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1.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31658437

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Effects of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and its binding proteins (IGFBPs) on ageing, and their interaction with sex hormones, remain uncertain. We examined associations of plasma IGF1, IGFBP1, IGFBP3, estradiol and testosterone, with leucocyte telomere length (LTL), a marker of biological age, in 2999 community-dwelling men aged 70-84 years. METHODS: Plasma IGF1, IGFBP1 and IGFBP3 measured using immunoassay, sex hormones using mass spectrometry. LTL measured by PCR, expressed as ratio of telomeric to single-copy control gene DNA (T/S ratio). Linear regression models adjusted for age and cardiometabolic risk factors, median splits defined low/high groups. RESULTS: Mean age was 76.7±3.2 years. IGF1 and IGFBP3 showed age-adjusted correlations with LTL (coefficient 0.59, p=0.001 and 0.45, p=0.013 respectively), IGFBP1 did not. In multivariable-adjusted models IGF1 and IGFBP3 (but not IGFBP1) were associated with LTL (T/S ratio 0.015 higher per 1SD increase in IGF1, p=0.007, and 0.011 per 1SD IGFBP3, p=0.049). IGF1 and estradiol were independently associated with longer telomeres (T/S ratio 0.012 higher per 1SD increase in estradiol, p=0.027, when included in model with IGF1). Testosterone was not associated with LTL. Men with both high IGF1 (>133 ug/L) and high estradiol (>70 pmol/L) had longer LTL compared to men with lower values (multivariable-adjusted T/S ratio 1.20 vs 1.16, p=0.018). CONCLUSIONS: Higher IGF1 and IGFBP3 are independently associated with longer telomeres in older men. Additive associations of higher IGF1 and higher estradiol with telomere length are present. Further studies are needed to determine whether these hormonal exposures cooperate to slow biological ageing.

2.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 9439, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263163

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) affects the health of millions of people worldwide. The identification of genetic determinants associated with changes in glycemia over time might illuminate biological features that precede the development of T2D. Here we conducted a genome-wide association study of longitudinal fasting glucose changes in up to 13,807 non-diabetic individuals of European descent from nine cohorts. Fasting glucose change over time was defined as the slope of the line defined by multiple fasting glucose measurements obtained over up to 14 years of observation. We tested for associations of genetic variants with inverse-normal transformed fasting glucose change over time adjusting for age at baseline, sex, and principal components of genetic variation. We found no genome-wide significant association (P < 5 × 10-8) with fasting glucose change over time. Seven loci previously associated with T2D, fasting glucose or HbA1c were nominally (P < 0.05) associated with fasting glucose change over time. Limited power influences unambiguous interpretation, but these data suggest that genetic effects on fasting glucose change over time are likely to be small. A public version of the data provides a genomic resource to combine with future studies to evaluate shared genetic links with T2D and other metabolic risk traits.

3.
BMJ Open ; 9(6): e028209, 2019 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209093

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Preconception carrier screening (PCS) identifies couples at risk of having children with recessive genetic conditions. New technologies have enabled affordable sequencing for multiple disorders simultaneously, including identifying carrier status for many recessive diseases. The aim of the study was to identify the most effective way of delivering PCS in Western Australia (WA) through the public health system. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a multicentre cohort pilot study of 250 couples who have used PCS, conducted at three sites: (1) Genetic Services of Western Australia, (2) a private genetic counselling practice in Perth and (3) participating general practice group practices in the Busselton region of WA. The primary outcome of the pilot study was to evaluate the feasibility of implementing the comprehensive PCS programme in the WA healthcare system. Secondary outcome measures included evaluation of the psychosocial impact of couples, such as reproductive autonomy; identification of areas within the health system that had difficulties in implementing the programme and evaluation of tools developed during the study. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Approval was provided by the Women and Newborn Health Service Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC) at King Edward Memorial Hospital for Women (RGS0000000946) and the University of Western Australia (UWA) HREC (RA/4/20/4258). Participants may choose to withdraw at any time. Withdrawal will in no way affect participating couples' medical care. Study couples will be redirected to another participating health professional for consultation or counselling in the event of a health professional withdrawing. All evaluation data will be deidentified and stored in a password-protected database in UWA. In addition, all hard copy data collected will be kept in a locked cabinet within a secure building. All electronic data will be stored in a password-protected, backed-up location in the UWA Institutional Research Data Store. All evaluative results will be published as separate manuscripts, and selected results will be presented at conferences.

