Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 190
Filtrar
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33484127

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Circulating concentrations of free triiodothyronine (fT3), free thyroxine (fT4), and thyrotropin (TSH) are partly heritable traits. Recent studies have advanced knowledge of their genetic architecture. Epigenetic modifications, such as DNA methylation (DNAm), may be important in pituitary-thyroid axis regulation and action, but data are limited. OBJECTIVE: To identify novel associations between fT3, fT4, and TSH and differentially methylated positions (DMPs) in the genome in subjects from 2 Australian cohorts. METHOD: We performed an epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) of thyroid function parameters and DNAm using participants from: Brisbane Systems Genetics Study (median age 14.2 years, n = 563) and the Raine Study (median age 17.0 years, n = 863). Plasma fT3, fT4, and TSH were measured by immunoassay. DNAm levels in blood were assessed using Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip arrays. Analyses employed generalized linear mixed models to test association between DNAm and thyroid function parameters. Data from the 2 cohorts were meta-analyzed. RESULTS: We identified 2 DMPs with epigenome-wide significant (P < 2.4E-7) associations with TSH and 6 with fT3, including cg00049440 in KLF9 (P = 2.88E-10) and cg04173586 in DOT1L (P = 2.09E-16), both genes known to be induced by fT3. All DMPs had a positive association between DNAm and TSH and a negative association between DNAm and fT3. There were no DMPs significantly associated with fT4. We identified 23 differentially methylated regions associated with fT3, fT4, or TSH. CONCLUSIONS: This study has demonstrated associations between blood-based DNAm and both fT3 and TSH. This may provide insight into mechanisms underlying thyroid hormone action and/or pituitary-thyroid axis function.

3.
Dig Liver Dis ; 2020 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33334704

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The incidence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasing in young populations. However, there are inadequate data regarding diagnosis of NAFLD. We aimed to validate three scoring systems against a previous standard of suprailiac skinfold thickness for diagnosing NAFLD in population-based adolescents. METHODS: Seventeen-year-old adolescents (n = 899), participating in the Raine Study, attended a cross-sectional follow-up. NAFLD was diagnosed using liver ultrasound. Scores for Fatty liver index (FLI), Hepatic Steatosis Index (HSI) and Zhejiang University index (ZJU index) were calculated. Diagnostic accuracy of these diagnostic tests was evaluated through discrimination and calibration. RESULTS: NAFLD was diagnosed 9% in males and 15% in females. The three scoring systems demonstrated better discrimination performance for NAFLD in males (AUC was FLI:0.82, HSI: 0.83 and ZJU index: 0.83) compared to females (AUC was FLI: 0.67, HSI: 0.67 and ZJU index: 0.67). Suprailiac skinfold performed better than the scoring systems (overall AUC: 0.82; male AUC:0.88; female AUC:0.73). FLI had best calibration performance. CONCLUSION: Suprailiac skinfold thickness was a better predictor of ultrasound-diagnosed NAFLD than the three diagnostic scoring systems investigated. The higher performance characteristics of the algorithmic scoring systems in males compared with females may have implications for use in population assessments.

4.
Genome Med ; 12(1): 105, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33239103

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation has been shown to be associated with adiposity in adulthood. However, whether similar DNA methylation patterns are associated with childhood and adolescent body mass index (BMI) is largely unknown. More insight into this relationship at younger ages may have implications for future prevention of obesity and its related traits. METHODS: We examined whether DNA methylation in cord blood and whole blood in childhood and adolescence was associated with BMI in the age range from 2 to 18 years using both cross-sectional and longitudinal models. We performed meta-analyses of epigenome-wide association studies including up to 4133 children from 23 studies. We examined the overlap of findings reported in previous studies in children and adults with those in our analyses and calculated enrichment. RESULTS: DNA methylation at three CpGs (cg05937453, cg25212453, and cg10040131), each in a different age range, was associated with BMI at Bonferroni significance, P < 1.06 × 10-7, with a 0.96 standard deviation score (SDS) (standard error (SE) 0.17), 0.32 SDS (SE 0.06), and 0.32 BMI SDS (SE 0.06) higher BMI per 10% increase in methylation, respectively. DNA methylation at nine additional CpGs in the cross-sectional childhood model was associated with BMI at false discovery rate significance. The strength of the associations of DNA methylation at the 187 CpGs previously identified to be associated with adult BMI, increased with advancing age across childhood and adolescence in our analyses. In addition, correlation coefficients between effect estimates for those CpGs in adults and in children and adolescents also increased. Among the top findings for each age range, we observed increasing enrichment for the CpGs that were previously identified in adults (birth Penrichment = 1; childhood Penrichment = 2.00 × 10-4; adolescence Penrichment = 2.10 × 10-7). CONCLUSIONS: There were only minimal associations of DNA methylation with childhood and adolescent BMI. With the advancing age of the participants across childhood and adolescence, we observed increasing overlap with altered DNA methylation loci reported in association with adult BMI. These findings may be compatible with the hypothesis that DNA methylation differences are mostly a consequence rather than a cause of obesity.

