway alters the tumoricidal activity of MAMs. Here, we demonstrate that MAMs display a defective vitamin D pathway with reduced expression level of CYP27B1 and limited tumoricidal activity which can be restored by the IMiD lenalidomide in vitro. Furthermore, our data indicate that the vitamin D pathway of MAMs from MM patients does recover during an IMiD-containing therapy shown by an improved MOR202-mediated cytotoxic activity of these MAMs against primary MM cells ex vivo. Here, the ex vivo cytotoxic activity could be further enhanced by vitamin D supplementation. These data suggest that vitamin D holds a key role for the effector functions of MAMs and that vitamin D supplementation in IMiD combination trials could further increase the therapeutic efficacy of anti-CD38 antibodies such as MOR202, which remains to be investigated in clinical studies.

12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 19(2)2018 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29463038

RESUMO

The occurrence of TERT promoter mutations has been well described in soft tissue sarcomas (STS). However, the biological role of these mutations as well as their impact on telomere length in STS is still unclear. We analyzed 116 patient samples diagnosed with 22 distinct histological subtypes of bone and STS for the occurrence of TERT promoter mutations by Sanger sequencing. We observed TERT promoter mutations at an overall frequency of 9.5% distributed over 7 different sarcoma subtypes. Except for one chondrosarcoma case harboring a C250T mutation, all other mutations were detected at location C228T. By far the far highest frequency of TERT promoter mutations was found in myxoid liposarcoma (MLS) (4 out of 9 cases studied, i.e., 44%). Assessment of telomere length from tumor biopsies revealed that TERT promoter-mutated MLSs had significantly fewer shortened telomeres in comparison to TERT wildtype MLSs. Based on the frequency of TERT promoter mutations and the elongated telomere length in mutated compared to wildtype MLS, we hypothesize that occurrence of TERT promoter mutations has a pivotal role in the disease progression as a secondary genetic event at a time when tumor cells face the need for telomere elongation to allow further proliferation.


Assuntos
Lipossarcoma Mixoide/genética , Mutação/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Telomerase/genética , Telômero/metabolismo , Sequência de Bases , Neoplasias Ósseas/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Sarcoma/genética
13.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 9(1): 28, 2018 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29402304

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies in which mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) from the placenta are compared with multiple MSC types from other sources are rare. The chorionic plate of the human placenta is mainly composed of fetal blood vessels embedded in fetal stroma tissue, lined by trophoblastic cells and organized into chorionic villi (CV) structures. METHODS: We comprehensively characterized human MSC collected from postnatal human chorionic villi of placenta (CV-MSC) by analyzing their growth and proliferation potential, differentiation, immunophenotype, extracellular matrix production, telomere length, aging phenotype, and plasticity. RESULTS: Immunophenotypic characterization of CV-MSC confirmed the typical MSC marker expression as defined by the International Society for Cellular Therapy. The surface marker profile was consistent with increased potential for proliferation, vascular localization, and early myogenic marker expression. CV-MSC retained multilineage differentiation potential and extracellular matrix remodeling properties. They have undergone reduced telomere loss and delayed onset of cellular senescence as they aged in vitro compared to three other MSC sources. We present evidence that increased human telomerase reverse transcriptase gene expression could not explain the exceptional telomere maintenance and senescence onset delay in cultured CV-MSC. Our in-vitro tumorigenesis detection assay suggests that CV-MSC are not prone to undergo malignant transformation during long-term in-vitro culture. Besides SOX2 expression, no other pluripotency features were observed in early and late passages of CV-MSC. CONCLUSIONS: Our work brings forward two remarkable characteristics of CV-MSC, the first being their extended life span as a result of delayed replicative senescence and the second being a delayed aged phenotype characterized by improved telomere length maintenance. MSC from human placenta are very attractive candidates for stem cell-based therapy applications.

14.
Ann Hematol ; 96(9): 1457-1461, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28674830

RESUMO

Telomere shortening represents an established mechanism connecting aging and cancer development. We sequentially analyzed telomere length (TL) of 49 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients at diagnosis (n = 24), once they achieved complete cytological remission (CCR) and/or during refractory disease or relapse and after 1-year follow-up, with all patients having at least two sequential samples. TL was analyzed by monochrome multiplex quantitative polymerase chain reaction. We have observed substantially shortened TL in the cells of patients at diagnosis compared to age-adjusted controls. In patients reaching CCR after chemotherapy, telomere shortening was less pronounced than in persistence or relapse but still significantly shortened compared to controls. We estimate patients harboring approximately 20 years of premature telomere loss compared to healthy aged-matched subjects at the time of AML onset. Our data indicate a pre-existing telomere deficit in non-clonal hematopoiesis of AML patients providing a link between age and AML development.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/metabolismo , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/metabolismo , Homeostase do Telômero/genética , Telômero , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/diagnóstico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Telômero/genética , Telômero/metabolismo
15.
EBioMedicine ; 20: 79-97, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28499923

