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1.
Front Immunol ; 13: 867716, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35493512

RESUMO

Background: Almost 2 years from the beginning of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, there is still a lot unknown how the humoral response affects disease progression. In this study, we investigated humoral antibody responses against specific SARS-CoV2 proteins, their strength of binding, and their relationship with COVID severity and clinical information. Furthermore, we studied the interactions of the specific receptor-binding domain (RBD) in more depth by characterizing specific antibody response to a peptide library. Materials and Methods: We measured specific antibodies of isotypes IgM, IgG, and IgA, as well as their binding strength against the SARS-CoV2 antigens RBD, NCP, S1, and S1S2 in sera of 76 COVID-19 patients using surface plasmon resonance imaging. In addition, these samples were analyzed using a peptide epitope mapping assay, which consists of a library of peptides originating from the RBD. Results: A positive association was observed between disease severity and IgG antibody titers against all SARS-CoV2 proteins and additionally for IgM and IgA antibodies directed against RBD. Interestingly, in contrast to the titer of antibodies, the binding strength went down with increasing disease severity. Within the critically ill patient group, a positive association with pulmonary embolism, d-dimer, and antibody titers was observed. Conclusion: In critically ill patients, antibody production is high, but affinity is low, and maturation is impaired. This may play a role in disease exacerbation and could be valuable as a prognostic marker for predicting severity.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Estado Terminal , Humanos , Imunoglobulina A , Imunoglobulina M , RNA Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
2.
Neurocrit Care ; 2022 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35233717

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To compare three computer-assisted quantitative electroencephalography (EEG) prediction models for the outcome prediction of comatose patients after cardiac arrest regarding predictive performance and robustness to artifacts. METHODS: A total of 871 continuous EEGs recorded up to 3 days after cardiac arrest in intensive care units of five teaching hospitals in the Netherlands were retrospectively analyzed. Outcome at 6 months was dichotomized as "good" (Cerebral Performance Category 1-2) or "poor" (Cerebral Performance Category 3-5). Three prediction models were implemented: a logistic regression model using two quantitative features, a random forest model with nine features, and a deep learning model based on a convolutional neural network. Data from two centers were used for training and fivefold cross-validation (n = 663), and data from three other centers were used for external validation (n = 208). Model output was the probability of good outcome. Predictive performances were evaluated by using receiver operating characteristic analysis and the calculation of predictive values. Robustness to artifacts was evaluated by using an artifact rejection algorithm, manually added noise, and randomly flattened channels in the EEG. RESULTS: The deep learning network showed the best overall predictive performance. On the external test set, poor outcome could be predicted by the deep learning network at 24 h with a sensitivity of 54% (95% confidence interval [CI] 44-64%) at a false positive rate (FPR) of 0% (95% CI 0-2%), significantly higher than the logistic regression (sensitivity 33%, FPR 0%) and random forest models (sensitivity 13%, FPR, 0%) (p < 0.05). Good outcome at 12 h could be predicted by the deep learning network with a sensitivity of 78% (95% CI 52-100%) at a FPR of 12% (95% CI 0-24%) and by the logistic regression model with a sensitivity of 83% (95% CI 83-83%) at a FPR of 3% (95% CI 3-3%), both significantly higher than the random forest model (sensitivity 1%, FPR 0%) (p < 0.05). The results of the deep learning network were the least affected by the presence of artifacts, added white noise, and flat EEG channels. CONCLUSIONS: A deep learning model outperformed logistic regression and random forest models for reliable, robust, EEG-based outcome prediction of comatose patients after cardiac arrest.

