Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 280
Filtrar
1.
JCO Precis Oncol ; 6: e2100156, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35005992

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Clinical-pathologic features and natural history of patients with isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)-mutant intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) are not well characterized. Here, we sought to describe the natural history, clinical phenotype, and prognostic impact of advanced, IDH-mutated CCA. METHODS: We conducted a multicentric, retrospective analysis of patients with IDH-mutated (IDH1 or IDH2) CCA between 2010 and 2020. Median overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) analyses were performed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Chi-square test was used to analyze disease control rate (DCR) and overall response rate (ORR). Matched controls were used for comparing survival between patients with and without IDH mutations (mIDH). RESULTS: Sixty-five patients with IDH-mutated CCA were included. All patients had intrahepatic CCA. On first-line chemotherapy, median OS and median PFS were 21.2 months and 8.3 months, respectively. Notably, median OS (32.4 v 19.5 months, P = .12) and PFS (18.0 v 8.0 months, P = .12) were not significantly affected by disease status at presentation (locally advanced v metastatic, respectively). Median OS was significantly longer in patients with mIDH (21.2 v 10.5 months; P < .01). First-line gemcitabine-containing regimens had a significantly higher DCR and ORR than non-gemcitabine-containing regimens (DCR: 75% v 33%, P = .01; ORR: 39% v 0%, P = .02). In patients receiving IDH inhibitor therapy, median PFS was 4.6 months with a DCR of 29%. CONCLUSION: CCA with mIDH confers a unique subtype resulting in a better survival compared with that of counterparts. IDH inhibitors represent a promising therapeutic option in later lines of therapy in this subgroup.

2.
Dig Dis Sci ; 2021 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34773565

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: FGFR2 genomic alterations are observed in 10-20% of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Although FGFR2 fusions are an important actionable target, FGFR2 protein expression has not been thoroughly characterized. AIMS: To evaluate FGFR2 protein expression in cholangiocarcinoma harboring FGFR2 genomic alterations. METHODS: FGFR2 protein expression was evaluated in 99 CCA cases with two different antibodies. FGFR2 genomic alterations were confirmed via next-generating sequencing (NGS) or FISH. Primary objective was to determine the specificity and sensitivity of FGFR2 immunohistochemistry staining for detecting FGFR2 genomic alterations. Secondary objectives included overall FGFR2 immunohistochemistry staining in CCA patients, and evaluation of whether FGFR2 expression correlates with clinical outcomes including overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and time-to-tumor recurrence (TTR). RESULTS: Immunohistochemistry staining with two antibodies against FGFR2, FPR2-D, and clone 98706 showed high accuracy (78.7% and 91.9%) and specificity (82.9% and 97.7%), and moderate sensitivity (53.9% and 57.1%), respectively, when compared with the standard methods for detecting FGFR2 genomic alterations. In a median follow-up of 72 months, there were no statistically significant differences in OS, PFS, and TTR, for patients with positive or negative FGFR2 staining. CONCLUSION: FGFR2 protein expression by immunohistochemistry has high specificity and therefore could be used to imply the presence of FGFR2 genomic alterations in the context of a positive test. In the case of a negative test, NGS or FISH would be necessary to ascertain cases with FGFR2 genomic alterations.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34778691

RESUMO

Cholangiocarcinomas (CCA) are a group of heterogeneous tumors arising from the biliary epithelia. Significant sequencing efforts have provided further insights into the molecular mechanisms of this disease including fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) alterations, which occurs in approximately 15%-20% of intrahepatic CCAs. Herein, we describe the FGFR inhibitor (FGFRi)-associated treatment toxicity and cancer-specific outcomes from a multicenter single-institution cohort. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of patients with CCA and known FGFR alterations treated with FGFRi. We describe the toxicity and efficacy in patients treated at Mayo Clinic between January 2010 and December 2020. RESULTS: Our group identified 61 patients with advanced or metastatic CCA, 19 males (31%) and 42 females (69%), harboring FGFR alterations who received FGFRi. The most common grade 1 or higher adverse events for all patients included fatigue (92%), AST elevations (78%), anemia (80%), decreased platelet count (63%), and hyperphosphatemia (74%). Median progression-free survival on FGFRi was 5.8 months for all patients (95% CI, 4.9 to 9.0). Females had significantly longer progression-free survival at 6.9 months (95% CI, 5.2 to 11.8) on FGFRi compared with males at 4.9 months (95% CI, 2.8 to not estimable; P = .038). CONCLUSION: FGFRi are well tolerated with clinical efficacy. With the recent approval of FGFRi by the US Food and Drug Administration and ongoing clinical trials for new FGFRi, understanding outcomes and toxicity associated with these medications is important for precision oncology.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34782326