4.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 7(2): e00507, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30614210

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chromosome 22q11.2 is susceptible to genomic rearrangements and the most frequently reported involve deletions and duplications between low copy repeats LCR22A to LCR22D. Atypical nested deletions and duplications are rarer and can provide a valuable opportunity to investigate the dosage effects of a smaller subset of genes within the 22q11.2 genomic disorder region. METHODS: We describe thirteen individuals from six families, each with atypical nested duplications within the central 22q11.2 region between LCR22B and LCR22D. We then compared the molecular and clinical data for patients from this study and the few reported atypical duplication cases, to the cases with larger typical duplications between LCR22A and LCR22D. Further, we analyzed genes with the nested region to identify candidates highly enriched in human brain tissues. RESULTS: We observed that atypical nested duplications are heterogeneous in size, often familial, and associated with incomplete penetrance and highly variable clinical expressivity. We found that the nested atypical duplications are a possible risk factor for neurodevelopmental phenotypes, particularly for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), speech and language delay, and behavioral abnormalities. In addition, we analyzed genes within the nested region between LCR22B and LCR22D to identify nine genes (ZNF74, KLHL22, MED15, PI4KA, SERPIND1, CRKL, AIFM3, SLC7A4, and BCRP2) with enriched expression in the nervous system, each with unique spatiotemporal patterns in fetal and adult brain tissues. Interestingly, PI4KA is prominently expressed in the brain, and this gene is included either partially or completely in all of our subjects. CONCLUSION: Our findings confirm variable expressivity and incomplete penetrance for atypical nested 22q11.2 duplications and identify genes such as PI4KA to be directly relevant to brain development and disorder. We conclude that further work is needed to elucidate the basis of variable neurodevelopmental phenotypes and to exclude the presence of a second disorder. Our findings contribute to the genotype-phenotype data for atypical nested 22q11.2 duplications, with implications for genetic counseling.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Duplicação Cromossômica/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Síndrome de DiGeorge/genética , Penetrância , Anormalidades Múltiplas/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cromossomos Humanos Par 22/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/patologia , Síndrome de DiGeorge/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Duplicações Segmentares Genômicas , Síndrome
5.
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) ; 90(4): 562-569, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30561819

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Telomeres protect chromosomes from damage, and shorter leucocyte telomere length (LTL) is a marker of advancing biological age. The association between testosterone (T) and its bioactive metabolites, dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and oestradiol (E2) with telomere length, particularly in older men, is uncertain. The study aimed to clarify associations of sex hormones with LTL in older men. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: We used cross-sectional data from 2913 men aged 76.7 ± 3.2 years with morning blood samples assayed for T, DHT, E2 (mass spectrometry), and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG, immunoassay), to correlate sex hormones with LTL measured using PCR and expressed as T/S ratio in multivariable linear regression models adjusted for age, cardiometabolic risk factors and cardiovascular disease history. RESULTS: Average difference per decade of age was T -0.46 nmol/L, DHT -0.11 nmol/L, E2 -7.5 pmol/L, SHBG +10.2 nmol/L and LTL (T/S ratio) -0.065. E2 correlated with T/S ratio (r = 0.038, P = 0.039) and SHBG was inversely correlated (r = -0.053, P = 0.004). After multivariable adjustment, E2 was associated with T/S ratio (per 1 SD increase E2: coefficient 0.011, P = 0.043), T and DHT were not associated. When E2 and SHBG were simultaneously included, E2 remained positively (coefficient 0.014, P = 0.014) and SHBG inversely (coefficient -0.013, P = 0.037) associated with T/S ratio. CONCLUSIONS: In older men, neither T nor DHT is associated with LTL while E2 is independently associated with LTL and SHBG is inversely associated, thus relating sex hormone exposure to lower biological age. Further research is needed to determine causality and clarify the role of sex hormones in male ageing.