RESUMO

Despite being overexpressed in different tumor entities, RIO kinases are hardly characterized in mammalian cells. We investigated the role of these atypical kinases in different cancer cells. Using isogenic colon-, breast- and lung cancer cell lines, we demonstrate that knockdown of RIOK1, but not of RIOK2 or RIOK3, strongly impairs proliferation and invasiveness in conventional and 3D culture systems. Interestingly, these effects were mainly observed in RAS mutant cancer cells. In contrast, growth of RAS wildtype Caco-2 and Bcr-Abl-driven K562 cells is not affected by RIOK1 knockdown, suggesting a specific requirement for RIOK1 in the context of oncogenic RAS signaling. Furthermore, we show that RIOK1 activates NF-κB signaling and promotes cell cycle progression. Using proteomics, we identified the pro-invasive proteins Metadherin and Stathmin1 to be regulated by RIOK1. Additionally, we demonstrate that RIOK1 promotes lung colonization in vivo and that RIOK1 is overexpressed in different subtypes of human lung- and breast cancer. Altogether, our data suggest RIOK1 as a potential therapeutic target, especially in RAS-driven cancers.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/patologia , Animais , Antígenos de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Ciclo Celular/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Sobrevivência Celular/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Metástase Neoplásica , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
16.
Arch Toxicol ; 91(1): 289-300, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27146145

RESUMO

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are organochlorine pollutants with a worldwide dissemination. We examined telomere length (TL) in peripheral blood cells of 207 individuals with a high body burden of PCBs due to occupational exposure in a transformer recycling company. Whereas TL in granulocytes was not affected, the age-adjusted TL in lymphocytes (∆TLLymph) of exposed individuals was significantly shorter than expected [-0.77 kb; 95 % confidence interval (CI) -0.9316; -0.6052; p = 0.0001]. PCB exposure did not affect lymphocyte numbers or T cell receptor excision circle (TREC) levels in T cells, suggesting that PCBs cause loss of telomeric DNA in T cells due to their metabolic activation and antigen-stimulated proliferation. In support of this hypothesis, blood plasma levels of PCB-exposed individuals inhibited expression of telomerase, the telomere elongating enzyme in vitro in antigen-specific T cell proliferation assays. 3-OH-CB28, a downstream metabolite of the lower chlorinated PCB-28 in PCB-exposed individuals (mean blood plasma concentration: 0.185 ± 0.68 ng/mL), inhibited telomerase gene expression within 48 h of incubation in lymphoproliferative assays starting at a concentration of 0.27-6.75 µg/mL and accelerated telomere shortening in long-term cell culture experiments. Accelerated telomere shortening due to PCB exposure may lead to limitations of cell renewal and clonal expansion of lymphocyte populations. As PCB-related immune dysfunctions have been linked to increased susceptibility to infectious diseases and increased risk of cancer, our data provide a possible explanation, for how PCBs could promote infections and cancer through limiting immune surveillance.


Assuntos
Carcinógenos Ambientais/toxicidade , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Bifenilos Policlorados/toxicidade , Encurtamento do Telômero/efeitos dos fármacos , Biotransformação , Carcinógenos Ambientais/análise , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Estudos de Coortes , Resíduos de Drogas/análise , Feminino , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Alemanha , Humanos , Vigilância Imunológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Cinética , Linfócitos/citologia , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Linfócitos/patologia , Masculino , Bifenilos Policlorados/sangue , Bifenilos Policlorados/metabolismo , Vigilância da População , Reciclagem , Telomerase/antagonistas & inibidores , Telomerase/sangue , Telomerase/metabolismo , Toxicocinética
17.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 141(21): 1578-1580, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27750347

RESUMO

Telomere syndromes (syn. Telomeropathies) are inherited disorders hallmarked by accelerated telomere shortening based on a molecular defect within the telomerase/telomere complex. The rare, but well-defined model disorder Dyskeratosis congenita (DKC) characterized by typical skin manifestations and bone marrow failure represents the classical manifestation of telomere syndromes in childhood and adolescence. However, cryptic variants of DKC, clinically manifest through appearance of atypical bone marrow failure, lung fibrosis or liver cirrhosis - especially in adults up to the fifth decade of age - are frequently underdiagnosed. Clinical awareness is of utmost importance for this group of patients considering the fundamental implications of this diagnosis for treatment decisions and surveillance. Here, we review the importance of screening, correct diagnosis and therapeutic implications of telomeropathies in adult patients with mostly cryptic DKC with particular focus on (pan-)cytopenia as first and most frequent clinical manifestation.