RESUMO

Data from germline testing in unselected patients with hepatobiliary cancers are limited. Identification of germline predisposition can have important implications on cancer treatment and family counseling. To determine prevalence of pathogenic germline variants (PGV) in hepatobiliary cancer patients we undertook a prospective multi-site study of germline sequencing using a >80 gene next-generation sequencing platform among patients with hepatobiliary cancers receiving care at Mayo Clinic Cancer Centers between April 1, 2018 and March 31, 2020. Patients were not selected based on stage, family cancer history, ethnicity, or age. Family cascade testing was offered at no cost. Of 205 patients, the median age was 65 years, 58.5% were male, 81% were white, and 64.4% had cholangiocarcinoma, 21.5% hepatocellular carcinoma, 7.8% gallbladder cancer and 4.3% carcinoma of ampulla of Vater. PGV were found in 15.6% (n=32) of patients, including 23 (71%) in moderate and high penetrance cancer susceptibility genes. 75% of patients with a positive result would not have been detected using guidelines for genetic evaluation. Prevalence of PGV was 15.7% in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, 17% in extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, 15.9% in hepatocellular cancer and 33% in carcinoma of ampulla of Vater. Based on these genetic findings, 55% were potentially eligible for approved precision therapy and/or clinical treatment trials. Universal multi-gene panel testing in hepatobiliary cancers was associated with detection of heritable mutations in over 15% of patients most of whom would not have been tested using current guidelines. Germline testing should be considered in all patients with hepatobiliary cancers.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34750990

RESUMO

Liposomal irinotecan is a liposomal formulation of irinotecan, which prolongs circulation of irinotecan and its active metabolite SN-38. A population pharmacokinetic (PK) model was developed based on data from seven studies (N = 440). Adequacy of the model was assessed using multiple methods, including visual predictive check. Associations between PK exposure and the incidence of diarrhea (grade ≥3) and neutropenia adverse events (AEs) (grade ≥3) at first event in patients with metastatic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (mPDAC) were investigated using logistic regression based on data from two studies (the phase III NAPOLI-1 [N = 260] and phase I/II NCT02551991 [N = 56] trials). The PKs of total irinotecan was described by a two-compartment model with first-order elimination, with SN-38 formed directly by a first-order constant from the central compartment of irinotecan or after using a transit compartment. Clearance was 17.9 L/week (0.107 L/h) and 19,800 L/week (118 L/h) for total irinotecan and SN-38, respectively. The UGT1A1*28 7/7 homozygous genotype had no significant impact on SN-38 clearance. Model evaluation was satisfactory for both irinotecan and SN-38. The incidence of diarrhea (grade ≥3) at first event was significantly higher with increasing average concentrations of total irinotecan and SN-38; there was no significant association between an increased risk of neutropenia AEs (grade ≥3) at first event and average SN-38 concentrations. In summary, the PKs of total irinotecan and SN-38 after administration of liposomal irinotecan were well-described by the model. The UGT1A1*28 status had no significant impact on the PKs of liposomal irinotecan.

7.
Clin Transl Gastroenterol ; 12(10): e00414, 2021 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620795

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To report the prevalence and outcomes of unselected pancreatic cancer (PC) patients with pathogenic/likely pathogenic germline variants (PGVs) detected using a universal testing approach. METHODS: We undertook a prospective, multisite study of germline sequencing using a >80 gene next-generation sequencing platform among 250 patients with PC (not selected for age or family history of cancer) between April 1, 2018, and March 31, 2020. Demographic, tumor characteristics, and clinical outcomes were compared between PGV carriers and noncarriers. RESULTS: Of 250 patients, the mean age was 65 years (SD 8.7), 56% was male, 83.6% was White, and 65.6% had advanced disease (stages III and IV). PGVs were found in 15.2% (N = 38) of patients, and 2 patients had more than 1 PGV. Variants of uncertain significance were found in 44.4% (N = 111). Family history of cancer (odds ratio: 2.36, 95% confidence interval: 1.14-5.19, P = 0.025) was associated with a higher risk of PGV. In a median follow-up of 16.5 months, the median overall survival was 16.8 months in PGV carriers compared with 16.5 months in noncarriers (hazard ratio: 0.51, 95% confidence interval: 0.25-1.01, P = 0.05). Higher levels of carbohydrate antigen 19-9 and advanced disease stages (III and IV) were associated with worse outcomes in both groups. Overall, 68% of PGV carriers had mutations in homologous recombination repair genes, including BRCA1, BRCA2, PALB2, ATM, CHEK2, NBN, and RAD51C. DISCUSSION: Universal multigene panel testing in PC reveals that 1 in 6 patients are carriers of PGV. Multigene germline testing should be used to aid in treatment selection, prognostication, and familial cancer counseling.