5.
Heart Lung Circ ; 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33158734

RESUMO

This dietary guidance, informed by best contemporary evidence, aims to assist medical practitioners and allied health professionals in advising patients for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD). While differing in some details from other current guidelines, the core messages accord with those published in 2019 by the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association and the European Society of Cardiology/European Atherosclerosis Society; the National Lipid Association in 2014 and the NH&MRC Australian Dietary Guidelines in 2013. These were assessed through the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE II) and the levels of evidence and classes of a recommendation developed using the GRADE system. Recommendations with high levels of evidence include increased consumption of plant based foods comprising mainly complex, fibre enriched carbohydrates (wholegrains, fruits and vegetables) while limiting intake of refined starches; partial replacement of saturated fats with monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fats and oils; reduced salt intake; achievement and maintenance of healthy weight; and low-to-moderate consumption of alcohol. Additional guidance but with moderate levels of evidence includes increased consumption of fish (and fish oils where indicated); reduction in sugar-sweetened beverages and added sugars; avoidance of butter and cream especially in those at increased CVD risk but encouragement of yoghurt; allow moderate consumption of lean meat but limit intake of processed meats; and limit cholesterol-rich foods such as eggs and crustaceans for those at increased CVD risk. Guidance has been formulated qualitatively on food categories of commonly eaten foods while avoiding prescriptive quantitative measures that are less readily translatable. This approach accords with current guidelines such as the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association 2019 guidelines and is understandable and readily implemented.

6.
Hypertension ; 76(6): 1945-1952, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33131315

RESUMO

High office blood pressure variability (OBPV) in midlife increases the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the impact of OBPV in older adults without previous CVD is unknown. We conducted a post hoc analysis of ASPREE trial (Aspirin in Reducing Events in the Elderly) participants aged 70-years and older (65 for US minorities) without history of CVD events at baseline, to examine risk of incident CVD associated with long-term, visit-to-visit OBPV. CVD was a prespecified, adjudicated secondary end point in ASPREE. We estimated OBPV using within-individual SD of mean systolic BP from baseline and first 2 annual visits. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% CI for associations with CVD events. In 16 475 participants who survived to year 2 without events, those in the highest tertile of OBPV had increased risk of CVD events after adjustment for multiple covariates, when compared with participants in the lowest tertile (HR, 1.36 [95% CI, 1.08-1.70]; P=0.01). Similar increased risk was observed for ischemic stroke (HR, 1.56 [95% CI, 1.04-2.33]; P=0.03), heart failure hospitalization, or death (HR, 1.73 [95% CI, 1.07-2.79]; P=0.02), and all-cause mortality (HR, 1.27 [95% CI, 1.04-1.54]; P=0.02). Findings were consistent when stratifying participants by use of antihypertensive drugs, while sensitivity analyses suggested the increased risk was especially for individuals whose BP was uncontrolled during the OBPV estimation period. Our findings support increased OBPV as a risk factor for CVD events in healthy older adults with, or without hypertension, who have not had such events previously. Registration- URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifiers: NCT01038583; URL: https://www.isrctn.com; Unique identifiers: ISRCTN83772183.