6.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4455, 2018 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30367059

RESUMO

Thyroid dysfunction is an important public health problem, which affects 10% of the general population and increases the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Many aspects of thyroid hormone regulation have only partly been elucidated, including its transport, metabolism, and genetic determinants. Here we report a large meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for thyroid function and dysfunction, testing 8 million genetic variants in up to 72,167 individuals. One-hundred-and-nine independent genetic variants are associated with these traits. A genetic risk score, calculated to assess their combined effects on clinical end points, shows significant associations with increased risk of both overt (Graves' disease) and subclinical thyroid disease, as well as clinical complications. By functional follow-up on selected signals, we identify a novel thyroid hormone transporter (SLC17A4) and a metabolizing enzyme (AADAT). Together, these results provide new knowledge about thyroid hormone physiology and disease, opening new possibilities for therapeutic targets.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30353958

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH) stimulates testicular production of testosterone (T) which is metabolized to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) by 5α-reductase and to oestradiol (E2) by aromatase. How the activity of population variants in these enzymes impacts on gonadal function is unclear. We examined whether polymorphisms in 5α-reductase (SRD5A2) and aromatase (CYP19A1) genes predict circulating sex hormone concentrations. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of 1865 community-dwelling men aged 50.4 ± 16.8 years. MEASUREMENTS: Early morning sera assayed for T, DHT and E2 (mass spectrometry), and SHBG and LH (immunoassay). Two SRD5A2 and eleven CYP19A1 polymorphisms were analysed by PCR. Regression models were adjusted for age and cardiometabolic risk factors. RESULTS: SRD5A2 polymorphism rs9282858 GA vs. GG was associated with higher serum T (+1.5 nmol/L, P < 0.001) and higher SHBG (+3.3 nmol/L, P = 0.001). CYP19A1 polymorphisms were associated with higher serum E2 and lower LH in reciprocal fashion, from which the two-copy haplotype rs10046 = T/rs2899470 = G/rs11575899 = I/rs700518 = G/rs17703883 = T was associated with higher E2 (63.4 vs. 56.5 pmol/L, P = 0.001) and lower LH (3.9 vs. 4.5 IU/L, P = 0.001) compared to null copies. Conversely, rs10046 = C/rs2899470 = T/rs11575899 = D/rs700518 = A/rs17703883 = C was associated with lower E2 (51.8 vs. 62.0 pmol/L, P = 0.001) and higher LH (5.7 vs. 3.9 IU/L, P < 0.001). These haplotypes were associated primarily with differences in E2 in men <65 years and LH in men ≥65 years. CONCLUSIONS: A 5α-reductase polymorphism predicts circulating T and SHBG, while aromatase polymorphisms predict E2 and LH in reciprocal fashion. Age and aromatase polymorphisms interact to affect E2 and LH. How these functional polymorphisms impact on male reproductive and general health outcomes requires further study.