8.
Oncology (Williston Park) ; 35(10): 654-660, 2021 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34677922

RESUMO

Metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) is the second most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide. In the mid-1980s, the median overall survival (OS) for patients with mCRC ranged from 10 to 12 months from the time of initial diagnosis. In more recent studies, this median has more than doubled and is commonly reported at more than 25 to 30 months. These improvements are due, in large part, to the introduction of multiple novel agents during the last 3 decades. Despite these improvements, however, nearly all patients treated with palliative chemotherapy will eventually develop resistance and ultimately succumb to progression of metastatic disease. Understanding the mechanisms by which malignant cells evade treatment could unlock novel therapeutic strategies that overcome resistance and improve survival. In this review, we will discuss some of the drivers of therapeutic resistance in patients with mCRC and present some novel strategies to overcome resistance.

9.
Front Oncol ; 11: 641044, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34568002

RESUMO

Background: Fluoropyrimidine with platinum-based chemotherapy has become the standard of care for advanced gastric and gastroesophageal (GEJ) cancer. Trials in colon cancer show that induction chemotherapy followed by maintenance chemotherapy is an efficacious strategy to maximize clinical response while minimizing toxicity. The current retrospective study aims to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of maintenance versus continuous treatment in advanced GEJ malignancy. Methods: A retrospective analysis of patients with metastatic gastric/GEJ adenocarcinoma treated with fluoropyrimidine and platinum chemotherapy between 2007-2017 was performed. Patients who achieved at least stable disease after initial induction treatment were included. After 16 weeks of induction chemotherapy, patients were categorized into the continuous group if induction chemotherapy was continued and the maintenance group if chemotherapy was switched to maintenance fluoropyrimidine monotherapy or observed off treatment. Endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and toxicities. Results: In total, 90 patients met the criteria, 48 received continuous therapy, and 42 received maintenance. Baseline characteristics were comparable. No difference in PFS (9.9 vs 8.4 months p = .28) or in OS (16.1 vs 21.3 months p = .75) was observed, including after controlling for the best response on induction therapy and other variables. In patients on continuous induction therapy, there was a higher prevalence of grade three neuropathy (42.6% vs 9.8% p = .001) and neutropenic fever (13% vs 0% p =.03). Conclusions: Maintenance therapy following induction fluoropyrimidine and platinum-based therapy is associated with an improved toxicity profile and appears to have comparable efficacy to continuous treatment in metastatic gastric/GEJ cancer.

11.
JCO Precis Oncol ; 52021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34476330

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Combined hepatocellular cholangiocarcinoma (cHCC-CCA) is a rare, aggressive primary liver carcinoma, with morphologic features of both hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) and liver cholangiocarcinomas (CCA). METHODS: The genomic profiles of 4,975 CCA, 1,470 HCC, and 73 cHCC-CCA cases arising from comprehensive genomic profiling in the course of clinical care were reviewed for genomic alterations (GA), tumor mutational burden, microsatellite instability status, genomic loss of heterozygosity, chromosomal aneuploidy, genomic ancestry, and hepatitis B virus status. RESULTS: In cHCC-CCA, GA were most common in TP53 (65.8%), TERT (49.3%), and PTEN (9.6%), and 24.6% cHCC-CCA harbored potentially targetable GA. Other GA were predominantly associated with either HCC or CCA, including, but not limited to, TERT, FGFR2, IDH1, and presence of hepatitis B virus. On the basis of these features, a machine learning (ML) model was trained to classify a cHCC-CCA case as CCA-like or HCC-like. Of cHCC-CCA cases, 16% (12/73) were ML-classified as CCA-like and 58% (42/73) cHCC-CCA were ML-classified as HCC-like. The ML model classified more than 70% of cHCC-CCA as CCA-like or HCC-like on the basis of genomic profiles, without additional clinico-pathologic input. CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrate the use of ML for classification as based on a targeted exome panel used during routine clinical care. Classification of cHCC-CCA by genomic features alone creates insights into the biology of the disease and warrants further investigation for relevance to clinical care.