7.
Curr Opin Lipidol ; 31(6): 313-323, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027224

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We have focused on recent research relevant to effects of dietary patterns and major food groups on cardiovascular outcomes, taking into account guidelines and position statements from expert authorities, with an emphasis on important changes in recommendations, some of which remain controversial. RECENT FINDINGS: Major findings include: refocusing on qualitative patterns of food consumption replacing quantitative prescriptive advice on nutrients; increasing intake of plant foods; substituting saturated fats with polyunsaturated and monounsaturated oils; reducing salt intake; regular consumption of fish with a focus on omega-3 enrichment; not restricting dairy foods, other than butter and cream, with encouragement of some fermented products; reducing cholesterol intake for those at increased cardiovascular risk and diabetes, allowing 7-eggs weekly; restricting processed meats and allowing moderate lean meat consumption; preference for fiber-rich complex carbohydrates and reduced sugar intake; maintaining healthy bodyweight; and although water is the preferred beverage, allowing moderate alcohol consumption to national guidelines and avoiding alcohol in specific cardiovascular disorders. SUMMARY: The new approach that focuses on healthier patterns of food intake is more readily understood by health practitioners and translatable to consumers and patients.

8.
PLoS Genet ; 16(10): e1008718, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045005

RESUMO

The genetic background of childhood body mass index (BMI), and the extent to which the well-known associations of childhood BMI with adult diseases are explained by shared genetic factors, are largely unknown. We performed a genome-wide association study meta-analysis of BMI in 61,111 children aged between 2 and 10 years. Twenty-five independent loci reached genome-wide significance in the combined discovery and replication analyses. Two of these, located near NEDD4L and SLC45A3, have not previously been reported in relation to either childhood or adult BMI. Positive genetic correlations of childhood BMI with birth weight and adult BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, diastolic blood pressure and type 2 diabetes were detected (Rg ranging from 0.11 to 0.76, P-values <0.002). A negative genetic correlation of childhood BMI with age at menarche was observed. Our results suggest that the biological processes underlying childhood BMI largely, but not completely, overlap with those underlying adult BMI. The well-known observational associations of BMI in childhood with cardio-metabolic diseases in adulthood may reflect partial genetic overlap, but in light of previous evidence, it is also likely that they are explained through phenotypic continuity of BMI from childhood into adulthood.

9.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-11, 2020 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878651

RESUMO

Depression is a major cause of disability in adolescents. Higher dietary fibre intake has been associated with lower depressive symptoms in adults, but there is a lack of research in adolescents. We examined the association between dietary fibre intake (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) FFQ) and depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory for Youth) in adolescents with prospective data from the Raine Study Gen2 14- and 17-year follow-ups (n 1260 and 653). Odds of moderate/extreme (clinically relevant) depressive symptoms by quartile of fibre intake were calculated using mixed-effects logistic regression for all participants, in a paired sample without moderate/extreme depressive symptoms at 14 years and in a sub-sample of participants with available inflammatory data at the ages of 14 and 17 years (n 718 and 547). Odds of moderate/extreme depressive symptoms were lower in the fourth (highest) quartile of overall fibre intake (OR 0·273, 95 % CI 0·09, 0·81) compared with the first (lowest) quartile, adjusting for sex, age, energy intake, adiposity, and family and lifestyle factors. However, further adjustment for dietary patterns attenuated the results. Associations of depressive symptoms with cereal or fruit and vegetable fibre intake were not significant in the final model. Adjustment for inflammation had no effect on OR. The association between a higher dietary fibre intake and lower odds of clinically relevant depressive symptoms may be more reflective of a high-fibre diet with all its accompanying nutrients than of an independent effect of fibre.

10.
Environ Health Perspect ; 128(9): 97003, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32930613

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fetal exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with the development of noncommunicable diseases in the offspring. Maternal smoking may induce such long-term effects through persistent changes in the DNA methylome, which therefore hold the potential to be used as a biomarker of this early life exposure. With declining costs for measuring DNA methylation, we aimed to develop a DNA methylation score that can be used on adolescent DNA methylation data and thereby generate a score for in utero cigarette smoke exposure. METHODS: We used machine learning methods to create a score reflecting exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy. This score is based on peripheral blood measurements of DNA methylation (Illumina's Infinium HumanMethylation450K BeadChip). The score was developed and tested in the Raine Study with data from 995 white 17-y-old participants using 10-fold cross-validation. The score was further tested and validated in independent data from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (NFBC1986) (16-y-olds) and 1966 (NFBC1966) (31-y-olds). Further, three previously proposed DNA methylation scores were applied for comparison. The final score was developed with 204 CpGs using elastic net regression. RESULTS: Sensitivity and specificity values for the best performing previously developed classifier ("Reese Score") were 88% and 72% for Raine, 87% and 61% for NFBC1986 and 72% and 70% for NFBC1966, respectively; corresponding figures using the elastic net regression approach were 91% and 76% (Raine), 87% and 75% (NFBC1986), and 72% and 78% for NFBC1966. CONCLUSION: We have developed a DNA methylation score for exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy, outperforming the three previously developed scores. One possible application of the current score could be for model adjustment purposes or to assess its association with distal health outcomes where part of the effect can be attributed to maternal smoking. Further, it may provide a biomarker for fetal exposure to maternal smoking. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP6076.

