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1.
J Dairy Sci ; 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34802743

RESUMO

Even though supplementations of essential AA (EAA) are often related to increased lactose yields in dairy cows, underlying mechanisms connecting EAA availability to the mammary glands and lactose synthesis are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of branched-chain AA (BCAA) including Leu, Ile, and Val on (1) glucose transporter (GLUT1) abundance and glucose uptake, (2) the abundance of proteins regulating lactose synthesis pathway, and (3) fractional synthesis rates of lactose (FSR) using bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMEC) and mammary tissues slices (MTS). The BMEC (n = 4) were allocated randomly to regular Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium with Ham's F12 (DMEM/F12) media (+EAA) or +EAA deficient (by 90%) in all EAA (-EAA), all BCAA (-BCAA), only Leu (-Leu), only Ile (-Ile) or only Val (-Val). Western immunoblotting analyses, depletion of glucose in media, and a proteomic analysis were performed to determine the abundance of GLUT1 in the cell membrane, net glucose uptake, and the abundance of enzymes involved in lactose synthesis pathway in BMEC, respectively. The MTS (n = 6) were allocated randomly to DMEM/F12 media having all EAA and 13C-glucose at concentrations similar to plasma concentrations of cows (+EAAp), and +EAAp deprived of all BCAA (-BCAAp) or only Leu (-Leup) for 3 h. The 13C enrichments of free glucose pool in MTS (EGlu-free) and the enrichments of glucose incorporated into lactose in MTS and media [ELactose-bound (T&M)] were determined and used in calculating FSR. In BMEC, -BCAA increased the fraction of total GLUT1 translocated to the cell membrane and the fraction that was potentially glycosylated compared with +EAA. Among individual BCAA, only -Leu was associated with a 63% increase in GLUT1 translocated to the cell membrane and a 40% increase in glucose uptake of BMEC. The -BCAA tended to be related to a 75% increase in the abundance of hexokinase in BMEC. Deprivation of Leu tended to increase glucose uptake of MTS but did not affect EGlu-free, ELactose-bound (T&M), or FSR relative to +EAAp. On the other hand, -BCAAp did not affect glucose uptake of MTS but was related to lower ELactose-bound (T&M), or FSR relative to +EAAp. Considering together, decreasing Leu supply to mammary tissues enhances GLUT1 and thus glucose uptake, which, however, does not affect lactose synthesis rates. Moreover, the deficiency of other BCAA, Ile, and Val alone or together with the deficiency of Leu seemed to decrease lactose synthesis rates without affecting glucose uptake. The data also emphasize the importance of addressing the effect of the supply of other nutrients to the mammary glands than the precursor supply in describing the synthesis of a milk component.

2.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 749, 2021 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34657595

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bovine milk contains extracellular vesicles (EVs) that play a role in cellular communication, acting in either an autocrine, paracrine, or an exocrine manner. The unique properties of the EVs protect the cargo against degradation. We profiled the ncRNAs (non-coding RNA) present in the EVs from seven dairy products - raw whole milk, heat-treated skim milk, homogenized heat-treated skim milk, pasteurized homogenized skim milk, pasteurized heavy whipping cream, sweet cream buttermilk and cultured buttermilk with four replicates each, obtained at different processing steps from a commercial dairy plant. EVs and their cargo were extracted by using a validated commercial kit that has been shown to be efficient and specific for EVs. Further, to find the annotation of ncRNAs, we probed bovine and other organism repositories(such as miRBase, miRTarBase, Ensemble) to find homolog ncRNA annotation in case the annotations of ncRNA are not available in Bos Taurus database. RESULTS: Specifically, 30 microRNAs (miRNAs), were isolated throughout all the seven milk samples, which later when annotated with their corresponding 1546 putative gene targets have functions associated with immune response and growth and development. This indicates the potential for these ncRNAs to beneficially support mammary health and growth for the cow as well as neonatal gut maturation. The most abundant miRNAs were bta-miR-125a and human homolog miR-718 based on the abundance values of read count obtained from the milk samples.bta-miR-125a is involved in host bacterial and viral immune response, and human homolog miR-718 is involved in the regulation of p53, VEGF, and IGF signaling pathways, respectively. Sixty-two miRNAs were up-regulated and 121 miRNAs were down-regulated throughout all the milk samples when compared to raw whole milk. In addition, our study explored the putative roles of other ncRNAs which included 88 piRNAs (piwi-interacting RNA), 64 antisense RNAs, and 105 lincRNAs (long-intergenic ncRNAs) contained in the bovine exosomes. CONCLUSION: Together, the results indicate that bovine milk contains significant numbers of ncRNAs with putative regulatory targets associated with immune- and developmental-functions important for neonatal bovine health, and that processing significantly affects the ncRNA expression values; but statistical testing of overall abundance(read counts) of all miRNA samples suggests abundance values aren't much affected. This can be attributed to the breakage of exosomal vesicles during the processing stages. It is worth noting, however, that these gene regulatory targets are putative, and further evidence could be generated through experimental validation.