3.
N Engl J Med ; 386(8): 724-734, 2022 02 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35196426

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether the treatment of rhythmic and periodic electroencephalographic (EEG) patterns in comatose survivors of cardiac arrest improves outcomes is uncertain. METHODS: We conducted an open-label trial of suppressing rhythmic and periodic EEG patterns detected on continuous EEG monitoring in comatose survivors of cardiac arrest. Patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to a stepwise strategy of antiseizure medications to suppress this activity for at least 48 consecutive hours plus standard care (antiseizure-treatment group) or to standard care alone (control group); standard care included targeted temperature management in both groups. The primary outcome was neurologic outcome according to the score on the Cerebral Performance Category (CPC) scale at 3 months, dichotomized as a good outcome (CPC score indicating no, mild, or moderate disability) or a poor outcome (CPC score indicating severe disability, coma, or death). Secondary outcomes were mortality, length of stay in the intensive care unit (ICU), and duration of mechanical ventilation. RESULTS: We enrolled 172 patients, with 88 assigned to the antiseizure-treatment group and 84 to the control group. Rhythmic or periodic EEG activity was detected a median of 35 hours after cardiac arrest; 98 of 157 patients (62%) with available data had myoclonus. Complete suppression of rhythmic and periodic EEG activity for 48 consecutive hours occurred in 49 of 88 patients (56%) in the antiseizure-treatment group and in 2 of 83 patients (2%) in the control group. At 3 months, 79 of 88 patients (90%) in the antiseizure-treatment group and 77 of 84 patients (92%) in the control group had a poor outcome (difference, 2 percentage points; 95% confidence interval, -7 to 11; P = 0.68). Mortality at 3 months was 80% in the antiseizure-treatment group and 82% in the control group. The mean length of stay in the ICU and mean duration of mechanical ventilation were slightly longer in the antiseizure-treatment group than in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: In comatose survivors of cardiac arrest, the incidence of a poor neurologic outcome at 3 months did not differ significantly between a strategy of suppressing rhythmic and periodic EEG activity with the use of antiseizure medication for at least 48 hours plus standard care and standard care alone. (Funded by the Dutch Epilepsy Foundation; TELSTAR ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02056236.).


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Coma/fisiopatologia , Eletroencefalografia , Parada Cardíaca/complicações , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Anticonvulsivantes/efeitos adversos , Coma/etiologia , Feminino , Escala de Coma de Glasgow , Parada Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Convulsões/diagnóstico , Convulsões/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Ann Intensive Care ; 12(1): 12, 2022 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35147784

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent complication in cardiac arrest survivors and associated with adverse outcome. It remains unclear whether the incidence of AKI increases after the post-cardiac arrest contrast administration for coronary angiography and whether this depends on timing of angiography. Aim of this study was to investigate whether early angiography is associated with increased development of AKI compared to deferred angiography in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) survivors. METHODS: In this retrospective multicenter cohort study, we investigated whether early angiography (within 2 h) after OHCA was non-inferior to deferred angiography regarding the development of AKI. We used an absolute difference of 5% as the non-inferiority margin. Primary non-inferiority analysis was done by calculating the risk difference with its 90% confidence interval (CI) using a generalized linear model for a binary outcome. As a sensitivity analysis, we repeated the primary analysis using propensity score matching. A multivariable model was built to identify predictors of acute kidney injury. RESULTS: A total of 2375 patients were included from 2009 until 2018, of which 1148 patients were treated with early coronary angiography and 1227 patients with delayed or no angiography. In the early angiography group 18.5% of patients developed AKI after OHCA and 24.1% in the deferred angiography group. Risk difference was - 3.7% with 90% CI ranging from - 6.7 to - 0.7%, indicating non-inferiority of early angiography. The sensitivity analysis using propensity score matching showed accordant results, but no longer non-inferiority of early angiography. The factors time to return of spontaneous circulation (odds ratio [OR] 1.12, 95% CI 1.06-1.19, p < 0.001), the (not) use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin II receptor blocker (OR 0.20, 95% CI 0.04-0.91, p = 0.04) and baseline creatinine (OR 1.05, 95% CI 1.03-1.07, p < 0.001) were found to be independently associated with the development of AKI. CONCLUSIONS: Although AKI occurred in approximately 20% of OHCA patients, we found that early angiography was not associated with a higher AKI incidence than a deferred angiography strategy. The present results implicate that it is safe to perform early coronary angiography with respect to the risk of developing AKI after OHCA.