8.
Horm Cancer ; 9(6): 391-398, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30097782

RESUMO

Androgens, notably testosterone (T), have been implicated in development of several common cancers and prostate cancer; however, precise mechanisms remain unclear. This study assessed prospective associations of serum T, dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and estradiol (E2) with overall cancer (excluding skin cancer), prostate, colorectal and lung cancer risk in 1574 community-dwelling men aged 25-84 years. Sex hormones were assayed using mass spectrometry and men were followed for 20 years with outcomes ascertained using data linkage. Over 20 years, there were 289, 116, 48 and 22 men who developed any cancer, prostate cancer, colorectal cancer and lung cancer, respectively. Androgens in the lowest quartile were associated with an increased overall cancer risk (HR = 1.36, 95% CI 1.05-1.76, p = 0.020 for T; and HR = 1.30, 95% CI 1.00-1.69, p = 0.049 for DHT comparing the lowest vs other quartiles). T in the lowest quartile was associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer (HR = 1.53, 95% CI 1.02-2.29, p = 0.038 comparing the lowest vs other quartiles). The association between androgens and overall cancer risk remained similar after excluding prostate cancer outcomes; however, results were not significant. There were no associations of T, DHT or E2 with colorectal or lung cancer risk; however, LH in the highest quartile was associated with an increased risk of lung cancer (HR = 4.55, 95% CI 1.70-12.19, p = 0.003 for the highest vs other quartiles). Whether T is a biomarker of poor health in men with any cancer or prostate cancer requires further confirmation as does the nature and mechanism of the association of a high LH with future lung cancer.

9.
Am J Med Genet A ; 2018 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30152198

RESUMO

Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS OMIM 180860) is a rare, albeit well-recognized disorder characterized by severe intrauterine and postnatal growth retardation. It remains a clinical diagnosis with a molecular cause identifiable in approximately 60%-70% of patients. We report a 4-year-old Australian Aboriginal girl who was born at 32 weeks gestation with features strongly suggestive of SRS, after extensive investigation she was referred to our undiagnosed disease program (UDP). Genomic sequencing was performed which identified a heterozygous splice site variant in IGF2 which is predicted to be pathogenic by in-silico studies, paternal allelic origin, de novo status, and RNA studies on fibroblasts. We compare clinical findings with reported patients to add to the knowledge base on IGF2 variants and to promote the engagement of other Australian Aboriginal families in genomic medicine.

10.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 143: 62-70, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29969725

RESUMO

AIMS: To investigate the relationship between serum adiponectin, ADIPOQ variants and haplotypes, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in type 2 diabetes (T2D). METHODS: Baseline data including serum total adiponectin and 21 ADIPOQ polymorphisms were available for 1076 participants (mean age 64.0 years, 49.4% males) in a community-based cohort followed for an average of 12 years. RESULTS: During 8843 patient-years of follow-up for coronary heart disease (CHD), 13,494 patient-years for ischaemic stroke (IS) and 12,028 patient-years for heart failure (HF), 40.4%, 11.8% and 31.9% of patients experienced a first episode of CHD, IS or HF, respectively. In Cox regression after adjustment for the most parsimonious models, loge(serum adiponectin) and the ADIPOQ variant rs12495941 were inversely associated with incident CHD (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval] 0.79 [0.65-0.98] and 0.64 [0.44-0.94], respectively), while rs1648707 was positively associated with incident IS (2.05 [1.37-3.06]; all P ≤ 0.028). In males, rs9860747 and rs17366568 predicted CHD (0.22 [0.05-0.92] and 1.50 [1.01-2.20]; P ≤ 0.042), while rs1648707 and rs1063537 predicted IS (2.36 [1.32-4.23] and 2.09 [1.17-3.72]; P ≤ 0.012). In females, rs10937273 predicted CHD via an interaction with serum adiponectin (0.43 [0.21-0.91]; P = 0.027), while rs864265 predicted IS (0.43 [0.21-0.88], P = 0.021). The associations between ADIPOQ variants and outcomes were supported by haplotype block analysis. Neither serum adiponectin nor ADIPOQ variants predicted HF. CONCLUSIONS: Serum total adiponectin and gender-specific ADIPOQ variants predict CHD and IS, but not HF, independently of other risk factors in community-based patients with T2D. In contrast to some previous studies, there was no relationship between a high serum total adiponectin and CVD.