Assuntos
Exossomos , Vesículas Extracelulares , MicroRNAs , Leite/química , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Imunidade , MicroRNAs/genética , RNA não Traduzido/genética
3.
Animal ; 15(7): 100281, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34153603

RESUMO

Reduced-fat dried distillers' grains with solubles (RF-DDGSs) are co-products of ethanol production and contain less fat than traditional distillers' grains. The fat in corn is ~91% unsaturated, and it is toxic to rumen microorganisms so it could influence the composition of the rumen microbiome. It has been demonstrated that RF-DDGS is a suitable ration ingredient to support the high-producing dairy cow, and this feedstuff is a promising alternative protein source for lactating dairy cows. The current study aims to better understand the effect of RF-DDGS on the rumen and fecal bacterial composition in lactating dairy cows. Thirty-six multiparous (two or three), mid-lactation Holstein cows (BW = 680 ± 11 kg; 106 ± 27 DIM) were randomly assigned to two groups which were fed a control diet made up of corn, corn silage, and alfalfa hay supplemented with expeller soybean meal or with added RF-DDGS (20% of the DM) containing approximately 6.0% fat. Whole rumen contents (rumen fluid and digesta; esophageal tubing method) and feces (free-catch method) were collected on day 35 of the experimental period, after the 14-d acclimation period. Rumen contents and feces from each cow were used for DNA extraction. The bacterial community composition in rumen and fecal samples was assessed via the 16S rRNA gene by using the Illumina MiSeq sequencing platform. Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes were the most abundant phyla in rumen contents. The fecal microbiota was dominated by the phyla Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, as well as Actinobacteria and Chloroflexi. RF-DGGS increased bacterial richness, evenness, and Shannon diversity in both rumen and fecal samples and was associated with several taxa that had different abundance in treatment versus control comparisons. The RF-DGGS, however, did not significantly alter the bacterial community in the rumen or feces. In general, these findings demonstrated that dietary inclusion of RF-DDGS did not impose any serious short-term (within 30 days) health or production consequences, as would be expected. With this study, we present further evidence that inclusion of 20% (DM basis) RF-DDGS in the diet of lactating dairy cows can be done without consequence on the microbiome of the rumen.


Assuntos
Lactação , Rúmen , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Grão Comestível , Fezes , Feminino , Leite , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Zea mays
4.
J Dairy Sci ; 101(7): 5838-5850, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29655564

RESUMO

Feeding dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) to lactating dairy cows has been implicated as a cause of late blowing defects in the production of Swiss-style cheeses. Our objectives were (1) to test the effect of feeding reduced-fat DDGS (RF-DDGS; ∼6% fat) to lactating dairy cows on the composition of milk and on the suitability of the milk for production of baby Swiss cheese and (2) to evaluate the effect of diet on cow lactation performance. Lactating Holstein dairy cows were fed both dietary treatments in a 2 × 2 crossover design. Cows were housed in a 48-cow freestall pen equipped with individual feeding gates to record feed intake. The control diet was a corn, corn silage, and alfalfa hay diet supplemented with mechanically expelled soybean meal. The experimental diet was the same base ration, but 20% (dry matter basis) RF-DDGS were included in place of the expelled soybean meal. The RF-DDGS diet was additionally supplemented with rumen-protected lysine; diets were formulated to be isoenergetic and isonitrogenous. Cows were allowed ad libitum access to feed and water, fed twice daily, and milked 3 times daily. For cheese production, milk was collected and pooled 6 times for each dietary treatment. There was no treatment effect on milk yield (35.66 and 35.39 kg/d), milk fat production (1.27 and 1.25 kg/d), milk fat percentage (3.65 and 3.61%), milk protein production (1.05 and 1.08 kg/d), lactose percentage (4.62 and 4.64%), milk total solids (12.19 and 12.28%), and somatic cell count (232.57 and 287.22 × 103 cells/mL) for control and RF-DDGS, respectively. However, dry matter intake was increased by treatment, which implied a reduction in feed efficiency. Milk protein percentage also increased (3.01 and 3.11%), whereas milk urea nitrogen decreased (14.18 and 12.99 mg/dL), indicating that protein utilization may be more efficient when cows are fed RF-DDGS. No differences in cheese were observed by a trained panel except cheese appearance; control cheese eyes were significantly, but not practically, larger than the RF-DDGS cheese. These results indicate that RF-DDGS can be effectively used in the rations of lactating Holstein cows with no deleterious effects on milk production and composition and metrics of the physiology of the cow (i.e., blood glucose and nonesterified fatty acids); however, feeding RF-DDGS increased dry matter intake, which decreased feed efficiency. Finally, feeding RF-DDGS did not negatively influence quality and suitability of milk for production of baby Swiss cheese.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Bovinos/metabolismo , Leite/química , Animais , Queijo , Dieta , Feminino , Lactação/metabolismo , Rúmen/metabolismo
5.
J Dairy Sci ; 99(11): 9040-9050, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27614838