5.
Resuscitation ; 173: 147-153, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35122892

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess neurological outcome after targeted temperature management (TTM) at 33 °C vs. 36 °C, stratified by the severity of encephalopathy based on EEG-patterns at 12 and 24 h. DESIGN: Post hoc analysis of prospective cohort study. SETTING: Five Dutch Intensive Care units. PATIENTS: 479 adult comatose post-cardiac arrest patients. INTERVENTIONS: TTM at 33 °C (n = 270) or 36 °C (n = 209) and continuous EEG monitoring. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Outcome according to the cerebral performance category (CPC) score at 6 months post-cardiac arrest was similar after 33 °C and 36 °C. However, when stratified by the severity of encephalopathy based on EEG-patterns at 12 and 24 h after cardiac arrest, the proportion of good outcome (CPC 1-2) in patients with moderate encephalopathy was significantly larger after TTM at 33 °C (66% vs. 45%; Odds Ratios 2.38, 95% CI = 1.32-4.30; p = 0.004). In contrast, with mild encephalopathy, there was no statistically significant difference in the proportion of patients with good outcome between 33 °C and 36 °C (88% vs. 81%; OR 1.68, 95% CI = 0.65-4.38; p = 0.282). Ordinal regression analysis showed a shift towards higher CPC scores when treated with TTM 33 °C as compared with 36 °C in moderate encephalopathy (cOR 2.39; 95% CI = 1.40-4.08; p = 0.001), but not in mild encephalopathy (cOR 0.81 95% CI = 0.41-1.59; p = 0.537). Adjustment for initial cardiac rhythm and cause of arrest did not change this relationship. CONCLUSIONS: Effects of TTM probably depend on the severity of encephalopathy in comatose patients after cardiac arrest. These results support inclusion of predefined subgroup analyses based on EEG measures of the severity of encephalopathy in future clinical trials.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Hipotermia Induzida , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar , Adulto , Temperatura Corporal , Encefalopatias/etiologia , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Coma/etiologia , Coma/terapia , Humanos , Hipotermia Induzida/métodos , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Estudos Prospectivos
6.
Crit Care Med ; 50(2): e129-e142, 2022 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34637414

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The optimal targeted temperature in patients with shockable rhythm is unclear, and current guidelines recommend targeted temperature management with a correspondingly wide range between 32°C and 36°C. Our aim was to study survival and neurologic outcome associated with targeted temperature management strategy in postarrest patients with initial shockable rhythm. DESIGN: Observational substudy of the Coronary Angiography after Cardiac Arrest without ST-segment Elevation trial. SETTING: Nineteen hospitals in The Netherlands. PATIENTS: The Coronary Angiography after Cardiac Arrest trial randomized successfully resuscitated patients with shockable rhythm and absence of ST-segment elevation to a strategy of immediate or delayed coronary angiography. In this substudy, 459 patients treated with mild therapeutic hypothermia (32.0-34.0°C) or targeted normothermia (36.0-37.0°C) were included. Allocation to targeted temperature management strategy was at the discretion of the physician. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: After 90 days, 171 patients (63.6%) in the mild therapeutic hypothermia group and 129 (67.9%) in the targeted normothermia group were alive (hazard ratio, 0.86 [95% CI, 0.62-1.18]; log-rank p = 0.35; adjusted odds ratio, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.45-1.72). Patients in the mild therapeutic hypothermia group had longer ICU stay (4 d [3-7 d] vs 3 d [2-5 d]; ratio of geometric means, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.15-1.51), lower blood pressures, higher lactate levels, and increased need for inotropic support. Cerebral Performance Category scores at ICU discharge and 90-day follow-up and patient-reported Mental and Physical Health Scores at 1 year were similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: In the context of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with shockable rhythm and no ST-elevation, treatment with mild therapeutic hypothermia was not associated with improved 90-day survival compared with targeted normothermia. Neurologic outcomes at 90 days as well as patient-reported Mental and Physical Health Scores at 1 year did not differ between the groups.


Assuntos
Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Cardioversão Elétrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Hipotermia Induzida/normas , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Idoso , Angiografia Coronária/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Hipotermia Induzida/métodos , Hipotermia Induzida/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Ressuscitação/métodos , Ressuscitação/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
J Clin Pharm Ther ; 47(3): 383-385, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431552