Assuntos
Adiponectina/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
11.
Atherosclerosis ; 275: 232-238, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29960898

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is an emerging genetic risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). We examined whether plasma Lp(a) concentration and apolipoprotein(a) [apo(a)] isoform size are associated with extent and severity of coronary artery disease (CAD), and the presence of carotid artery plaque. METHODS: We included in our study male participants (n = 263) from a cohort with angiographically defined premature CAD (Carotid Ultrasound in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease). The angiographic extent and severity of CAD were determined by the modified Gensini and Coronary Artery Stenosis≥20% (CAGE) scores. Carotid artery plaque was assessed by bilateral carotid B-mode ultrasound. Apo(a) isoform size was determined by LPA Kringle IV-2 copy number (KIV-2 CN). RESULTS: Lp(a) concentration, but not KIV-2 CN, was positively associated with the Gensini score. The association remained significant following adjustment for conventional CVD risk factors (all p < 0.05). Lp(a) concentration and elevated Lp(a) [≥50 mg/dL] were positively associated with the CAGE≥20 score, independent of conventional CVD risk factors. KIV-2 C N Q1 (lowest KIV-2 CN quartile) was associated with CAGE≥20 score and KIV-2 CN, with the CAGE≥20 score in those without diabetes. In multivariate models that included phenotypic familial hypercholesterolemia or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, Lp(a) concentration, but not KIV-2 CN, was independently associated with the Gensini and CAGE≥20 scores. No significant associations between Lp(a) concentration and KIV-2 CN with carotid artery plaque were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Lp(a) concentration, but not apo(a) isoform size, is independently associated with angiographic extent and severity of CAD. Neither Lp(a) nor apo(a) isoform size is associated with carotid artery plaque.

12.
Med J Aust ; 208(5): 209-213, 2018 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29540142

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To document the changing levels of tobacco smoking, respiratory symptoms, doctor-diagnosed asthma, and lung function in Busselton adults aged 46-65 years over the past 50 years. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS: Repeated cross-sectional population surveys (1966 to 2010-2015) of adults registered to vote in the Busselton shire, Western Australia, including a modified version of the British Medical Research Council questionnaire on respiratory symptoms. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: History of doctor-diagnosed asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), tobacco smoking history, respiratory medications used, spirometry parameters (forced expiratory volume in one second [FEV1], forced vital capacity [FVC]). RESULTS: The prevalence of tobacco smoking among men declined from 53% in 1966 to 12% in 2010-2015, and from 26% to 9% among women. The prevalence of ever-smoking (ie, smokers and ex-smokers) decreased from 80% to 57% for men but increased from 33% to 50% for women. The prevalence of doctor-diagnosed asthma increased, as did the use of long-acting bronchodilator aerosol medications by people with asthma and COPD. There have been no consistent changes in the prevalence of specific respiratory symptoms, but measures of lung function have significantly improved. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking rates declined as a result of changes in pricing, prohibitions on smoking and the feedback of survey results to Busselton participants. Significant improvements in lung function were measured, and it can be anticipated that the prevalence of other smoking-related diseases will also decline.

13.
Nat Genet ; 50(1): 42-53, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29273806

RESUMO

We examined common variation in asthma risk by conducting a meta-analysis of worldwide asthma genome-wide association studies (23,948 asthma cases, 118,538 controls) of individuals from ethnically diverse populations. We identified five new asthma loci, found two new associations at two known asthma loci, established asthma associations at two loci previously implicated in the comorbidity of asthma plus hay fever, and confirmed nine known loci. Investigation of pleiotropy showed large overlaps in genetic variants with autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. The enrichment in enhancer marks at asthma risk loci, especially in immune cells, suggested a major role of these loci in the regulation of immunologically related mechanisms.