RESUMO

Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and mesenteric node lymphocytes (MNL) were obtained from 30 calves that were assigned randomly at birth to 1 of 6 treatment groups with 5 calves per treatment in a 14-d study: (1) colostrum-deprived (CD), no vitamins; (2) colostrum-replacer (CR), no vitamins; (3) CR, vitamin A; (4) CR, vitamin D3; (5) CR, vitamin E; (6) CR, vitamins A, D3, E. Calves were injected with appropriate vitamin supplements and fed pasteurized whole milk (CD calves) or fractionated colostrum replacer (CR calves) at birth. Thereafter, all calves were fed pasteurized whole milk fortified with vitamins according to treatment group. Calves were orally inoculated with 108 cfu of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) on d 1 and 3. The PBMC and MNL harvested on d 13 were analyzed by flow cytometry as fresh cells, after 3-d culture with phytohemagglutinin (PHA), and after 6-d culture with a whole-cell sonicate of MAP (MPS). Peripheral γδ T cells were a predominant lymphocyte subset in neonatal calves, with a decreased percentage noted in CD calves compared with CR calves. As well, CD25 expression was higher in γδ T cells compared with other cell subsets, regardless of treatment group. Stimulation of PBMC with PHA resulted in increased CD4+ and CD8+ subsets, whereas MNL response was dominated by expansion of B-cell subpopulations. Stimulation with PHA and MPS decreased the relative abundance of PBMC γδ T cells, but MNL γδ T cells increased upon stimulation with MPS. These results identify γδ T cells as key early responders to intracellular infection in neonatal calves and suggest that colostrum may be an important mediator of this response.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/imunologia , Colostro/microbiologia , Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Paratuberculose/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Colecalciferol/administração & dosagem , Colostro/química , Dieta/veterinária , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Interleucina-2/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares/microbiologia , Leite/química , Leite/microbiologia , Pasteurização , Fito-Hemaglutininas/química , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T gama-delta , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Vitamina A/administração & dosagem , Vitamina E/administração & dosagem
6.
J Dairy Sci ; 99(4): 2884-2895, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26805975

RESUMO

Thirty Holstein calves were obtained from 2 dairy farms in central Iowa at birth and randomly assigned to 1 of 6 treatment groups: (1) colostrum deprived (CD), no vitamins; (2) colostrum replacer (CR), no vitamins; (3) CR, vitamin A; (4) CR, vitamin D3; (5) CR, vitamin E; and (6) CR, vitamins A, D3, E, with 5 calves per treatment in a 14-d study. Calves were fed pasteurized whole milk (CD) or fractionated colostrum replacer (CR) at birth (d 0) and injected with vitamins according to treatment group. From d 1 through d 14 of the study, all calves were fed pasteurized whole milk (PWM) supplemented with vitamins as assigned. All calves were inoculated with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis on d 1 and 3 of age. Calves fed CR acquired IgG1 and haptoglobin in serum within 24 h of birth, whereas CD calves did not. The CR-fed calves were 2.5 times less likely to develop scours, and CR calves supplemented with vitamins D3 and E also demonstrated a decreased incidence of scours. Serum vitamin levels of A, D, and E increased within treatment group by d 7 and 14 of the study. Interestingly, synergistic effects of supplemental vitamins A, D3, and E on serum 25-(OH)-vitamin D were observed at d 7, resulting in higher levels than in calves administered vitamin D only. Further, vitamin D3 deficiency was observed in CD and CR calves fed a basal diet of pasteurized whole milk and no supplemental vitamins. Colonization of tissues with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis was negligible and was not affected by colostrum feeding or vitamin supplementation. Results demonstrated passive transfer of haptoglobin to neonatal calves, and potential health benefits of supplemental vitamins D3 and E to calves fed pasteurized whole milk.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/normas , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Colostro/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Haptoglobinas/metabolismo , Paratuberculose/prevenção & controle , Vitaminas/farmacologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/patologia , Feminino , Haptoglobinas/análise , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis/fisiologia , Paratuberculose/patologia , Distribuição Aleatória
7.
J Dairy Sci ; 98(12): 8545-53, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26454296

RESUMO

Late blowing in Swiss cheese, a result of unwanted gas production, is unacceptable to consumers and causes economic loss to manufacturers. Cheese processors have raised concerns that feeding dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) to cows leads to this defect, in part because of clostridial spores. We hypothesized that spores in DDGS would affect the quality of milk and baby Swiss cheese by promoting late-blowing defects. Thirty healthy multiparous and mid-lactation Holstein cows were fed total mixed ration containing DDGS (0, 10, and 20%; 10 cows per treatment group) by dietary dry matter in a 3×3 Latin square design. One complete milking from all cows within a treatment was collected and pooled for baby Swiss cheese, twice within each month of the 3-mo study. Additionally, individual milk samples from the 3 milkings of one day were collected weekly for proximate analysis. Incubation in reinforced clostridial medium-lactate medium tubes inoculated with milk, cheese, total mixed ration, or manure showed gas formation. Conversely, the DDGS used in our study did not contain gas-producing, spore-forming bacteria. Feeding 20% DDGS decreased milk fat percent and increased the solids nonfat, protein, and lactose percent of milk. After 60 d of ripening, baby Swiss cheese had typical propionic acid Swiss cheese aroma. Regardless of dietary treatment, pinholes, slits, splits, cracks, or a combination of these, were seen throughout most cheeses. Feeding of DDGS increased the amount of long-chain unsaturated fatty acids and decreased short-chain and most medium-chain fatty acids in the baby Swiss cheese. Although feeding cows diets with DDGS modified milk composition, and subsequently cheese composition, DDGS was not a source for gas-producing, spore-forming bacteria or for quality defects in Swiss cheese. Rather, the gas-producing, spore-forming bacteria likely originated from the environment or the cows themselves.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Queijo/microbiologia , Grão Comestível/química , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Gases/análise , Ração Animal/efeitos adversos , Animais , Bactérias/metabolismo , Bovinos , Queijo/análise , Dieta/veterinária , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Feminino , Lactação , Leite/química , Leite/microbiologia , Esporos Bacterianos
8.
J Dairy Sci ; 98(12): 8554-9, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26454305

