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1.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 22(1): 60-63, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927808

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In this review, the authors re-examine the role of aspirin in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. They discuss the history of the use of aspirin in primary prevention, the current guidelines, and the recent evidence surrounding aspirin use as primary prevention in special populations such as those with moderate cardiovascular risk, diabetes mellitus, and the elderly.


Assuntos
Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Prevenção Primária/métodos
5.
J Clin Apher ; 24(6): 219-24, 2009.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19902516

RESUMO

Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal dominant disease. Homozygous FH (HFH) manifests with severe hypercholesterolemia since birth (cholesterol levels >5-6 the upper normal limit), which, if untreated, leads to early onset accelerated atherosclerosis and premature coronary death, usually before the 2nd or 3rd decades of life. Various invasive procedures (iliocecal bypass, porto-caval shunt, liver transplant, and gene therapy) have been introduced for lowering low density lipoprotein (LDL) aiming at reducing atherosclerosis and improving survival of HFH patients. Of all the various methods, LDL apheresis has become the most attractive. Although its impressive effect on LDL-C reduction is well established, its long-term (of more than 10 year) effect on the atherosclerotic process and specifically cardiac end-points in HFH is hardly documented. We herewith report on the longest term lipophoresis so far reported in two HFH patients, each treated with plasma-exchange and LDL-apheresis for more than 20 years. The observations provide an opportunity to focus on various aspects regarding not only the procedure itself but also its effect on various clinical endpoints. By this description together with reviewing the literature, we discuss several issues, some of them are generalized while others are individualized, dealing with the approach of long term LDL apheresis in HFH.


Assuntos
Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/terapia , Troca Plasmática , Adulto , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/sangue , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/genética , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/mortalidade , Plasmaferese
6.
J Infect ; 52(5): e139-41, 2006 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16236359

RESUMO

A rare case of prosthetic mitral valve endocarditis due to Corynebacterium striatum, treated medically, is reported. While this organism has been described in a few cases of native valve endocarditis, only two cases of prosthetic aortic valve endocarditis have been reported. We herewith report the first case of successful medical treatment of prosthetic mitral valve endocarditis due to C. striatum, emphasizing the complicated clinical course and reviewing the literature regarding diagnosis and therapeutical approach.


Assuntos
Infecções por Corynebacterium/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Corynebacterium/microbiologia , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas/microbiologia , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/microbiologia , Idoso , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/tratamento farmacológico
7.
Aviat Space Environ Med ; 76(9): 857-60, 2005 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16173682

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Military aircrew men represent an elite group of relatively young, fit, and healthy people. The effectiveness of statin treatment in reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) according to the current National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) guidelines, its safety, and compliance in this group of people has not yet been determined. METHODS: We prospectively evaluated 84 military aircrew men (mean age 43 +/- 7 yr) with LDL-C above the current NCEP guidelines. The patients were divided into two groups according to their coronary risk factors: Group 1, LDL-C goal < 160 mg x dL(-1); Group 2, LDL-C goal < 130 mg dL(-1). All patients received statins in addition to therapeutic lifestyle changes and were followed for a mean of 3 +/- 1 yr according to a simple flow chart. Lipoprotein levels, liver function tests, creatinine phosphokinase, and subjective adverse reactions were checked periodically. RESULTS: LDL-C significantly declined by 32% (p < 0.0001) within the first month of treatment and 99% of subjects achieved their LDL-C goal within 114 +/-35 d from statin therapy initiation. The Framingham estimated 10-yr coronary risk showed a reduction at an average of 12 mo after statin therapy initiation from a baseline value of 6.54% to 3.95% (p = 0.003). No subjects were grounded or disqualified from duty, there were no cardiovascular events during follow-up, and compliance to therapy was high [82/84 (98%)]. DISCUSSION: Statin treatment in this highly select, relatively young group of aircrew men significantly and safely lowered LDL-C cholesterol levels.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias/prevenção & controle , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/efeitos adversos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Hiperlipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Medicina Militar , Adulto , Medicina Aeroespacial , Fatores Etários , Aviação , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cooperação do Paciente , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Segurança , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
J Clin Apher ; 19(2): 90-7, 2004.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15274202