11.
JHEP Rep ; 2(6): 100150, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32984791

RESUMO

Background & Aims: Remnant lipoprotein cholesterol (RLP-C) is an atherogenic lipid profile associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). With increased rates of CVD seen in adults with NAFLD, RLP-C has the potential to identify individuals with NAFLD who are at increased risk of CVD. This study examined in adolescents sex-different associations among RLP-C, NAFLD, and cardiometabolic risk factors, and whether RLP-C is associated with NAFLD beyond traditional cardiometabolic risk factors. Methods: Adolescents in the Raine Study had anthropometry, clinical, biochemistry and arterial stiffness measurements recorded at 17 years of age. Fatty liver, subcutaneous and visceral adipose thickness were assessed using abdominal ultrasound. Relationships among RLP-C, NAFLD, liver biochemistry, insulin resistance, adipokines, adiposity and arterial stiffness were assessed. Results: NAFLD was diagnosed in 15.1% (19.6% females and 10.7% males) of adolescents. Increasing RLP-C levels were associated with increasing severity of hepatic steatosis and metabolic syndrome. Adolescents with NAFLD and serum RLP-C levels in the highest quartile compared with the lowest quartile, had higher serum leptin, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, BMI, subcutaneous and visceral adipose thickness, systolic blood pressure and arterial stiffness, but lower adiponectin and high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol. Using multivariable logistic regression, RLP-C in the lowest quartile compared with the highest quartile was associated with 85% lower odds of NAFLD in males and 55% in females, after adjusting for waist circumference, leptin, ALT, adiponectin and HOMA-IR. Conclusions: There is an association between RLP-C and NAFLD beyond traditional risk factors of adiposity and insulin resistance in adolescents. Although raised serum RLP-C levels were associated with the severity of hepatic steatosis and markers of cardiometabolic risk, lower serum RLP-C might reflect reduced cardiovascular risk. Lay summary: Remnant lipoprotein cholesterol (RLP-C) is a part of the blood cholesterol that is linked with heart disease and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in adults. In the Raine Study, teenagers with high RLP-C levels had more severe fat accumulation in their liver. Thus, RLP-C might be the hidden link between NAFLD and future risk of heart disease.

12.
Epigenomics ; 12(17): 1483-1499, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901515

RESUMO

Aim: We conducted a methylome-wide association study to examine associations between DNA methylation in whole blood and central adiposity and body fat distribution, measured as waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio and waist-to-height ratio adjusted for body mass index, in 2684 African-American adults in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study. Materials & methods: We validated significantly associated cytosine-phosphate-guanine methylation sites (CpGs) among adults using the Women's Health Initiative and Framingham Heart Study participants (combined n = 5743) and generalized associations in adolescents from The Raine Study (n = 820). Results & conclusion: We identified 11 CpGs that were robustly associated with one or more central adiposity trait in adults and two in adolescents, including CpG site associations near TXNIP, ADCY7, SREBF1 and RAP1GAP2 that had not previously been associated with obesity-related traits.

13.
J Endocr Soc ; 4(8): bvaa061, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32803089

RESUMO

Context: Adolescents with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have increased incidence of cardiometabolic risk factors including dyslipidemia. Atherogenic apolipoprotein (apo) B-lipoprotein remnants are associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of fasting plasma apoB-lipoprotein remnants, apoB48 and apoB100, and their association with cardiometabolic risk factors and androgen indices in adolescent girls with and without PCOS. Design setting and participants: Participants (n = 184) aged 17 years were recruited in the Menstruation in Teenagers Study from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. The main outcome measures: Fasting plasma apo-B48 and -B100 lipoprotein remnant concentrations in adolescent girls with and without PCOS. Results: Fasting plasma apoB48-lipoprotein remnants but not apoB100-lipoprotein remnants were elevated in adolescent girls with increased cardiometabolic risk compared with those with lower cardiometabolic risk (13.91 ± 5.06 vs 12.09 ± 4.47 µg/mL, P < .01). ApoB48-lipoprotein remnants were positively correlated with fasting plasma triglycerides (b = .43, P < .0001). The prevalence of increased cardiometabolic risk factors was 2-fold higher in those diagnosed with PCOS (35.3%) than in those without PCOS (16.3%).Conclusion: Adolescents with PCOS have a 2-fold higher incidence of cardiometabolic risk factors than those without PCOS. Fasting apoB48-lipoprotein remnants are elevated in adolescent girls with a high prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors.