RESUMO

Because residual antibiotics in dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) could lead to inadvertent feeding of antibiotics to animals, the objective of our study was to determine if a commercial DDGS contained antibiotics. The DDGS used in a feeding study, and milk from cows fed the DDGS, were below the detection limits for at least 17 antibiotics. Additionally, we evaluated if DDGS had any antimicrobial effect against Salmonella Typhimurium, Listeria innocua, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus, Pediococcus acidilactici, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bacillus licheniformis, Paenibacillus odorifer, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Paenibacillus amylolyticus using the disk diffusion seeded agar overlay method. Neither the buffered nor nonbuffered water-soluble fractions of DDGS yielded clear zones around disks, indicating that the water-soluble DDGS fraction had no antimicrobial properties against any of the microorganisms tested. The absence of antibiotic residues in DDGS and milk samples in this study confirmed that this source of DDGS can be used as livestock feed without fear of inadvertent feeding of antibiotics.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Anti-Infecciosos/análise , Resíduos de Drogas/análise , Grão Comestível/química , Leite/química , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Lactação , Rúmen , Staphylococcus aureus
9.
J Anim Sci ; 93(2): 522-8, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26020741

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for intramuscular fatty acids from triacylglycerol (TAG) and phospholipid (PL) fractions in beef LM tissue. Longissimus muscle samples were obtained from 1,833 Angus cattle to determine the intramuscular fatty acid composition for 31 lipids and lipid classes from TAG and PL fractions and were classified by structure into saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA), polyunsaturated (PUFA), omega-3 (n-3), and omega-6 (n-6) fatty acids. An atherogenic index (AI) was also determined as a measure of the unsaturated fatty acid to SFA ratio. Restricted maximum likelihood methods combined with pedigree data were used to estimate variance components with the WOMBAT software package. Heritability estimates ranged from 0.00 to 0.63 for the major classes of fatty acids. Heritability estimates differed between the TAG and PL fractions, with higher estimates for TAG up to 0.64 and lower estimates for PL that ranged from 0.00 to 0.14. Phenotypic and genetic correlations among individual fatty acids were determined for the TAG fraction as well as among carcass traits, including rib eye area, numerical marbling score, yield grade, ether fat, and Warner-Bratzler shear force value. Strong negative or positive genetic correlations were observed among individual fatty acids in the TAG fraction, which ranged from -0.99 to 0.97 ( < 0.05). Moderate correlations between carcass traits and fatty acids from the TAG fraction ranged from -0.43 to 0.32 ( < 0.05). These results indicate that fatty acids prominent in beef tissues show significant genetic variation as well as genetic relationships with carcass traits.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Bovinos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Carne/normas , Músculos Paraespinais/química , Fosfolipídeos/análise , Triglicerídeos/análise , Análise de Variância , Animais , Variação Genética , Funções Verossimilhança , Linhagem
10.
Meat Sci ; 106: 25-30, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25866932

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate sire breed effect on mineral concentration in beef longissimus thoracis (LT) and investigate the correlations between beef mineral concentrations and carcass and palatability traits. Steer progeny (N=246) from the Germplasm Evaluation project-Cycle VIII were used in this study. In addition to carcass traits, LT was evaluated for mineral concentrations, Warner-Bratzler shear force, and palatability traits. A mixed linear model estimated breed effects on mineral concentrations. No significant sire breed (P≥0.43) or dam breed (P≥0.20) effects were identified for mineral concentrations. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated among mineral concentrations, carcass, and sensory traits. Zinc concentration was positively correlated (P≤0.05) with total iron (r=0.14), heme iron (r=0.13), and magnesium (r=0.19). Significant (P<0.05) correlations were identified between non-heme or heme iron and most traits in this study. Magnesium concentration was correlated with all carcass and palatability traits.