12.
Hepatology ; 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34407567

RESUMO

Biliary tract cancers (BTCs) are uncommon but highly lethal gastrointestinal malignancies. Gemcitabine/cisplatin is a standard-of-care (SOC) systemic therapy but has a modest impact on survival and harbor toxicities including myelosuppression, nephropathy, neuropathy, and ototoxicity. While BTCs are characterized by aberrations activating the cyclinD1-CDK4/6-CDKN2A-RB pathway, clinical use of CDK4/6 inhibitors as monotherapy is limited by lack of validated biomarkers, diffident pre-clinical efficacy, and development of acquired drug resistance. Emerging studies have explored therapeutic strategies to enhance the anti-tumor efficacy of CDK4/6 inhibitors by combination with chemotherapy-regimens, but their mechanism of action remains elusive. Here, we report in vitro and in vivo synergy in BTC models, showing enhanced efficacy, reduced toxicity and better survival with a combination comprising gemcitabine/cisplatin and CDK4/6 inhibitors. Furthermore, we demonstrated that abemaciclib-monotherapy had only modest efficacy due to autophagy induced resistance. Notably, triplet-therapy was able to potentiate efficacy through elimination of the autophagic flux. Correspondingly, abemaciclib potentiated RRM1 reduction, resulting in sensitization to gemcitabine. Conclusions: As such, these data provide robust pre-clinical mechanistic evidence of synergy between gemcitabine/cisplatin and CDK4/6 inhibitors and delineate a path forward for translation of these findings to preliminary clinical studies in advanced BTC patients.

13.
Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 6(10): 803-815, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358484

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment options are sparse for patients with advanced cholangiocarcinoma after progression on first-line gemcitabine-based therapy. FGFR2 fusions or rearrangements occur in 10-16% of patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. Infigratinib is a selective, ATP-competitive inhibitor of fibroblast growth factor receptors. We aimed to evaluate the antitumour activity of infigratinib in patients with locally advanced or metastatic cholangiocarcinoma, FGFR2 alterations, and previous gemcitabine-based treatment. METHODS: This multicentre, open-label, single-arm, phase 2 study recruited patients from 18 academic centres and hospitals in the USA, Belgium, Spain, Germany, Singapore, Taiwan, and Thailand. Eligible participants were aged 18 years or older, had histologically or cytologically confirmed, locally advanced or metastatic cholangiocarcinoma and FGFR2 fusions or rearrangements, and were previously treated with at least one gemcitabine-containing regimen. Patients received 125 mg of oral infigratinib once daily for 21 days of 28-day cycles until disease progression, intolerance, withdrawal of consent, or death. Radiological tumour evaluation was done at baseline and every 8 weeks until disease progression via CT or MRI of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis. The primary endpoint was objective response rate, defined as the proportion of patients with a best overall response of a confirmed complete or partial response, as assessed by blinded independent central review (BICR) according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, version 1.1. The primary outcome and safety were analysed in the full analysis set, which comprised all patients who received at least one dose of infigratinib. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02150967, and is ongoing. FINDINGS: Between June 23, 2014, and March 31, 2020, 122 patients were enrolled into our study, of whom 108 with FGFR2 fusions or rearrangements received at least one dose of infigratinib and comprised the full analysis set. After a median follow-up of 10·6 months (IQR 6·2-15·6), the BICR-assessed objective response rate was 23·1% (95% CI 15·6-32·2; 25 of 108 patients), with one confirmed complete response in a patient who only had non-target lesions identified at baseline and 24 partial responses. The most common treatment-emergent adverse events of any grade were hyperphosphataemia (n=83), stomatitis (n=59), fatigue (n=43), and alopecia (n=41). The most common ocular toxicity was dry eyes (n=37). Central serous retinopathy-like and retinal pigment epithelial detachment-like events occurred in 18 (17%) patients, of which ten (9%) were grade 1, seven (6%) were grade 2, and one (1%) was grade 3. There were no treatment-related deaths. INTERPRETATION: Infigratinib has promising clinical activity and a manageable adverse event profile in previously treated patients with locally advanced or metastatic cholangiocarcinoma harbouring FGFR2 gene fusions or rearrangements, and so represents a potential new therapeutic option in this setting. FUNDING: QED Therapeutics and Novartis.