14.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(6): e17845, 2020 06 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442153

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early excess and inadequate gestational weight gain (GWG) have been associated with negative outcomes for mother and child. The use of digital media to deliver pregnancy lifestyle interventions is increasing, but there is little data on participant engagement. The Pregnancy Lifestyle Activity and Nutrition (PLAN) intervention pilot study was an electronic health and dietetic-delivered intervention program promoting healthy GWG in early pregnancy. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to explore the interactions of participants with the program and to assess its acceptability. METHODS: This study uses both quantitative and qualitative methods using data from parent randomized controlled trial (ACTRN12617000725369). Quantitative data from 22 participants in the intervention arm who completed the study provided measures of the interactions participants had with the digital components of the program and with dietetic consultations. A descriptive qualitative analysis employed semistructured interviews with 9 participants to elicit views on the acceptability of the intervention and its components. RESULTS: The electronic delivery of information and recording of weight from 8 to 20 weeks of gestation were universally accepted. Component (face-to-face dietitian, weight tracker, website information delivery, and SMS goal prompting) acceptability and engagement differed between individuals. A total of 4 key themes emerged from the qualitative analysis: supporting lifestyle change, component acceptability and value, delivery platforms, and engagement barriers. CONCLUSIONS: The PLAN intervention and its delivery via a blend of personal dietetic consultations and digital program delivery was found to be acceptable and valuable to pregnant women. Individuals responded differently to various components, emphasizing the importance of including women in the development of lifestyle interventions and allowing participants to choose and tailor programs. Larger randomized controlled trials using these insights in a broader section of the community are needed to inform the iterative development of practical, time-efficient, and cost-effective ways of supporting optimal GWG with the potential to optimize outcomes for pregnant women and their child.

15.
Atherosclerosis ; 302: 20-26, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32413793

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) begins in youth, and is exacerbated by obesity and metabolic syndrome. Apolipoprotein (Apo)B-remnant cholesterol is considered a primary contributor to CVD risk. Fasting plasma apoB48 can be used as a biomarker of intestinal remnant cholesterol as well as postprandial dyslipidemia. In adults, elevated fasting plasma apoB48 strongly associates with cardiometabolic risk factors and obesity, whereas in adolescents there is limited data. The aim of this study was to measure fasting plasma apoB48 and determine the relationship with cardiometabolic risk factors in adolescents. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of fasting plasma apoB48 from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. Subjects were adolescent males and females aged 17 years with complete fasting plasma apoB48, biochemical, and anthropometry data (n = 1045). The relationship between fasting plasma apoB48 and other cardiometabolic risk factors was determined. The high-risk metabolic cluster variable was defined using elevated BMI, HOMA-IR, fasting plasma triglycerides, and systolic blood pressure. RESULTS: Fasting plasma apoB48 was significantly higher in male (15.28 ± 2.95 µg/mL) compared to female (12.45 ± 2.43 µg/mL) adolescents (p = 0.0003), and was increased by 21% (3.60 µg/mL; p = 0.0000) in the high-risk metabolic cluster group and more pronounced in males (31%, 6.15 µg/mL; p = 0.0000). Fasting plasma apoB48 was positively associated with fasting plasma triglycerides, total-cholesterol (but not LDL-C), insulin, leptin, HOMA-IR, and the anthropometric parameters, waist-circumference and skinfold-thickness. Fasting plasma apoB48 was inversely associated with fasting plasma HDL-C, and adiponectin. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma apoB48 remnant lipoproteins associate with cardiometabolic risk factors in adolescents and provide support for the screening of remnant cholesterol in youth.