RESUMO

WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: The safety and efficacy of different antifungal agents in the prophylaxis of invasive fungal infection in patients with haematological disorders are known. We comment on the poor bioavailability of posaconazole suspension to suggest that it is not useful in critically ill COVID patients. COMMENT: The increased mortality and high incidence of COVID-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) might justify administration of off-label posaconazole for preventing CAPA, being the only drug officially registered for prophylaxis of fungal infections. We decided to initiate off-label posaconazole prophylaxis in COVID-19 patients, who were mechanically ventilated and exposed to high-dose steroids for progressive pulmonary disease or ARDS. We found that posaconazole suspension was inadequate. Very low trough levels were observed after administration, and the dose adjustments necessary for the therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of the drug in our critically ill ICU patients were not useful. WHAT IS NEW AND CONCLUSION: Posaconazole suspension should not be used to prevent CAPA in COVID-19 patients on high-dose steroid therapy.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Aspergilose Pulmonar , Antifúngicos , Estado Terminal , Humanos , Aspergilose Pulmonar/induzido quimicamente , Aspergilose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Aspergilose Pulmonar/prevenção & controle , Triazóis
8.
Intensive Care Med ; 47(11): 1284-1294, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605947

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Investigate safety and tolerability of adrecizumab, a humanized monoclonal adrenomedullin antibody, in septic shock patients with high adrenomedullin. METHODS: Phase-2a, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled biomarker-guided trial with a single infusion of adrecizumab (2 or 4 mg/kg b.w.) compared to placebo. Patients with adrenomedullin above 70 pg/mL, < 12 h of vasopressor start for septic shock were eligible. Randomization was 1:1:2. Primary safety (90-day mortality, treatment emergent adverse events (TEAE)) and tolerability (drug interruption, hemodynamics) endpoints were recorded. Efficacy endpoints included the Sepsis Support Index (SSI, reflecting ventilator- and shock-free days alive), change in Sequential-related Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) and 28-day mortality. RESULTS: 301 patients were enrolled (median time of 8.5 h after vasopressor start). Adrecizumab was well tolerated (one interruption, no hemodynamic alteration) with no differences in frequency and severity in TEAEs between treatment arms (TEAE of grade 3 or higher: 70.5% in the adrecizumab group and 71.1% in the placebo group) nor in 90-day mortality. Difference in change in SSI between adrecizumab and placebo was 0.72 (CI -1.93-0.49, p = 0.24). Among various secondary endpoints, delta SOFA score (defined as maximum versus minimum SOFA) was more pronounced in the adrecizumab combined group compared to placebo [difference at 0.76 (95% CI 0.18-1.35); p = 0.007]. 28-day mortality in the adrecizumab group was 23.9% and 27.7% in placebo with a hazard ratio of 0.84 (95% confidence interval 0.53-1.31, log-rank p = 0.44). CONCLUSIONS: Overall, we successfully completed a randomized trial evaluating selecting patients for enrolment who had a disease-related biomarker. There were no overt signals of harm with using two doses of the adrenomedullin antibody adrecizumab; however, further randomized controlled trials are required to confirm efficacy and safety of this agent in septic shock patients.


Assuntos
Adrenomedulina , Choque Séptico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Choque Séptico/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Cureus ; 13(5): e15285, 2021 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34221750

RESUMO

Background We assessed the ability of baseline and serial measurements of mid-regional proadrenomedullin (MR-proADM) and mid-regional proatrial natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP) to predict 28-day mortality in critically ill patients with pneumonia compared with Acute Physiological and Chronic Health Evaluation IV (APACHE IV) model and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score. Methodology Biomarkers were collected for the first five days in this retrospective observational cohort study. Biomarker clearance (as a percentage) was presented as biomarker decline in five days. We investigated the relationship between biomarkers and mortality in a multivariable Cox regression model. APACHE IV and SOFA were calculated after 24 hours from intensive care unit admission. Results In 153 critically ill patients with pneumonia, 28-day mortality was 26.8%. Values of baseline MR-proADM, MR-proANP, and APACHE IV were significantly higher in 28-day nonsurvivors, but not significantly different for SOFA score. Baseline MR-proADM and MR-proANP, APACHE IV, and SOFA had a low area under the curve in receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves. No optimal cut-off points could be calculated. Biomarkers and severity scores were divided into tertiles. The highest tertiles baseline MR-proADM and MR-proANP were not significant predictors for 28-day mortality in a multivariable model with age and APACHE IV. SOFA was not a significant predictor in univariable analysis. Clearances of MR-proADM and MR-proANP were significantly higher in 28-day survivors. MR-proADM and MR-proANP clearances had similar low accuracy to identify nonsurvivors in ROC curves and were divided into tertiles. Low clearances of MR-proADM and MR-proANP (first tertiles) were significant predictors for 28-day mortality (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.38; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.21-4.70; p = 0.013 and HR: 2.27; 95% CI: 1.16-4.46; p = 0.017) in a model with age and APACHE IV. Conclusions MR-proADM and MR-proANP clearance performed better in predicting 28-day mortality in a model with age and APACHE IV compared with single baseline measurements in a mixed population of critically ill with pneumonia.