Assuntos
Colangiocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Colangiocarcinoma/genética , Metástase Neoplásica/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos de Fenilureia/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Receptor Tipo 1 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/antagonistas & inibidores , Administração Oral , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alopecia/induzido quimicamente , Alopecia/epidemiologia , Coriorretinopatia Serosa Central/induzido quimicamente , Coriorretinopatia Serosa Central/epidemiologia , Colangiocarcinoma/secundário , Desoxicitidina/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Desoxicitidina/uso terapêutico , Progressão da Doença , Síndromes do Olho Seco/induzido quimicamente , Síndromes do Olho Seco/epidemiologia , Fadiga/induzido quimicamente , Fadiga/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperfosfatemia/induzido quimicamente , Hiperfosfatemia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica/patologia , Compostos de Fenilureia/administração & dosagem , Compostos de Fenilureia/efeitos adversos , Pirimidinas/administração & dosagem , Pirimidinas/efeitos adversos , Radiossensibilizantes/administração & dosagem , Radiossensibilizantes/uso terapêutico , Receptor Tipo 2 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Descolamento Retiniano/induzido quimicamente , Descolamento Retiniano/epidemiologia , Segurança , Estomatite/induzido quimicamente , Estomatite/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Pancreas ; 50(7): 952-956, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34369897

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to better characterize patient characteristics, treatment options, and outcomes for osteoclast-like giant cell carcinoma of the pancreas, a rare subtype of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of all patients with osteoclast-like giant cell carcinoma of pancreatic origin treated at Mayo Clinic from 2000 to present. Baseline patient characteristics, treatment modalities utilized, and outcomes were compiled. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival were assessed using Kaplan-Meier analysis with a significance level of P ≤ 0.05. RESULTS: Fifteen patients met criteria for inclusion. Four patients had distant metastases at diagnosis, the remaining 11 with locoregional disease. Median OS for the entire cohort was 11 months. Metastatic disease was associated with significantly shorter OS (3.5 vs 14.1 months; P = 0.005). Three patients had no evidence of disease at time of analysis; all 3 were treated with complete resection followed by adjuvant chemotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: Osteoclast-like giant cell carcinoma of the pancreas is an aggressive malignancy with poor prognosis. For patients with locoregional disease, surgical resection followed by adjuvant chemoradiation may play a role in extended disease-free survival. Metastatic disease presents a challenging entity to treat with little data to support any effective chemotherapy regimens.

15.
Cancer Metastasis Rev ; 40(3): 777-789, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34455517

RESUMO

Recent studies of the human microbiome have offered new insights into how the microbiome can impact cancer development and treatment. Specifically, in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), the microbiota has been shown to modulate PDAC risk, contribute to tumorigenesis, impact the tumor microenvironment, and alter treatment response. These findings provide rationale for further investigations into leveraging the microbiome to develop new strategies to diagnose and treat PDAC patients. There is growing evidence that microbiome analyses have the potential to become easily performed, non-invasive diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive biomarkers in pancreatic cancer. More excitingly, there is now emerging interest in developing interventions based on the modulation of microbiota. Fecal microbiota transplantation, probiotics, dietary changes, and antibiotics are all potential strategies to augment the efficacy of current therapeutics and reduce toxicities. While there are still challenges to overcome, this is a rapidly growing field that holds promise for translation into clinical practice and provides a new approach to improving patient outcomes.

16.
Invest New Drugs ; 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34463891

RESUMO

Background Biliary tract cancers (BTC) are rare, chemo resistant and are associated with a poor prognosis. Preclinical and early clinical work had demonstrated interesting anti-tumor activity from targeting fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) pathway. We hypothesized that ponatinib, a multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor with activity against FGFR, would be active in BTC patients with FGFR alterations. Methods This was a multi-center, single institution pilot study of ponatinib in patients with advanced, refractory BTC with FGFR alterations. The primary end point was overall response rate, with secondary points of overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS) and Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) assessment. Results Twelve patients were enrolled prior to early termination of the trial. Partial responses were observed in 1 from 12 patients. Median PFS was 2.4 months and median OS was 15.7 months. All observed toxicities were manageable and reversible. Toxicities were mild, with lymphopenia (75%), rash (63%) and fatigue (50%) being the most frequent. No significant detriment in global QoL was observed. Conclusions Ponatinib as a single agent in FGFR altered BTC is tolerable with limited clinical activity. This is the first report of prospective assessment of FGFR inhibition in BTC using ponatinib, and the first study to report its effect on HRQoL. Further development of ponatinib will involve correlative studies to better refine patient selection, focus on combinations with other molecular targeted agents, conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy, and studies to better understand mechanisms of treatment resistance.