14.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 6(1): 92-98, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29222831

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pallister-Killian syndrome (PKS) is a rare multisystem developmental syndrome usually caused by mosaic tetrasomy of chromosome 12p that is known to be associated with neurological defects. METHODS: We describe two patients with PKS, one of whom has bilateral perisylvian polymicrogyria (PMG), the other with macrocephaly, enlarged lateral ventricles and hypogenesis of the corpus callosum. We have also summarized the current literature describing brain abnormalities in PKS. RESULTS: We reviewed available cases with intracranial scans (n = 93) and found a strong association between PKS and structural brain abnormalities (77.41%; 72/93). Notably, ventricular abnormalities (45.83%; 33/72), abnormalities of the corpus callosum (25.00%; 18/72) and cerebral atrophy (29.17%; 21/72) were the most frequently reported, while macrocephaly (12.5%; 9/72) and PMG (4.17%; 3/72) were less frequent. To further understand how 12p genes might be relevant to brain development, we identified 63 genes which are enriched in the nervous system. These genes display distinct temporal as well as region-specific expression in the brain, suggesting specific roles in neurodevelopment and disease. Finally, we utilized these data to define minimal critical regions on 12p and their constituent genes associated with atrophy, abnormalities of the corpus callosum, and macrocephaly in PKS. CONCLUSION: Our study reinforces the association between brain abnormalities and PKS, and documents a diverse neurogenetic basis for structural brain abnormalities and impaired function in children diagnosed with this rare disorder.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Cromossômicos/genética , Transtornos Cromossômicos/fisiopatologia , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Encéfalo/anatomia & histologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Pré-Escolar , Cromossomos Humanos Par 12/genética , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Cariotipagem , Masculino , Malformações do Desenvolvimento Cortical/genética , Megalencefalia/genética , Mosaicismo , Tetrassomia/genética
15.
Hum Genet ; 137(1): 45-53, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29181734

RESUMO

Over two billion adults are overweight or obese and therefore at an increased risk of cardiometabolic syndrome (CMS). Obesity-related anthropometric traits genetically correlated with CMS may provide insight into CMS aetiology. The aim of this study was to utilise an empirically derived genetic relatedness matrix to calculate heritabilities and genetic correlations between CMS and anthropometric traits to determine whether they share genetic risk factors (pleiotropy). We used genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data on 4671 Busselton Health Study participants. Exploiting both known and unknown relatedness, empirical kinship probabilities were estimated using these SNP data. General linear mixed models implemented in SOLAR were used to estimate narrow-sense heritabilities (h 2) and genetic correlations (r g) between 15 anthropometric and 9 CMS traits. Anthropometric traits were adjusted by body mass index (BMI) to determine whether the observed genetic correlation was independent of obesity. After adjustment for multiple testing, all CMS and anthropometric traits were significantly heritable (h 2 range 0.18-0.57). We identified 50 significant genetic correlations (r g range: - 0.37 to 0.75) between CMS and anthropometric traits. Five genetic correlations remained significant after adjustment for BMI [high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and waist-hip ratio; triglycerides and waist-hip ratio; triglycerides and waist-height ratio; non-HDL-C and waist-height ratio; insulin and iliac skinfold thickness]. This study provides evidence for the presence of potentially pleiotropic genes that affect both anthropometric and CMS traits, independently of obesity.

16.
Mol Autism ; 8: 63, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29214007

RESUMO

Background: Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are complex, pervasive, and heterogeneous neurodevelopmental conditions with varying trajectories, significant male bias and largely unknown etiology. However, an understanding of the biological mechanisms driving pathophysiology is evolving. Immune system aberrations, as identified through cytokine profiles, are believed to have a role in ASD. Altered cytokine levels may facilitate identification of ASD subtypes as well as provide biological markers of response to effective treatments. Research exploring the relationship between cytokine profiles and ASD symptoms is, however, in its infancy. The objective of this study was to explore relationships between cytokine levels and the severity of ASD and other clinical traits. Methods: Multiplex assay techniques were used to measure levels of 27 cytokines in plasma samples from a cohort of 144 children diagnosed with ASD. Results: Overall, results showed a significant negative association between platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB, and the severity of ASD symptoms. Furthermore, a significant interaction with sex suggested a different immune profile for females compared to males. ASD symptom severity was negatively associated with levels of 4 cytokines, IL-1ß, IL-8, MIP-1ß, and VEGF, in females, but not in males. Conclusions: Results of the present study suggest that an altered cytokine response or profile is associated with the severity of ASD-related symptoms, with sex a potential modifier of this relationship. Further research in larger populations which recognizes the importance of sex comparisons and longitudinal assessments are now required to extend and further describe the role of the immune system in ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Citocinas/sangue , Adolescente , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/metabolismo , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/patologia , Becaplermina , Comportamento/fisiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-sis/sangue , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1031: 55-94, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29214566