16.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-8, 2020 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32378492

RESUMO

A high dietary fibre intake has been associated with improvements in inflammatory conditions in adults. However, little is known on whether associations between dietary fibre and inflammation are evident during adolescence. We examined the relationship between dietary fibre intake measured by FFQ and the inflammatory marker high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and the adipokines leptin and adiponectin cross-sectionally in 17-year-olds participating in the Raine Study (n 621). In weighted analysis using tobit and linear regression, and after excluding participants with hs-CRP > 10 mg/l, higher total dietary fibre intake (per 5 g/d) was significantly associated with lower leptin (ß = -0·13, 95 % CI -0·17, -0·09) and adiponectin (ß = -0·28, 95 % CI -0·49, -0·07), but not hs-CRP, in unadjusted analyses. These associations were no longer significant after adjustment for sex, anthropometry and a number of lifestyle factors. However, higher cereal and grain fibre intake was significantly associated with lower leptin (ß = -0·06, 95 % CI -0·10, -0·01) in fully adjusted analysis. Our findings suggest that a higher intake of cereal and grain fibre may contribute to lower leptin in adolescents. This may contribute to reductions in low-grade chronic inflammation and improved health outcomes.

17.
Food Funct ; 11(1): 741-747, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31912860

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by high glucose and insulin resistance. It is strongly linked to lifestyle, including poor diet and physical inactivity. Lupin is a novel food ingredient, rich in protein and fibre with negligible sugar and starch, which can be incorporated into various foods to reduce glycaemic load. Regular consumption of lupin-enriched foods may be a novel and easily achievable means of reducing overall glycaemic load and improving glycaemic control in diabetes. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether regular consumption of lupin-enriched foods can improve glycaemic control and lower blood pressure in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. DESIGN: Fourteen men and 8 women (mean age 58.0 ± 6.6 years and BMI 29.0 ± 3.5 kg m-2) with type 2 diabetes mellitus were recruited from the general population to take part in a double-blind, randomised, controlled cross-over study. Participants consumed lupin or control foods for breakfast and lunch every day, and for dinner at least 3 days per week during the 8-week treatment periods. Lupin-enriched foods consisted of bread, pasta, Weetbix™ cereal and crumbs, with energy-matched control products. Treatments were completed in random order with an 8-week washout period. All participants monitored their blood glucose levels pre- and post-breakfast and lunch, and their blood pressure in the morning and evening, 3 days per week for the duration of each treatment period. RESULTS: Seventeen participants completed both treatment arms, with all 22 participants (14 males, 8 females) analysed on an intention-to-treat basis. Eight weeks consumption of lupin-enriched food had no significant effect on mean blood glucose levels (mean difference: -0.08 ± 0.06 mmol L-1, p = 0.214) or post-prandial blood glucose levels (-0.13 ± 0.10 mmol L-1, p = 0.196). There was no effect on home systolic (-0.4 ± 0.4 mmHg, p = 0.33) or diastolic (0.3 ± 0.3 mmHg, p = 0.321) blood pressure and heart rate (0.5 ± 0.3 bpm, p = 0.152), and no effect on body weight throughout the treatment periods. CONCLUSION: Regular consumption of lupin-enriched foods had no significant effect on glycaemic control or blood pressure in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Alimentos Fortificados , Lupinus , Adulto , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea , Estudos Cross-Over , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Índice Glicêmico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Am J Hypertens ; 33(4): 350-361, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31807750

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite readily available treatments, control of blood pressure (BP) with population aging remains suboptimal. Further, there are gaps in the understanding of the management of high BP in the aged. We explored antihypertensive treatment and control among elderly hypertensive participants free from overt cardiovascular disease (CVD), and identified factors related to both "untreated" and "treated but uncontrolled" high BP. METHODS: We analyzed baseline data from 19,114 individuals aged ≥65 years enrolled from Australia and United States (US) in the ASPirin in Reducing Events in the Elderly study. Hypertension was defined as an average systolic/diastolic BP ≥140/90 mm Hg and/or the use of any BP lowering medication. "Controlled hypertension" was defined if participants were receiving antihypertensive medication and BP <140 and 90 mm Hg. Descriptive analyses were used to summarize hypertension control rates; logistic regression was used to investigate relationships with treatment and BP control. RESULTS: Overall, 74% (14,213/19,114) of participants were hypertensive; and of these 29% (4,151/14,213) were untreated. Among those treated participants, 53% (5,330/10,062) had BP ≥140/90 mm Hg. Participants who were untreated were more likely to be men, have higher educational status, and be in good physical health, and less likely to have significant comorbidities. The factors related to "treated but uncontrolled" BP included older age, male, Black race (vs. White), using antihypertensive monotherapy (vs. multiple) and residing in Australia (vs. US). CONCLUSIONS: High levels of "untreated" and "treated but uncontrolled" BP occur in healthy elderly people without CVD, suggesting there are opportunities for better BP control in the primary prevention of CVD in this population. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: NCT01038583.

