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1.
Sci Adv ; 5(5): eaav8141, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31172026

RESUMO

One-dimensional (1D) nanomaterials with highly anisotropic optoelectronic properties are key components in energy harvesting, flexible electronics, and biomedical imaging devices. 3D patterning methods that precisely assemble nanowires with locally controlled composition and orientation would enable new optoelectronic device designs. As an exemplar, we have created and 3D-printed nanocomposite inks composed of brightly emitting colloidal cesium lead halide perovskite (CsPbX3, X = Cl, Br, and I) nanowires suspended in a polystyrene-polyisoprene-polystyrene block copolymer matrix. The nanowire alignment is defined by the programmed print path, resulting in optical nanocomposites that exhibit highly polarized absorption and emission properties. Several devices have been produced to highlight the versatility of this method, including optical storage, encryption, sensing, and full-color displays.

2.
Nanoscale ; 11(18): 8665-8679, 2019 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31012899

RESUMO

In this topical review, we have focused on the recent advances made in the studies of lead-free perovskites in the bulk form and as nanocrystals. Substitution of lead in halide perovskites is essential to overcome the toxicity concerns and improve the relatively low stability of these materials. In lead-free double perovskites the unit cell is doubled and two divalent lead cations are replaced by mono and trivalent cations. The current main challenge with the double perovskite metal halides lies in overcoming their inherently indirect and disallowed optical transitions. In this review, we have discussed the recent discoveries made in the synthesis of these materials and highlighted how nanocrystals can serve as model systems to explore the schemes of cationic exchange, doping and alloying for engineering the electronic structure of double perovskites. In nanocrystals, the quantum confinement effects can modify the electronic structure and the resulting optical transition, thus increasing the absorption cross-section and emission, which are important properties for optoelectronic devices. Lastly, the enlarged surface to volume ratio in the nanocrystals adds a surface energy term that may enhance the stability of the metastable crystallographic phases. We have reviewed how the nanocrystal can provide information on phases that are inherently stable and investigated how the facile exchange reactions can help in achieving material compositions that are impossible to achieve by any other way. Finally, based on our recent synthetic experience, we have emphasized the similarities between lead-based and lead-free perovskite nanocrystals; we hope that our insight along with a summary of recent progress in this fast-growing field will help to expand the interest in lead-free perovskites towards a greener and brighter future.

3.
Nano Lett ; 19(4): 2489-2496, 2019 04 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30848600

RESUMO

Colloidal cesium lead halide perovskite nanocrystals exhibit unique photophysical properties including high quantum yields, tunable emission colors, and narrow photoluminescence spectra that have marked them as promising light emitters for applications in diverse photonic devices. Randomly oriented transition dipole moments have limited the light outcoupling efficiency of all isotropic light sources, including perovskites. In this report we design and synthesize deep blue emitting, quantum confined, perovskite nanoplates and analyze their optical properties by combining angular emission measurements with back focal plane imaging and correlating the results with physical characterization. By reducing the dimensions of the nanocrystals and depositing them face down onto a substrate by spin coating, we orient the average transition dipole moment of films into the plane of the substrate and improve the emission properties for light emitting applications. We then exploit the sensitivity of the perovskite electronic transitions to the dielectric environment at the interface between the crystal and their surroundings to reduce the angle between the average transition dipole moment and the surface to only 14° and maximize potential light emission efficiency. This tunability of the electronic transition that governs light emission in perovskites is unique and, coupled with their excellent photophysical properties, introduces a valuable method to extend the efficiencies and applications of perovskite based photonic devices beyond those based on current materials.

4.
ACS Nano ; 12(11): 11529-11540, 2018 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30335943

RESUMO

Treatment of InP colloidal quantum dots (QDs) with hydrofluoric acid (HF) has been an effective method to improve their photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) without growing a shell. Previous work has shown that this can occur through the dissolution of the fluorinated phosphorus and subsequent passivation of indium on the reconstructed surface by excess ligands. In this article, we demonstrate that very significant luminescence enhancements occur at lower HF exposure though a different mechanism. At lower exposure to HF, the main role of the fluoride ions is to directly passivate the surface indium dangling bonds in the form of atomic ligands. The PLQY enhancement in this case is accompanied by red shifts of the emission and absorption peaks rather than blue shifts caused by etching as seen at higher exposures. Density functional theory shows that the surface fluorination is thermodynamically preferred and that the observed spectral characteristics might be due to greater exciton delocalization over the outermost surface layer of the InP QDs as well as alteration of the optical oscillator strength by the highly electronegative fluoride layer. Passivation of surface indium with fluorides can be applied to other indium-based QDs. PLQY of InAs QDs could also be increased by an order of magnitude via fluorination. We fabricated fluorinated InAs QD-based electrical devices exhibiting improved switching and higher mobility than those of 1,2-ethanedithiol cross-linked QD devices. The effective surface passivation eliminates persistent photoconductivity usually found in InAs QD-based solid films.