RESUMO

Public health relies on technologies to produce and analyse data, as well as effectively develop and implement policies and practices. An example is the public health practice of epidemiology, which relies on computational technology to monitor the health status of populations, identify disadvantaged or at risk population groups and thereby inform health policy and priority setting. Critical to achieving health improvements for the underserved population of people living with rare diseases is early diagnosis and best care. In the rare diseases field, the vast majority of diseases are caused by destructive but previously difficult to identify protein-coding gene mutations. The reduction in cost of genetic testing and advances in the clinical use of genome sequencing, data science and imaging are converging to provide more precise understandings of the 'person-time-place' triad. That is: who is affected (people); when the disease is occurring (time); and where the disease is occurring (place). Consequently we are witnessing a paradigm shift in public health policy and practice towards 'precision public health'.Patient and stakeholder engagement has informed the need for a national public health policy framework for rare diseases. The engagement approach in different countries has produced highly comparable outcomes and objectives. Knowledge and experience sharing across the international rare diseases networks and partnerships has informed the development of the Western Australian Rare Diseases Strategic Framework 2015-2018 (RD Framework) and Australian government health briefings on the need for a National plan.The RD Framework is guiding the translation of genomic and other technologies into the Western Australian health system, leading to greater precision in diagnostic pathways and care, and is an example of how a precision public health framework can improve health outcomes for the rare diseases population.Five vignettes are used to illustrate how policy decisions provide the scaffolding for translation of new genomics knowledge, and catalyze transformative change in delivery of clinical services. The vignettes presented here are from an Australian perspective and are not intended to be comprehensive, but rather to provide insights into how a new and emerging 'precision public health' paradigm can improve the experiences of patients living with rare diseases, their caregivers and families.The conclusion is that genomic public health is informed by the individual and family needs, and the population health imperatives of an early and accurate diagnosis; which is the portal to best practice care. Knowledge sharing is critical for public health policy development and improving the lives of people living with rare diseases.


Assuntos
Genômica/métodos , Política de Saúde , Medicina de Precisão , Saúde Pública , Doenças Raras/terapia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genômica/organização & administração , Política de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Fenótipo , Formulação de Políticas , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Doenças Raras/diagnóstico , Doenças Raras/epidemiologia , Doenças Raras/genética
18.
BMJ Open ; 7(11): e019226, 2017 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29151055

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To develop a method for categorising coronary heart disease (CHD) subtype in linked data accounting for different CHD diagnoses across records, and to compare hospital admission numbers and ratios of unlinked versus linked data for each CHD subtype over time, and across age groups and sex. DESIGN: Cohort study. DATA SOURCE: Person-linked hospital administrative data covering all admissions for CHD in Western Australia from 1988 to 2013. MAIN OUTCOME: Ratios of (1) unlinked admission counts to contiguous admission (CA) counts (accounting for transfers), and (2) 28-day episode counts (accounting for transfers and readmissions) to CA counts stratified by CHD subtype, sex and age group. RESULTS: In all CHD subtypes, the ratios changed in a linear or quadratic fashion over time and the coefficients of the trend term differed across CHD subtypes. Furthermore, for many CHD subtypes the ratios also differed by age group and sex. For example, in women aged 35-54 years, the ratio of unlinked to CA counts for non-ST elevation myocardial infarction admissions in 2000 was 1.10, and this increased in a linear fashion to 1.30 in 2013, representing an annual increase of 0.0148. CONCLUSION: The use of unlinked counts in epidemiological estimates of CHD hospitalisations overestimates CHD counts. The CA and 28-day episode counts are more aligned with epidemiological studies of CHD. The degree of overestimation of counts using only unlinked counts varies in a complex manner with CHD subtype, time, sex and age group, and it is not possible to apply a simple correction factor to counts obtained from unlinked data.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/tendências , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação/normas , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Transferência de Pacientes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Austrália Ocidental/epidemiologia
19.
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) ; 87(4): 381-385, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28543303