Assuntos
Disceratose Congênita/diagnóstico , Disceratose Congênita/terapia , Pancitopenia/diagnóstico , Pancitopenia/terapia , Avaliação de Sintomas/métodos , Adulto , Progressão da Doença , Disceratose Congênita/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pancitopenia/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Nat Med ; 22(3): 288-97, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26878232

RESUMO

Impaired erythropoiesis in the deletion 5q (del(5q)) subtype of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) has been linked to heterozygous deletion of RPS14, which encodes the ribosomal protein small subunit 14. We generated mice with conditional inactivation of Rps14 and demonstrated an erythroid differentiation defect that is dependent on the tumor suppressor protein p53 (encoded by Trp53 in mice) and is characterized by apoptosis at the transition from polychromatic to orthochromatic erythroblasts. This defect resulted in age-dependent progressive anemia, megakaryocyte dysplasia and loss of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) quiescence. As assessed by quantitative proteomics, mutant erythroblasts expressed higher levels of proteins involved in innate immune signaling, notably the heterodimeric S100 calcium-binding proteins S100a8 and S100a9. S100a8--whose expression was increased in mutant erythroblasts, monocytes and macrophages--is functionally involved in the erythroid defect caused by the Rps14 deletion, as addition of recombinant S100a8 was sufficient to induce a differentiation defect in wild-type erythroid cells, and genetic inactivation of S100a8 expression rescued the erythroid differentiation defect of Rps14-haploinsufficient HSCs. Our data link Rps14 haploinsufficiency in del(5q) MDS to activation of the innate immune system and induction of S100A8-S100A9 expression, leading to a p53-dependent erythroid differentiation defect.


Assuntos
Anemia/genética , Calgranulina A/genética , Calgranulina B/genética , Eritropoese/genética , Haploinsuficiência/genética , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/genética , Proteínas Ribossômicas/genética , Anemia/imunologia , Animais , Western Blotting , Medula Óssea/patologia , Calgranulina A/metabolismo , Citocinas/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Precursoras Eritroides/metabolismo , Eritropoese/imunologia , Citometria de Fluxo , Imunofluorescência , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/genética , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Imuno-Histoquímica , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Técnicas In Vitro , Espectrometria de Massas , Megacariócitos , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Microscopia Confocal , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/imunologia , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/patologia , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
19.
Oncotarget ; 7(10): 10765-72, 2016 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26909595

RESUMO

Dyskeratosis congenita (DKC) is associated with impaired telomere maintenance and with clinical features of premature aging. In this study, we analysed global DNA methylation (DNAm) profiles of DKC patients. Age-associated DNAm changes were not generally accelerated in DKC, but there were significant differences to DNAm patterns of healthy controls, particularly in CpG sites related to an internal promoter region of PR domain containing 8 (PRDM8). Notably, the same genomic region was also hypermethylated in aplastic anemia (AA) - another bone marrow failure syndrome. Site-specific analysis of DNAm level in PRDM8 with pyrosequencing and MassARRAY validated aberrant hypermethylation in 11 DKC patients and 27 AA patients. Telomere length, measured by flow-FISH, did not directly correlate with DNAm in PRDM8. Therefore the two methods may be complementary to also identify patients with still normal telomere length. In conclusion, blood of DKC patients reveals aberrant DNAm patterns, albeit age-associated DNAm patterns are not generally accelerated. Aberrant hypermethylation is particularly observed in PRDM8 and this may support identification and classification of bone marrow failure syndromes.


Assuntos
Anemia Aplástica/genética , Doenças da Medula Óssea/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Metilação de DNA , Disceratose Congênita/genética , Hemoglobinúria Paroxística/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Epigênese Genética , Humanos
20.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 7(11): 911-27, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26546739

RESUMO

The TERT gene encodes for the reverse transcriptase activity of the telomerase complex and mutations in TERT can lead to dysfunctional telomerase activity resulting in diseases such as dyskeratosis congenita (DKC). Here, we describe a novel TERT mutation at position T1129P leading to DKC with progressive bone marrow (BM) failure in homozygous members of a consanguineous family. BM hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) of an affected family member were 300-fold reduced associated with a significantly impaired colony forming capacity in vitro and impaired repopulation activity in mouse xenografts. Recent data in yeast suggested improved cellular checkpoint controls by mTOR inhibition preventing cells with short telomeres or DNA damage from dividing. To evaluate a potential therapeutic option for the patient, we treated her primary skin fibroblasts and BM HSCs with the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin. This led to prolonged survival and decreased levels of senescence in T1129P mutant fibroblasts. In contrast, the impaired HSC function could not be improved by mTOR inhibition, as colony forming capacity and multilineage engraftment potential in xenotransplanted mice remained severely impaired. Thus, rapamycin treatment did not rescue the compromised stem cell function of TERTT1129P mutant patient HSCs and outlines limitations of a potential DKC therapy based on rapamycin.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD34/análise , Senescência Celular , Disceratose Congênita/genética , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/fisiologia , Mutação , Sirolimo/farmacologia , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/antagonistas & inibidores , Telomerase/genética , Animais , Feminino , Células HeLa , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Humanos , Camundongos , Telômero
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