Assuntos
Cruzamento , Ferro na Dieta/análise , Magnésio/análise , Carne/análise , Desenvolvimento Muscular , Músculo Esquelético/química , Zinco/análise , Animais , Músculos do Dorso/química , Músculos do Dorso/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Músculos do Dorso/metabolismo , Bovinos , Fenômenos Químicos , Feminino , Heme/análise , Heme/metabolismo , Humanos , Ferro/análise , Ferro/metabolismo , Magnésio/metabolismo , Masculino , Fenômenos Mecânicos , Músculo Esquelético/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Valor Nutritivo , Sensação , Resistência ao Cisalhamento , Paladar , Estados Unidos , Zinco/metabolismo
11.
J Dairy Sci ; 98(5): 2908-19, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25704968

RESUMO

Feeding lactating dairy cows dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) increases the concentration of unsaturated fatty acids in the milk from those cows, potentially leading to increased susceptibility to development of off-flavors. Feeding DDGS has been loosely implicated to be a cause of development of spontaneous oxidative off-flavor in milk. We hypothesized that increased feeding of DDGS would accelerate development of off-flavors and that fortification with vitamin E (0.06% wt/wt) or C (0.06% wt/wt) would prevent spontaneous oxidative off-flavors. The objective of this research was to determine the effects of feeding DDGS to lactating dairy cows on several parameters of milk quality as determined by both chemical and sensory evaluations. Twenty-four healthy mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows were fed total mixed rations containing DDGS (0, 10, or 25% dry matter). Cows were blocked by parity and randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups (12 cows each). Each group received all 3 treatments in a 3-period Youden square design so that each cow served as her own control. Samples of milk from individual cows for proximate analysis and pooled milk for pasteurization and sensory analysis were collected on d 14, 21, and 28 of each experimental period. Pooled milk was assayed for peroxides and free fatty acids and evaluated by a trained sensory panel for the presence of 7 off-flavors common to milk on d 1, 3, and 7. Feeding 25% DDGS caused a significant decrease in daily milk yield. Increased dietary inclusion of DDGS also caused a concomitant decrease in percentage of milk fat and an increase in percentages of both solids nonfat and protein. Milk peroxides and free fatty acids were almost all below the detection limit, and the few exceptions were not found in replicated analyses. Sensory analysis revealed off-flavors only in milk from cows fed 0% DDGS when that milk was stored for 7d and when milk from cows fed 25% DDGS was fortified with 0.06% (wt/wt) vitamin C. Those few detected off-flavor scores were less than 1.5cm on a 15-cm line scale, indicating that the differences are not practically significant. Peroxide values support the findings by the sensory panel that both feeding DDGS at 10 and 25% and vitamin E and C fortification did not practically change the oxidative stability of milk. These results, taken together, indicate that feeding DDGS under our experimental conditions modified milk composition, but did not contribute to the development of off-flavors in milk.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Bovinos/fisiologia , Grão Comestível/química , Leite/química , Animais , Ácido Ascórbico/administração & dosagem , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Lactação , Vitamina E/administração & dosagem
12.
J Dairy Sci ; 97(10): 6296-304, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25064655

RESUMO

Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of Johne's disease (JD). One mode of transmission of MAP is through ingestion of contaminated milk and colostrum by susceptible calves. The objective of this study was to determine if the amount of MAP shed into the milk and colostrum of infected cows was affected by severity of infection as well as the number of days in milk (DIM). Milk was collected over the 305-d lactation period from naturally infected cows in the asymptomatic subclinical (n=39) and symptomatic clinical (n=29) stages of disease, as well as 8 noninfected control cows. All milk samples were assayed for MAP by culture on Herrold's egg yolk medium and either BACTEC 12B (Becton Dickinson, Franklin Lakes, NJ) or para-JEM (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Trek Diagnostic Systems Inc., Cleveland, OH) liquid medium, and by direct PCR for the IS900 target gene. Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis was detected in 3.8, 4.1, and 12.6% of milk samples collected from cows with subclinical JD after culture in Herrold's egg yolk medium, liquid medium, and direct PCR, respectively. The frequency of MAP positivity increased to 12.9, 18.4, and 49.2% of milk samples collected from cows with clinical JD by these same methods, respectively. None of the milk samples collected from control cows was positive for MAP by any detection method. Viable MAP was primarily isolated from milk and colostrum of subclinically and clinically infected cows collected in early lactation (DIM 0-60), with negligible positive samples observed in mid (DIM 60-240) and late (DIM 240-305) lactation. This study demonstrates that shedding of MAP into milk is affected by infection status of the cow as well as stage of lactation, providing useful information to producers to help break the cycle of infection within a herd.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Bovinos/fisiologia , Colostro/microbiologia , Leite/microbiologia , Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Paratuberculose/microbiologia , Animais , Derrame de Bactérias , Bovinos/microbiologia , Feminino , Lactação , Gravidez
13.
J Dairy Sci ; 97(6): 3715-27, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24704235