17.
Oncologist ; 26(9): 733-739, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34101294

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Because of the improved colorectal cancer (CRC) survival in the U.S., patients may live long enough after CRC diagnosis to the point where non-cancer-related comorbidities may considerably impact their overall survival. In this study, we perform a long-term analysis of causes of death (CODs) following nonmetastatic CRC with respect to different demographic and tumor-related criteria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We gained access to the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data to review patients diagnosed with nonmetastatic CRC during 2000-2015. We calculated standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for each COD following CRC. SMRs represented the change of risk of a specific COD following CRC diagnoses when compared with the risk in the general U.S. RESULTS: We reviewed 302,345 patients, of whom 112,008 died during the study period. More deaths (68.3%) occurred within 5 years following nonmetastatic CRC diagnosis, with 76,486 deaths. CRC was the most common COD (51.4%) within 5 years of diagnosis followed by heart disease (15.2%) and other cancers (8.4%). As time passed after diagnosis, the number of CRC deaths decreased, and other noncancer causes increased to the point that after 10 years only 10.4% of deaths were attributed to CRC, 15.3% were attributed to other cancers, and 34.2% were secondary to heart disease. CONCLUSION: Following nonmetastatic CRC diagnosis, most deaths remain secondary to CRC. Other causes, including other cancers and cardiovascular disease, represent a significant number of deaths, especially in the 5 years following initial CRC diagnosis. Our findings help guide counseling patients with CRC regarding future health risks. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Most common causes of death following nonmetastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) are heart diseases, other cancers, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cerebrovascular diseases. Physicians should counsel patients regarding survivorship with cancer screening and focus on prevention of noncancer deaths. These findings should be considered by physicians who give care for survivors of nonmetastatic CRC.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Neoplasias Colorretais , Causas de Morte , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Sobrevivência
18.
J Clin Oncol ; 39(25): 2803-2815, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077237

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the use of early assessment of chemotherapy responsiveness by positron emission tomography (PET) imaging to tailor therapy in patients with esophageal and esophagogastric junction adenocarcinoma. METHODS: After baseline PET, patients were randomly assigned to an induction chemotherapy regimen: modified oxaliplatin, leucovorin, and fluorouracil (FOLFOX) or carboplatin-paclitaxel (CP). Repeat PET was performed after induction; change in maximum standardized uptake value (SUV) from baseline was assessed. PET nonresponders (< 35% decrease in SUV) crossed over to the alternative chemotherapy during chemoradiation (50.4 Gy/28 fractions). PET responders (≥ 35% decrease in SUV) continued on the same chemotherapy during chemoradiation. Patients underwent surgery at 6 weeks postchemoradiation. Primary end point was pathologic complete response (pCR) rate in nonresponders after switching chemotherapy. RESULTS: Two hundred forty-one eligible patients received Protocol treatment, of whom 225 had an evaluable repeat PET. The pCR rates for PET nonresponders after induction FOLFOX who crossed over to CP (n = 39) or after induction CP who changed to FOLFOX (n = 50) was 18.0% (95% CI, 7.5 to 33.5) and 20% (95% CI, 10 to 33.7), respectively. The pCR rate in responders who received induction FOLFOX was 40.3% (95% CI, 28.9 to 52.5) and 14.1% (95% CI, 6.6 to 25.0) in responders to CP. With a median follow-up of 5.2 years, median overall survival was 48.8 months (95% CI, 33.2 months to not estimable) for PET responders and 27.4 months (95% CI, 19.4 months to not estimable) for nonresponders. For induction FOLFOX patients who were PET responders, median survival was not reached. CONCLUSION: Early response assessment using PET imaging as a biomarker to individualize therapy for patients with esophageal and esophagogastric junction adenocarcinoma was effective, improving pCR rates in PET nonresponders. PET responders to induction FOLFOX who continued on FOLFOX during chemoradiation achieved a promising 5-year overall survival of 53%.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Quimiorradioterapia/mortalidade , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Adenocarcinoma/metabolismo , Adenocarcinoma/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carboplatina/administração & dosagem , Terapia Combinada , Neoplasias Esofágicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Esofágicas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Esofágicas/terapia , Feminino , Fluordesoxiglucose F18/metabolismo , Fluoruracila/administração & dosagem , Seguimentos , Humanos , Leucovorina/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxaliplatina/administração & dosagem , Prognóstico , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/metabolismo , Taxa de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
19.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 70(11): 3337-3348, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34160684