10.
Age Ageing ; 50(5): 1546-1556, 2021 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33993243

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Older patients have a less pronounced immune response to infection, which may also influence infection biomarkers. There is currently insufficient data regarding clinical effects of procalcitonin (PCT) to guide antibiotic treatment in older patients. OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: We performed an individual patient data meta-analysis to investigate the association of age on effects of PCT-guided antibiotic stewardship regarding antibiotic use and outcome. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We had access to 9,421 individual infection patients from 28 randomized controlled trials comparing PCT-guided antibiotic therapy (intervention group) or standard care. We stratified patients according to age in four groups (<75 years [n = 7,079], 75-80 years [n = 1,034], 81-85 years [n = 803] and >85 years [n = 505]). The primary endpoint was the duration of antibiotic treatment and the secondary endpoints were 30-day mortality and length of stay. RESULTS: Compared to control patients, mean duration of antibiotic therapy in PCT-guided patients was significantly reduced by 24, 22, 26 and 24% in the four age groups corresponding to adjusted differences in antibiotic days of -1.99 (95% confidence interval [CI] -2.36 to -1.62), -1.98 (95% CI -2.94 to -1.02), -2.20 (95% CI -3.15 to -1.25) and - 2.10 (95% CI -3.29 to -0.91) with no differences among age groups. There was no increase in the risk for mortality in any of the age groups. Effects were similar in subgroups by infection type, blood culture result and clinical setting (P interaction >0.05). CONCLUSIONS: This large individual patient data meta-analysis confirms that, similar to younger patients, PCT-guided antibiotic treatment in older patients is associated with significantly reduced antibiotic exposures and no increase in mortality.


Assuntos
Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Pró-Calcitonina , Idoso , Algoritmos , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
11.
Resuscitation ; 164: 93-100, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33932485

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of immediate coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients who are successfully resuscitated after cardiac arrest in the absence of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) on left ventricular function is currently unknown. METHODS: This prespecified sub-study of a multicentre trial evaluated 552 patients, successfully resuscitated from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest without signs of STEMI. Patients were randomized to either undergo immediate coronary angiography or delayed coronary angiography, after neurologic recovery. All patients underwent PCI if indicated. The main outcomes of this analysis were left ventricular ejection fraction and end-diastolic and systolic volumes assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging or echocardiography. RESULTS: Data on left ventricular function was available for 397 patients. The mean (± standard deviation) left ventricular ejection fraction was 45.2% (±12.8) in the immediate angiography group and 48.4% (±13.2) in the delayed angiography group (mean difference: -3.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], -6.75 to 0.37). Median left ventricular end-diastolic volume was 177 ml in the immediate angiography group compared to 169 ml in the delayed angiography group (ratio of geometric means: 1.06; 95% CI, 0.95-1.19). In addition, mean left ventricular end-systolic volume was 90 ml in the immediate angiography group compared to 78 ml in the delayed angiography group (ratio of geometric means: 1.13; 95% CI 0.97-1.32). CONCLUSION: In patients successfully resuscitated after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and without signs of STEMI, immediate coronary angiography was not found to improve left ventricular dimensions or function compared with a delayed angiography strategy. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: Netherlands Trial Register number, NTR4973.


Assuntos
Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Angiografia Coronária , Humanos , Países Baixos , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/diagnóstico por imagem , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Volume Sistólico , Resultado do Tratamento , Função Ventricular Esquerda
13.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 61, 2021 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33588925