RESUMO

LDL-apheresis lowers the LDL level in patients with severe hypercholesterolemia. The present study compared three apheresis methods--DSA, DALI, and plasma exchange--for effectiveness in removal of LDL and effect on various blood parameters involved in atherogenesis. The study group included 6 patients with primary hypercholesterolemia unresponsive to maximal drug therapy. All were treated first with 4 consecutive plasma exchange sessions followed by 4 DSA sessions; in four out of six, an additional 4 sessions of DALI were then performed. Levels of lipoproteins, apoproteins, CRP, homocysteine, fibrinogen, and blood count were determined before and after each session. All 3 procedures yielded a significant reduction in total cholesterol and ApoB-containing lipoproteins, with DALI being the most effective. Also, a significant reduction in triglycerides, HDL, and ApoA1 was observed with all the methods. The reduction in HDL-C with DSA and DALI was greater than previously reported. The LDL/HDL-cholesterol ratio decreased significantly with DSA and DALI and increased with plasma exchange. There was a significant decrease in CRP, fibrinogen, and platelets with all three methods, and a significant decrease in homocysteine only with DSA and DALI. All three procedures effectively reduced the concentration of various compounds involved in atherosclerosis. Plasma exchange is nonselective and cannot be recommended as the procedure of choice.


Assuntos
Arteriosclerose/sangue , Arteriosclerose/terapia , Remoção de Componentes Sanguíneos/métodos , Lipoproteínas LDL/metabolismo , Adsorção , Adulto , Idoso , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Celulose/química , Sulfato de Dextrana/química , Feminino , Fibrinogênio/metabolismo , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Lipídeos/química , Lipoproteínas/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Troca Plasmática , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Thromb Res ; 114(1): 37-44, 2004.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15262483

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the degree of correlation between red blood cell (RBC) aggregation on peripheral blood glass slides (PBGS) as determined by image analysis and the inter-erythrocytic cohesive forces as determined in a computerized cell flow properties analyzer (CFA). STUDY DESIGN: RBC aggregation was assessed using both systems simultaneously in healthy volunteers, obese patients and hypercholesterolemic individuals before and following LDL apheresis. RESULTS: A significant (r = 0.5, p < 0.001) correlation was noted between the flow-dependent average aggregate size (AAS) obtained in the CFA and the degree of RBC aggregation on peripheral blood glass slides. Moreover, the enhanced RBC aggregation on the slides was positively associated with the appearance of larger aggregates in the CFA (r = 0.5, p < 0.001) and inversely with the formation of smaller aggregates (r = -0.27, p < 0.04). A similar reduction in RBC aggregation following LDL apheresis was noted in both systems. CONCLUSIONS: The phenomenon of RBC aggregation on peripheral blood glass slides is governed by significant inter-erythrocytic cohesive forces and is not a result of a mere coincidental superimposition of cells. The slide test offers a rapid and simple method of evaluating rheologically significant RBC aggregation, and may allow stratification of patients at risk for atherothrombosis.


Assuntos
Agregação Eritrocítica , Eritrócitos/patologia , Citometria de Fluxo/métodos , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/sangue , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Obesidade/sangue , Adesão Celular , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Estresse Mecânico
10.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 5(9): 637-40, 2003 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14509153