19.
Hypertension ; 75(2): 324-330, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31865788

RESUMO

Whether extreme dipping is associated with cardiovascular events (CVE) is unclear. The present study was conducted to test the hypothesis that the prognostic role of extreme dipping varies as a function of age. The analysis was performed in 10 868 participants (53% men) aged 53±15 (mean±SD) years enrolled in 8 prospective studies. Using the ambulatory systolic blood pressure nocturnal decline, we identified 4 groups: dippers (>10%-20%), nondippers (>0%-10%), reverse dippers (≤0%), and extreme dippers (>20%). The association between dipping category and CVE was estimated as a function of age using Cox models adjusted for sex, average 24-hour systolic blood pressure, and traditional risk factors. During a median follow-up of 5.7 years, there were a total of 829 CVE (168 fatal). For extreme dippers, no increase in risk of CVE was observed among the participants <70 years (hazard ratio, 0.99 [95% CI, 0.73-1.34]; P=0.93) compared with dippers. In contrast, among the participants ≥70 years, there was a significant increase in risk (hazard ratio, 1.88 [95% CI, 1.14-3.11]; P=0.013). Among the octogenarians, the hazard ratio (95% CI) for CVE were 2.34 (1.12-4.93) for nondippers (P=0.024), 3.91 (1.75-8.73) for reverse dippers (P=0.001), and 4.12 (1.64-10.37) for extreme dippers (P=0.003) compared with dippers. These data show that extreme dipping is not associated with poorer outcome in people younger than 70 years. A U-shaped relationship between nocturnal blood pressure dipping and adverse outcome is present in subjects older than 70 years. In the octogenarian extreme dippers, the risk of CVEs was 4× higher than in the dippers and similar to that in the reverse dippers.


Assuntos
Fatores Etários , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Hipertensão , Hipotensão , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Hipotensão/diagnóstico , Hipotensão/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
20.
Eur J Nutr ; 59(1): 217-230, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30656478

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Increasing vegetable intake and diversity are recommended to maintain better health. Evidence for the health benefits of vegetable diversity, separate from total intake, is scarce. We aimed to investigate the associations of vegetable diversity with subclinical measures of atherosclerosis and atherosclerotic vascular disease (ASVD) mortality. METHODS: Vegetable diversity was assessed within a validated food frequency questionnaire using a single question, 'How many different vegetables do you usually consume each day (< 1 to ≥ 6 per day)'. Cox proportional hazards modelling was used to examine the association between vegetable diversity and ASVD mortality in 1226 women aged ≥ 70 years without clinical ASVD or diabetes mellitus at baseline (1998). In 2001, B-mode ultrasonography was used to measure common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCA-IMT) (n = 954) and carotid plaque severity (n = 968). RESULTS: Over 15 years (15,947 person-years) of follow-up, 238 ASVD-related deaths were recorded. For each additional different vegetable consumed per day, there was 17% lower hazard for ASVD mortality (HR = 0.83, 95% CI 0.78, 0.93, P = 0.001); a 1.7% lower mean CCA-IMT (B ± SE: - 0.013 ± 0.004, P < 0.001); and a 1.8% lower maximum CCA-IMT (B ± SE: - 0.017 ± 0.004, P < 0.001). Further adjustment for total vegetable intake attenuated the association between vegetable diversity and ASVD mortality (P = 0.114), but not CCA-IMT (P = 0.024). No association was observed between vegetable diversity and carotid plaque severity (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Vegetable diversity may contribute to benefits in lowering risk of ASVD in older women. The reduction in risk is partly explained by increased total vegetable consumption. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRY: The Perth Longitudinal Study of Aging in Women (PLSAW) trial registration ID is ACTRN12617000640303. This study was retrospectively registered on the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry at http://www.anzctr.org.au.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...