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dipeptidyl peptidase 3 (DPP3) is a cytosolic enzyme involved in the degradation of various cardiovascular and endorphin mediators. High levels of circulating DPP3 (cDPP3) indicate a high risk of organ dysfunction and mortality in cardiogenic shock patients. METHODS: The aim was to assess relationships between cDPP3 during the initial intensive care unit (ICU) stay and short-term outcome in the AdrenOSS-1, a prospective observational multinational study in twenty-four ICU centers in five countries. AdrenOSS-1 included 585 patients admitted to the ICU with severe sepsis or septic shock. The primary outcome was 28-day mortality. Secondary outcomes included organ failure as defined by the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, organ support with focus on vasopressor/inotropic use and need for renal replacement therapy. cDPP3 levels were measured upon admission and 24 h later. RESULTS: Median [IQR] cDPP3 concentration upon admission was 26.5 [16.2-40.4] ng/mL. Initial SOFA score was 7 [5-10], and 28-day mortality was 22%. We found marked associations between cDPP3 upon ICU admission and 28-day mortality (unadjusted standardized HR 1.8 [CI 1.6-2.1]; adjusted HR 1.5 [CI 1.3-1.8]) and between cDPP3 levels and change in renal and liver SOFA score (p = 0.0077 and 0.0009, respectively). The higher the initial cDPP3 was, the greater the need for organ support and vasopressors upon admission; the longer the need for vasopressor(s), mechanical ventilation or RRT and the higher the need for fluid load (all p < 0.005). In patients with cDPP3 > 40.4 ng/mL upon admission, a decrease in cDPP3 below 40.4 ng/mL after 24 h was associated with an improvement of organ function at 48 h and better 28-day outcome. By contrast, persistently elevated cDPP3 at 24 h was associated with worsening organ function and high 28-day mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Admission levels and rapid changes in cDPP3 predict outcome during sepsis. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02393781. Registered on March 19, 2015.


Assuntos
Dipeptidil Peptidases e Tripeptidil Peptidases/análise , Mortalidade/tendências , Sepse/sangue , Idoso , Biomarcadores/análise , Biomarcadores/sangue , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Dipeptidil Peptidases e Tripeptidil Peptidases/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/sangue , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/fisiopatologia , Escores de Disfunção Orgânica , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Sepse/mortalidade , Sepse/fisiopatologia , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
14.
J Clin Pharm Ther ; 46(5): 1473-1475, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33626185

RESUMO

WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Formation of methaemoglobinaemia (MetHb) decreases oxygen capacity in the blood, leading to tissue hypoxia. This condition may be acquired following exposure to certain drugs. CASE SUMMARY: A critically ill patient with necrotizing fasciitis unexpectedly developed marked and unexplained MetHb (6.7%). Her digital medication list did not reveal the causative factor. However, deeper exploration showed the use of other compounds (acetone, hydrogen peroxide) not routinely visible on the medication list. WHAT IS NEW AND CONCLUSION: Elevated MetHb likely resulted from high-volume hydrogen peroxide 3% exposure. Clinicians should be cautious rinsing large open wounds with hydrogen peroxide. When MetHb is diagnosed, less familiar compounds, usually not on the medication list, should be considered in the differential diagnosis and extensive hetero-anamnesis is mandatory.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal , Fasciite Necrosante/tratamento farmacológico , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/administração & dosagem , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/efeitos adversos , Metemoglobinemia/induzido quimicamente , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 40(2): 429-434, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32902760

RESUMO

Novel rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) offer huge potential to optimise clinical care and improve patient outcomes. In this study, we aim to assess the current patterns of use around the world, identify issues for successful implementation and suggest best practice advice on how to introduce new tests. An electronic survey was devised by the International Society of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (ISAC) Rapid Diagnostics and Biomarkers working group focussing on the availability, structure and impact of RDTs around the world. It was circulated to ISAC members in December 2019. Results were collated according to the UN human development index (HDI). 81 responses were gathered from 31 different countries. 84% of institutions reported the availability of any test 24/7. In more developed countries, this was more for respiratory viruses, whereas in high and medium/low developed countries, it was for HIV and viral hepatitis. Only 37% of those carrying out rapid tests measured the impact. There is no 'one-size fits all' solution to RDTs: the requirements must be tailored to the healthcare setting in which they are deployed and there are many factors that should be considered prior to this.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Instalações de Saúde , Testes Imediatos , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Resuscitation ; 158: 14-22, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33189807