RESUMO

To observe the effects of supplemental dietary d-α-tocopherol in relation to dietary energy on growth and immune status in dairy calves, 32 newborn Holstein bull calves were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments for 5 wk in a 2 × 2 factorial, randomized complete block, split-plot design. Calves received moderate growth (MG) or low growth (LG) all-milk dietary treatments, formulated to support daily gains of 0.5 or 0.25 kg/d, respectively, per the dietary energy recommendation for milk-fed calves according to the National Research Council's Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle. Calves in both groups were either injected i.m. with Vital E-A+D (injectable solution of vitamins E, A, and D) on d 1 and supplemented with Emcelle Tocopherol (micellized vitamin E) via milk daily (MG-S and LG-S), or were not supplemented (MG-C and LG-C) during the study period. Total weight gain of MG calves was greater than that of LG calves and tended to be greater in MG-S calves than in MG-C calves. Calves receiving vitamin supplementation demonstrated greater concentrations of plasma α-tocopherol, retinol, and 25-(OH)-vitamin D than did control calves, whereas MG calves demonstrated a lower concentration of plasma α-tocopherol than did LG calves. The apparent increased utilization of α-tocopherol by MG calves was accompanied by a rise in serum haptoglobin, a positive acute-phase protein and indicator of inflammation, especially in MG-C calves. Serum amyloid A, also a positive acute-phase protein, was not different among groups, but was elevated from baseline in all groups during wk 1 through 3. Plasma IgG1 concentrations were higher in MG-S and LG-S calves than in their nonsupplemented dietary counterparts, whereas plasma IgG2, IgA, and IgM concentrations were not different among groups. In summary, dietary supplementation of d-α-tocopherol improved plasma α-tocopherol status and tended to increase growth in calves fed for 0.5 kg of average daily gain. Vitamin supplementation ameliorated the rise of serum haptoglobin associated with acute inflammation in MG calves, and may have improved passive transfer of maternal antibody. These results indicate a role for α-tocopherol in prevention of proinflammatory state associated with greater dietary energy and onset of infectious disease.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Ingestão de Energia , Haptoglobinas/metabolismo , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Amiloide A Sérica/metabolismo , alfa-Tocoferol/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Análise Química do Sangue/veterinária , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bovinos/imunologia , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Feminino , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos , alfa-Tocoferol/administração & dosagem
14.
J Dairy Sci ; 97(6): 3694-9, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24657082

RESUMO

Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is shed into the milk of cattle affected by Johne's disease and, therefore, is a route of transmission for infection in young stock in dairy herds. The objective of this study was to validate a decontamination and culture protocol for the recovery of MAP from individual bovine milk samples from known infected herds. Decontamination of milk samples (n = 17) with either 0.75% hexadecylpyridinium chloride for 5h or N-acetyl-L-cysteine-1.5% sodium hydroxide (NALC-1.5% NaOH) for 15 min before culture in BACTEC 12 B (Becton Dickinson, Franklin, NJ), para-JEM [Thermo Fisher Scientific (TREK Diagnostic Systems, Inc.), Cleveland, OH], and Herrold's egg yolk (HEY; Becton Dickinson) media was compared. Treatment with NALC-NaOH resulted in a lower percentage (6%) of contaminated samples than did treatment with hexadecylpyridinium chloride (47%), regardless of culture medium. The decontamination protocol (NALC-1.5% NaOH) was then applied to milk samples (n = 144) collected from cows at 7 US dairies. Recovery of viable MAP from the milk samples was low, regardless of culture medium, with recovery from 2 samples cultured in BACTEC 12 B medium, 1 sample cultured in para-JEM medium, and no viable MAP recovered on HEY medium. However, 32 cows were fecal culture positive and 13 milk samples were positive by direct PCR, suggesting that several cows were actively shedding MAP at the time of milk collection. Contamination rates were similar across media, with 39.6, 34.7, and 41.7% of samples contaminated after culture in BACTEC 12 B, para-JEM, and HEY media, respectively. Herd-to-herd variation had a major effect on sample contamination, with the percentage of contaminated samples ranging from 4 to 83%. It was concluded that decontamination of milk with NALC-1.5% NaOH before culture in BACTEC 12 B medium was the most efficacious method for the recovery of viable MAP from milk, although the ability to suppress the growth of contaminating microorganisms varied greatly between herds.


Assuntos
Acetilcisteína/farmacologia , Cetilpiridínio/farmacologia , Descontaminação/métodos , Leite/microbiologia , Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Cloretos/farmacologia , Feminino , Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Paratuberculose/diagnóstico , Paratuberculose/microbiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Hidróxido de Sódio/farmacologia
15.
J Anim Sci ; 91(8): 3593-600, 2013 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23881681