RESUMO

Modified FOLFOX6 is an established therapy for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). We conducted a single-arm phase Ib study to address the hypothesis that addition of pembrolizumab to this regimen could safely and effectively improve patient outcomes (NCT02375672). The relationship between immune biomarkers and clinical response were assessed in an exploratory manner. Patients with mCRC received concurrent pembrolizumab and modified FOLFOX6. The study included safety run-in for the first six patients. The primary objective was median progression-free survival (mPFS), with secondary objectives including median overall survival, safety, and exploratory assessment of immune changes. To assess immunological impact, peripheral blood was collected at baseline and during treatment. The levels of soluble factors were measured via bioplex, while a panel of checkpoint molecules and phenotypically defined cell populations were assessed with flow cytometry and correlated with RECIST and mPFS. Due to incidences of grade 3 and grade 4 neutropenia in the safety lead-in, the dose of mFOLFOX6 was reduced in the expansion cohort. Median PFS was 8.8 months and median OS was not reached at data cutoff. Best responses of stable disease, partial response, and complete response were observed in 43.3%, 50.0%, and 6.7% of patients, respectively. Several soluble and cellular immune biomarkers were associated with improved RECIST and mPFS. Immunosuppressive myeloid and T cell subsets that were analyzed were not associated with response. Primary endpoint was not superior to historic control. Biomarkers that were associated with improved response may be informative for future regimens combining chemotherapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/imunologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/imunologia , Feminino , Fluoruracila/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Leucovorina/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Compostos Organoplatínicos/uso terapêutico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão
20.
Eur J Cancer ; 151: 14-24, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33957442

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This open-label, phase I/II study evaluated safety and efficacy for first-line liposomal irinotecan + oxaliplatin + 5-fluorouracil + leucovorin (NALIRIFOX). METHODS: Patients (aged ≥18 years) had locally advanced/metastatic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (mPDAC), with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status score of 0/1 and adequate organ function. Primary objectives were to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and to evaluate safety and tolerability. Treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were graded using National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v4.03. Efficacy end-points included progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS); disease assessments used Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors 1.1. RESULTS: The MTD (liposomal irinotecan 50 mg/m2 [free-base equivalent], oxaliplatin 60 mg/m2, 5-fluorouracil 2400 mg/m2, leucovorin 400 mg/m2 every 2 weeks) was based on dose-limiting toxicities and cumulative safety data in four dose-exploration cohorts. The MTD was received by 32 of 56 patients, seven during dose exploration and 25 during dose expansion (median age 58.0 years [range, 39-76], 28 [87.5%] with metastatic disease at diagnosis [29 at study entry], and one receiving study treatment at data cutoff [26 February 2020]). Of these patients, 22 of 32 had grade ≥3 treatment-related TEAEs, most commonly neutropenia (31.3%), febrile neutropenia (12.5%) and hypokalaemia (12.5%); ten had serious treatment-related TEAEs; and three died from TEAEs considered unrelated to treatment. Median PFS and OS were 9.2 (95% CI: 7.69-11.96) and 12.6 (8.74-18.69) months, respectively. CONCLUSION: First-line NALIRIFOX for patients with locally advanced/mPDAC was generally manageable and tolerable. A randomised, controlled phase III study is underway.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/tratamento farmacológico , Fluoruracila/uso terapêutico , Irinotecano/uso terapêutico , Leucovorina/uso terapêutico , Oxaliplatina/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Austrália , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/mortalidade , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Feminino , Fluoruracila/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Irinotecano/efeitos adversos , Leucovorina/efeitos adversos , Lipossomos , Masculino , Dose Máxima Tolerável , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxaliplatina/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Espanha , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...