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether sex is associated with outcomes of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is unclear. OBJECTIVES: This study examined sex differences in survival in patients with OHCA without ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). METHODS: Using data from the randomized controlled Coronary Angiography after Cardiac Arrest (COACT) trial, the primary point of interest was sex differences in OHCA-related one-year survival. Secondary points of interest included the benefit of immediate coronary angiography compared to delayed angiography until after neurologic recovery, angiographic and clinical outcomes. RESULTS: In total, 522 patients (79.1% men) were included. Overall one-year survival was 59.6% in women and 63.4% in men (HR 1.18; 95% CI: 0.76-1.81;p = 0.47). No cardiovascular risk factors were found that modified survival. Women less often had significant coronary artery disease (CAD) (37.0% vs. 71.3%;p < 0.001), but when present, they had a worse prognosis than women without CAD (HR 3.06; 95% CI 1.31-7.19;p = 0.01). This was not the case for men (HR 1.05; 95% CI 0.67-1.65;p = 0.83). In both sexes, immediate coronary angiography did not improve one-year survival compared to delayed angiography (women, odds ratio (OR) 0.87; 95% CI 0.58-1.30;p = 0.49; vs. men, OR 0.97; 95% CI 0.45-2.09;p = 0.93). CONCLUSION: In OHCA patients without STEMI, we found no sex differences in overall one-year survival. Women less often had significant CAD, but when CAD was present they had worse survival than women without CAD. This was not the case for men. Both sexes did not benefit from a strategy of immediate coronary angiography as compared to delayed strategy with respect to one-year survival. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: Netherlands trial register (NTR) 4973.


Assuntos
Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST , Angiografia Coronária , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Caracteres Sexuais
17.
Data Brief ; 33: 106521, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33294518

RESUMO

Sex differences in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients are increasingly recognized. Although it has been found that post-resuscitated women are less likely to have significant coronary artery disease (CAD) than men, data on follow-up in these patients are limited. Data for this data in brief article was obtained as a part of the randomized controlled Coronary Angiography after Cardiac Arrest without ST-segment elevation (COACT) trial. The data supplements the manuscript "Sex differences in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients without ST-segment elevation: A COACT trial substudy" were it was found that women were less likely to have significant CAD including chronic total occlusions, and had worse survival when CAD was present. The dataset presented in this paper describes sex differences on interventions, implantable-cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) shocks and hospitalizations due to heart failure during one-year follow-up in patients successfully resuscitated after OHCA. Data was derived through a telephone interview at one year with the patient or general practitioner. Patients in this randomized dataset reflects a homogenous study population, which can be valuable to further build on research regarding long-term sex differences and to further improve cardiac care.

18.
JAMA Cardiol ; 5(12): 1358-1365, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876654

RESUMO

Importance: Ischemic heart disease is a common cause of cardiac arrest. However, randomized data on long-term clinical outcomes of immediate coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients successfully resuscitated from cardiac arrest in the absence of ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) are lacking. Objective: To determine whether immediate coronary angiography improves clinical outcomes at 1 year in patients after cardiac arrest without signs of STEMI, compared with a delayed coronary angiography strategy. Design, Setting, and Participants: A prespecified analysis of a multicenter, open-label, randomized clinical trial evaluated 552 patients who were enrolled in 19 Dutch centers between January 8, 2015, and July 17, 2018. The study included patients who experienced out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with a shockable rhythm who were successfully resuscitated without signs of STEMI. Follow-up was performed at 1 year. Data were analyzed, using the intention-to-treat principle, between August 29 and October 10, 2019. Interventions: Immediate coronary angiography and PCI if indicated or coronary angiography and PCI if indicated, delayed until after neurologic recovery. Main Outcomes and Measures: Survival, myocardial infarction, revascularization, implantable cardiac defibrillator shock, quality of life, hospitalization for heart failure, and the composite of death or myocardial infarction or revascularization after 1 year. Results: At 1 year, data on 522 of 552 patients (94.6%) were available for analysis. Of these patients, 413 were men (79.1%); mean (SD) age was 65.4 (12.3) years. A total of 162 of 264 patients (61.4%) in the immediate angiography group and 165 of 258 patients (64.0%) in the delayed angiography group were alive (odds ratio, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.63-1.28). The composite end point of death, myocardial infarction, or repeated revascularization since the index hospitalization was met in 112 patients (42.9%) in the immediate group and 104 patients (40.6%) in the delayed group (odds ratio, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.77-1.56). No significant differences between the groups were observed for the other outcomes at 1-year follow-up. For example, the rate of ICD shocks was 20.4% in the immediate group and 16.2% in the delayed group (odds ratio, 1.32; 95% CI, 0.66-2.64). Conclusions and Relevance: In this trial of patients successfully resuscitated after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and without signs of STEMI, a strategy of immediate angiography was not found to be superior to a strategy of delayed angiography with respect to clinical outcomes at 1 year. Coronary angiography in this patient group can therefore be delayed until after neurologic recovery without affecting outcomes. Trial Registration: trialregister.nl Identifier: NTR4973.