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to characterize variation and identify SNP and chromosomal regions associated with mineral concentrations in LM of Angus beef cattle. Samples of LM from 2,285 Angus cattle were obtained, and concentrations of 7 minerals, including iron, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, and zinc, were quantified. Genomic DNA extracted from the ground beef sample used for mineral composition was genotyped with the Bovine SNP50 Infinium II BeadChip, and effects of SNP on each trait were estimated using the Bayes-Cπ module of GenSel software. Pedigree-based estimates of heritabilities and corresponding genetic variances indicate iron was the only mineral concentration that could be considered a good candidate for manipulation by genomic selection. The amount of variation that could be accounted for by SNP genotypes was concordant with pedigree-based heritabilities and varied from very low for potassium and sodium (<0.09) to medium high (0.37) for iron. Although significant chromosomal regions were identified for all minerals analyzed in this study, further study focused on iron. Seven regions on 6 chromosomes (1, 2, 7, 10, 15, and 28) were identified to have a major effect on the iron content of LM in Angus cattle. The accuracy of direct genomic values (DGV) for iron concentration was estimated using a 5-fold cross-validation strategy. The accuracy of DGV estimated as the genetic correlation between DGV and the phenotype (iron concentration) adjusted for contemporary groups was 0.59. A bivariate animal model was used to estimate genetic correlations between iron concentrations and a reduced set of economically important carcass traits: HCW, rib eye area, calculated USDA yield grade, percent KPH, and marbling score. The genetic correlations between iron concentration and HCW, percentage KPH, marbling score, and rib eye area were small (-0.19 to 0.15) and nonsignificant. Although still weak (0.22), a positive significant genetic correlation was identified between iron content and USDA calculated yield grade. Beef is a major contributor of iron and zinc in the human diet, and this study found that iron content might be effectively manipulated through marker-assisted selection programs, without compromising other carcass and palatability traits.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Bovinos/metabolismo , Genômica , Ferro/metabolismo , Minerais/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Animais , Cruzamento , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Feminino , Variação Genética , Ferro/química , Masculino , Minerais/química , Músculo Esquelético/química
16.
J Dairy Sci ; 96(9): 6007-21, 2013 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23831098

RESUMO

The main goal of this study was to develop tools for genetic selection of animals producing milk with a lower concentration of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and a higher concentration of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA). The reasons for changing milk fatty acid (FA) composition were to improve milk technological properties, such as for production of more spreadable butter, and milk nutritional value with respect to the potentially adverse effects of SFA on human health. We hypothesized that genetic polymorphisms in solute carrier family 27, isoform A6 (SLC27A6) fatty acid transport protein gene and fatty acid binding protein (FABP)-3 and FABP-4 (FABP3 and FABP4) would affect the selectivity of FA uptake into, and FA redistribution inside, mammary epithelial cells, resulting in altered FA composition of bovine milk. The objectives of our study were to discover genetic polymorphisms in SLC27A6, FABP3, and FABP4, and to test those polymorphisms for associations with milk FA composition. The results showed that after pairwise comparisons between SLC27A6 haplotypes for significantly associated traits, haplotype H3 was significantly associated with 1.37 weight percentage (wt%) lower SFA concentration, 0.091 lower SFA:UFA ratio, and 0.17 wt% lower lauric acid (12:0) concentration, but 1.37 wt% higher UFA and 1.24 wt% higher monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) concentrations compared with haplotype H1 during the first 3 mo of lactation. Pairwise comparisons between FABP4 haplotypes for significantly associated traits showed that haplotype H3 was significantly associated with 1.04 wt% lower SFA concentration, 0.079 lower SFA:UFA ratio, 0.15 wt% lower lauric acid (12:0), and 0.27 wt% lower myristic acid (14:0) concentrations, but 1.04 wt% higher UFA and 0.91 wt% higher MUFA concentrations compared with haplotype H1 during the first 3 mo of lactation. Percentages of genetic variance explained by H3 versus H1 haplotype substitutions for SLC27A6 and FABP4 ranged from 2.50 to 4.86% and from 4.91 to 7.22%, respectively. Tag single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified to distinguish haplotypes H3 of SLC27A6 and FABP4 from others encompassing each gene. We found no significant associations between FABP3 haplotypes and milk FA composition. In conclusion, polymorphisms in FABP4 and SLC27A6 can be used to select for cattle producing milk with lower concentrations of SFA and higher concentrations of UFA.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Ácido Graxo/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a Ácido Graxo/genética , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Leite/química , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Animais , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Feminino , Genótipo , Haplótipos/genética , Masculino , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Alinhamento de Sequência/veterinária
17.
J Clin Microbiol ; 51(7): 2139-46, 2013 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23637290

RESUMO

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is shed into the milk and feces of cows with advanced Johne's disease, allowing the transmission of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis between animals. The objective of this study was to formulate an optimized protocol for the isolation of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk. The parameters investigated included chemical decontamination with N-acetyl-l-cysteine-sodium hydroxide (NALC-NaOH), alone and in combination with antibiotics (vancomycin, amphotericin B, and nalidixic acid), and the efficacy of solid (Herrold's egg yolk medium [HEY]) and liquid (Bactec 12B and para-JEM) culture media. For each experiment, raw milk samples from a known noninfected cow were inoculated with 10(2) to 10(8) CFU/ml of live M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis organisms. The results indicate that an increased length of exposure to NALC-NaOH from 5 to 30 min and an increased concentration of NaOH from 0.5 to 2.0% did not affect the viability of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Additional treatment of milk samples with the antibiotics following NALC-NaOH treatment decreased the recovery of viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells more than treatment with NALC-NaOH alone. The Bactec 12B medium was the superior medium of the three evaluated for the isolation of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis from milk, as it achieved the lowest threshold of detection. The optimal conditions for NALC-NaOH decontamination were determined to be exposure to 1.50% NaOH for 15 min followed by culture in Bactec 12B medium. This study demonstrates that chemical decontamination with NALC-NaOH resulted in a greater recovery of viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells from milk than from samples treated with hexadecylpyridinium chloride (HPC). Therefore, it is important to optimize milk decontamination protocols to ensure that low concentrations of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis can be detected.