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Recent evidence suggests that androgens either directly or via aromatisation to oestradiol may regulate telomere length, hence providing a mechanism whereby reproductive steroids are linked to biological ageing in men. Using men with prostate cancer initiating androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), we tested the hypothesis that severe sex steroid deprivation would accelerate telomere shortening. DESIGN: We conducted a secondary analysis of a 2-year prospective controlled study among 65 men with nonmetastatic prostate cancer newly commencing adjuvant ADT (n=40) and age- and radiotherapy-matched prostate cancer controls (n=25). METHODS: We measured leucocyte telomere length (LTL) expressed as telomeric/single copy control gene (T/S) ratio at baseline, 6, 12 and 24 months. Generalized linear models determined the mean adjusted difference (MAD) (95% confidence interval) between groups during follow-up. RESULTS: Compared to controls over 24 months, men receiving ADT had no change in LTL, MAD for T/S ratio (0.105 [-0.004; 0.213], P=.235). CONCLUSIONS: Using men with prostate cancer receiving ADT as a model we found no evidence that prolonged and profound sex steroid deprivation is associated with accelerated telomere shortening. Larger studies will be required to confirm or refute these findings.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Telômero/efeitos dos fármacos , Telômero/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estradiol/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Testosterona/sangue
20.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 12(1): 83, 2017 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28468665

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: New approaches are required to address the needs of complex undiagnosed diseases patients. These approaches include clinical genomic diagnostic pipelines, utilizing intra- and multi-disciplinary platforms, as well as specialty-specific genomic clinics. Both are advancing diagnostic rates. However, complementary cross-disciplinary approaches are also critical to address those patients with multisystem disorders who traverse the bounds of multiple specialties and remain undiagnosed despite existing intra-specialty and genomic-focused approaches. The diagnostic possibilities of undiagnosed diseases include genetic and non-genetic conditions. The focus on genetic diseases addresses some of these disorders, however a cross-disciplinary approach is needed that also simultaneously addresses other disorder types. Herein, we describe the initiation and summary outcomes of a public health system approach for complex undiagnosed patients - the Undiagnosed Diseases Program-Western Australia (UDP-WA). RESULTS: Briefly the UDP-WA is: i) one of a complementary suite of approaches that is being delivered within health service, and with community engagement, to address the needs of those with severe undiagnosed diseases; ii) delivered within a public health system to support equitable access to health care, including for those from remote and regional areas; iii) providing diagnoses and improved patient care; iv) delivering a platform for in-service and real time genomic and phenomic education for clinicians that traverses a diverse range of specialties; v) retaining and recapturing clinical expertise; vi) supporting the education of junior and more senior medical staff; vii) designed to integrate with clinical translational research; and viii) is supporting greater connectedness for patients, families and medical staff. CONCLUSION: The UDP-WA has been initiated in the public health system to complement existing clinical genomic approaches; it has been targeted to those with a specific diagnostic need, and initiated by redirecting existing clinical and financial resources. The UDP-WA supports the provision of equitable and sustainable diagnostics and simultaneously supports capacity building in clinical care and translational research, for those with undiagnosed, typically rare, conditions.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Saúde/organização & administração , Saúde Pública/métodos , Genômica , Humanos , Proteômica , Austrália Ocidental
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