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The beneficial effect of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutyaryl co-enzyme A reductase inhibitors on cardiovascular risk reduction has been clearly established. Concerns have been raised that lowering blood cholesterol by other hypolipidemic drugs or by a non-pharmacologic approach may have deleterious effects on psychopathologic parameters. Garlic is one of the most commonly used herbal remedies and is considered to have hypocholesterolemic as well as other cardioprotective properties. Its effect on psychopathologic parameters has never been reported. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of garlic on lipid parameters and depression, impulsivity, hostility and temperament in patients with primary type 2 hyperlipidemia. METHODS: In a 16 week prospective double-blind placebo-controlled study, 33 patients with primary hypercholesterolemia and no evidence of cardiovascular disease were randomly assigned to receive either garlic or placebo. Garlic in the form of alliin 22.4 mg/day was given to 13 patients, and placebo to 20. Both groups received individual dietary counseling. The changes in lipid profile and the various psychopathologic parameters were determined at the beginning and end of the trial. The differences in lipid parameters were evaluated by Student's t-test. The psychological data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures and Neuman-Keuls test. RESULTS: No significant changes were observed in levels of total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and triglycerides, or in the psychopathologic parameters evaluated. CONCLUSION: Short-term garlic therapy in adults with mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia does not affect either lipid levels or various psychopathologic parameters.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Alho , Hipercolesterolemia/tratamento farmacológico , Lipídeos/sangue , Fitoterapia , Adulto , Idoso , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Colesterol/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/sangue , Hipercolesterolemia/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cooperação do Paciente , Testes Psicológicos , Resultado do Tratamento , Triglicerídeos/sangue
11.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 5(7): 475-8, 2003 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12901240

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Decreased elasticity of the aorta is associated with aging and several risk factors of atherosclerosis. The data regarding this phenomenon in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia are rather sparse. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate non-invasively the elasticity of the proximal ascending aorta of 51 heterozygous FH patients compared to 42 normal age and gender-matched controls. METHODS: Aortic elasticity was estimated by transthoracic echocardiography using the "pressure-strain" elastic modulus and aortic strain formulas. RESULTS: The elastic modulus score was higher in the FH group than in the controls (1.12 +/- 0.91 10(6) dynes/cm2 vs. 0.65 +/- 0.46 10(6) dynes/cm2 respectively, P = 0.01). This was consistent in both the pediatric (0.5 +/- 0.2 10(6) dynes/cm2 vs. 0.4 +/- 0.1 10(6) dynes/cm2 respectively, P = 0.009) and adult subgroups (1.3 +/- 1.0 10(6) dynes/cm2 vs. 0.8 +/- 0.5 10(6) dynes/cm2 respectively, P = 0.0004). Aortic strain was significantly lower in patients with FH than in controls (6 +/- 4% vs. 9 +/- 5% respectively, P = 0.0002). These findings reflected decreased elasticity of the proximal ascending aorta in the FH patients. In multivariate analysis, age, serum cholesterol level and serum triglycerides level were the independent predictors of the elastic modulus score, whereas age was the predictor of aortic strain. CONCLUSIONS: The elasticity of the proximal ascending aorta is decreased in heterozygous FH patients.


Assuntos
Aorta/diagnóstico por imagem , Aorta/fisiopatologia , Arteriosclerose/diagnóstico por imagem , Arteriosclerose/fisiopatologia , Ecocardiografia , Elasticidade , Heterozigoto , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/diagnóstico por imagem , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Arteriosclerose/etiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
13.
Ther Apher ; 6(2): 140-4, 2002 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11982955

RESUMO

We applied an erythrocyte adhesiveness/aggregation test (EAAT) to a model of plasma exchange in individuals with familial and primary hypercholesterolemia. The significant (p < 0.0001) reduction in the concentration of fibrinogen by 56%, globulins by 48%, and cholesterol by 53% corresponded to the expected significant (p < 0.0001) reduction in the degree of erythrocyte adhesiveness/aggregation in the peripheral venous blood. By virtue of its being a real-time, simple, very-low-cost, and essentially bedside technique, the EAAT might have the potential of disclosing information of rheological relevance immediately before, during, as well as following apheretical procedures administered to patients with an impaired rheological profile.


Assuntos
Agregação Eritrocítica , Hipercolesterolemia/sangue , Hipercolesterolemia/terapia , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/sangue , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/terapia , Troca Plasmática , Adesividade , Adulto , Idoso , Colesterol/sangue , Feminino , Fibrinogênio/análise , Globulinas/análise , Hemorreologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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