Assuntos
Acetilcisteína/farmacologia , Técnicas Bacteriológicas/métodos , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Leite/microbiologia , Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Hidróxido de Sódio/farmacologia , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Animais , Bovinos , Meios de Cultura/química , Descontaminação/métodos , Viabilidade Microbiana , Medicina Veterinária/métodos
18.
J Dairy Sci ; 96(4): 2605-2616, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23403193

RESUMO

Milk is known to contain high concentrations of saturated fatty acids-such as palmitic (16:0), myristic (14:0), and lauric (12:0) acids-that can raise plasma cholesterol in humans, making their presence in milk undesirable. The main objective of our candidate gene study was to develop genetic markers that can be used to improve the healthfulness of bovine milk. The sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1 (SREBF1) known to regulate the transcription of lipogenic genes together with SREBF chaperone and insulin induced gene 1 were the candidate genes. The results showed significant association of the overall SREBF1 haplotypes with milk production and variations in lauric (12:0) and myristic (14:0) acid concentrations in milk. Haplotype H1 of SREBF1 was the most desirable to improve milk healthfulness because it was significantly associated with lower lauric (12:0) and myristic (14:0) acid concentrations compared with haplotype H3 of SREBF1, and lower lauric acid (12:0) concentration compared with haplotype H2 of SREBF1. Haplotype H1 of SREBF1, however, was significantly associated with lower milk production compared with haplotype H3 of SREBF1. We did not detect any significant associations between genetic polymorphisms in insulin induced gene 1 (INSIG1) and SREBF chaperone and milk fatty acid composition. In conclusion, genetic polymorphisms in SREBF1 can be used to develop genetic tools for the selection of animals producing milk with healthier fatty acid composition.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Leite/química , Polimorfismo Genético/genética , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1/genética , Animais , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Haplótipos , Promoção da Saúde , Lactação/genética , Ácidos Láuricos/análise , Ácido Mirístico/análise , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Seleção Genética
19.
J Clin Microbiol ; 51(5): 1575-7, 2013 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23426920

RESUMO

A protocol was optimized for the isolation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) from milk and colostrum, with parameters including chemical decontamination, antibiotics, and different culture media. This study demonstrates that the efficiency of MAP recovery from milk is highly dependent upon the culturing protocol, and such protocols should be optimized to ensure that low concentrations of MAP in milk can be detected.


Assuntos
Cetilpiridínio/farmacologia , Colostro/microbiologia , Leite/microbiologia , Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Paratuberculose/prevenção & controle , Animais , Descontaminação , Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Paratuberculose/microbiologia
20.
J Anim Sci ; 91(1): 1-9, 2013 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23048149

RESUMO

Fatty acid profiles and intramuscular expression of genes involved in fatty acid metabolism were characterized in concentrate- (CO) and forage- (FO) based finishing systems. Intramuscular samples from the adductor were taken at slaughter from 99 heifers finished on a CO diet and 58 heifers finished on a FO diet. Strip loins were obtained at fabrication to evaluate fatty acid profiles of LM muscle for all 157 heifers by using gas chromatography fatty acid methyl ester analysis. Composition was analyzed for differences by using the General Linear Model (GLM) procedure in SAS. Differences in fatty acid profile included a greater atherogenic index, greater percentage total MUFA, decreased omega-3 to omega-6 ratio, decreased percentage total PUFA, and decreased percentage omega-3 fatty acids in CO- compared with FO-finished heifers (P<0.05). Fatty acid profiles from intramuscular samples were ranked by the atherogenic index, and 20 heifers with either a high (HAI; n=10) or low (LAI; n=10) atherogenic index were selected for gene expression analysis using real-time PCR (RT-PCR). Gene expression data for the 20 individuals were analyzed as a 2 by 2 factorial arrangement of treatments using the GLM procedure in SAS. There was no significant diet × atherogenic index interaction identified for any gene (P>0.05). Upregulation was observed for PPARγ, fatty acid synthase (FASN), and fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) in FO-finished compared with CO-finished heifers in both atherogenic index categories (P<0.05). Upregulation of diglyceride acyl transferase 2 (DGAT2) was observed in FO-finished heifers with a HAI (P<0.05). Expression of steroyl Co-A desaturase (SCD) was upregulated in CO-finished heifers with a LAI, and downregulated in FO-finished heifers with a HAI (P<0.05). Expression of adiponectin (ADIPOQ) was significantly downregulated in CO-finished heifers with a HAI compared with all other categories (P<0.05). The genes identified in this study which exhibit differential regulation in response to diet or in animals with extreme fatty acid profiles may provide genetic markers for selecting desirable fatty acid profiles in future selection programs.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Bovinos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Transcriptoma
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