Assuntos
Angiografia Coronária , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Ressuscitação , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 59(2): 441-453, 2020 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986609

RESUMO

Objectives: Patients with impaired kidney function have a significantly slower decrease of procalcitonin (PCT) levels during infection. Our aim was to study PCT-guided antibiotic stewardship and clinical outcomes in patients with impairments of kidney function as assessed by creatinine levels measured upon hospital admission. Methods: We pooled and analyzed individual data from 15 randomized controlled trials who were randomly assigned to receive antibiotic therapy based on a PCT-algorithms or based on standard of care. We stratified patients on the initial glomerular filtration rate (GFR, ml/min/1.73 m2) in three groups (GFR >90 [chronic kidney disease; CKD 1], GFR 15-89 [CKD 2-4] and GFR<15 [CKD 5]). The main efficacy and safety endpoints were duration of antibiotic treatment and 30-day mortality. Results: Mean duration of antibiotic treatment was significantly shorter in PCT-guided (n=2,492) compared to control patients (n=2,510) (9.5-7.6 days; adjusted difference in days -2.01 [95% CI, -2.45 to -1.58]). CKD 5 patients had overall longer treatment durations, but a 2.5-day reduction in treatment duration was still found in patients receiving in PCT-guided care (11.3 vs. 8.6 days [95% CI -3.59 to -1.40]). There were 397 deaths in 2,492 PCT-group patients (15.9%) compared to 460 deaths in 2,510 control patients (18.3%) (adjusted odds ratio, 0.88 [95% CI 0.78 to 0.98)]. Effects of PCT-guidance on antibiotic treatment duration and mortality were similar in subgroups stratified by infection type and clinical setting (p interaction >0.05). Conclusions: This individual patient data meta-analysis confirms that the use of PCT in patients with impaired kidney function, as assessed by admission creatinine levels, is associated with shorter antibiotic courses and lower mortality rates.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Mortalidade/etnologia , Pró-Calcitonina/sangue , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Gestão de Antimicrobianos , Uso de Medicamentos , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Rim , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32660990

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to develop a population pharmacokinetic model and to determine a dosing regimen for caspofungin in critically ill patients. Nine blood samples were drawn per dosing occasion. Fifteen patients with (suspected) invasive candidiasis had one dosing occasion and five had two dosing occasions, measured on day 3 (±1) of treatment. Pmetrics was used for population pharmacokinetic modeling and probability of target attainment (PTA). A target 24-h area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) value of 98 mg·h/liter was used as an efficacy parameter. Secondarily, the AUC/MIC targets of 450, 865, and 1,185 were used to calculate PTAs for Candida glabrata, C. albicans, and C. parapsilosis, respectively. The final 2-compartment model included weight as a covariate on volume of distribution (V). The mean V of the central compartment was 7.71 (standard deviation [SD], 2.70) liters/kg of body weight, the mean elimination constant (Ke ) was 0.09 (SD, 0.04) h-1, the rate constant for the caspofungin distribution from the central to the peripheral compartment was 0.44 (SD, 0.39) h-1, and the rate constant for the caspofungin distribution from the peripheral to the central compartment was 0.46 (SD, 0.35) h-1 A loading dose of 2 mg/kg on the first day, followed by 1.25 mg/kg as a maintenance dose, was chosen. With this dose, 98% of the patients were expected to reach the AUC target on the first day and 100% of the patients on the third day. The registered caspofungin dose might not be suitable for critically ill patients who were all overweight (≥120 kg), over 80% of median weight (78 kg), and around 25% of lower weight (≤50 kg). A weight-based dose regimen might be appropriate for achieving adequate exposure of caspofungin in intensive care unit patients.


Assuntos
Candidíase Invasiva , Estado Terminal , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Candidíase Invasiva/tratamento farmacológico , Caspofungina , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Método de Monte Carlo
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