5.
Nano Lett ; 18(6): 3502-3508, 2018 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29719146

RESUMO

Replacing lead in halide perovskites is of great interest due to concerns about stability and toxicity. Recently, lead free double perovskites in which the unit cell is doubled and two divalent lead cations are substituted by a combination of mono- and trivalent cations have been synthesized as bulk single crystals and as thin films. Here, we study stability and optical properties of all-inorganic cesium silver(I) bismuth(III) chloride and bromide nanocrystals with the double perovskite crystal structure. The cube-shaped nanocrystals are monodisperse in size with typical side lengths of 8 to 15 nm. The absorption spectrum of the nanocrystals presents a sharp peak, which we assign to a direct bismuth s-p transition and not to a quantum confined excitonic transition. Using this spectroscopic handle combined with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) based elemental analysis, we conduct stoichiometric studies at the single nanocrystal level as well as decomposition assays in solution and observe that Ag+ diffusion and coalescence is one of the pathways by which this material degrades. Drying the nanocrystals leads to self-assembly into ordered nanocrystal solids, and these exhibit less degradation than nanocrystals in solution. Our results demonstrate that Cs2AgBiX6 (X = Cl, Br) nanocrystals are a useful model system to study structure-function relationships in the search for stable nontoxic halide perovskites.

6.
Nano Lett ; 18(3): 2060-2066, 2018 03 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29504759

RESUMO

Within the last several years, metal halide perovskites such as methylammonium lead iodide, CH3NH3PbI3, have come to the forefront of scientific investigation as defect-tolerant, solution-processable semiconductors that exhibit excellent optoelectronic properties. The vast majority of study has focused on Pb-based perovskites, which have limited applications because of their inherent toxicity. To enable the broad application of these materials, the properties of lead-free halide perovskites must be explored. Here, two-dimensional, lead-free cesium tin iodide, (CsSnI3), perovskite nanoplates have been synthesized and characterized for the first time. These CsSnI3 nanoplates exhibit thicknesses of less than 4 nm and exhibit significant quantum confinement with photoluminescence at 1.59 eV compared to 1.3 eV in the bulk. Ab initio calculations employing the generalized gradient approximation of Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof elucidate that although the dominant intrinsic defects in CsSnI3 do not introduce deep levels inside the band gap, their concentration can be quite high. These simulations also highlight that synthesizing and processing CsSnI3 in Sn-rich conditions can reduce defect density and increase stability, which matches insights gained experimentally. This improvement in the understanding of CsSnI3 represents a step toward the broader challenge of building a deeper understanding of Sn-based halide perovskites and developing design principles that will lead to their successful application in optoelectronic devices.

7.
J Am Chem Soc ; 139(15): 5309-5312, 2017 04 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28358191

RESUMO

Lead halide perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) have emerged as attractive nanomaterials owing to their excellent optical and optoelectronic properties. Their intrinsic instability and soft nature enable a post-synthetic controlled chemical transformation. We studied a ligand mediated transformation of presynthesized CsPbBr3 NCs to a new type of lead-halide depleted perovskite derivative nanocrystal, namely Cs4PbBr6. The transformation is initiated by amine addition, and the use of alkyl-thiol ligands greatly improves the size uniformity and chemical stability of the derived NCs. The thermodynamically driven transformation is governed by a two-step dissolution-recrystallization mechanism, which is monitored optically. Our results not only shed light on a decomposition pathway of CsPbBr3 NCs but also present a method to synthesize uniform colloidal Cs4PbBr6 NCs, which may actually be a common product of perovskite NCs degradation.

8.
Nano Lett ; 16(12): 7530-7535, 2016 12 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27960472

RESUMO

The radiation-sensitive nature of halide perovskites has hindered structural studies at the atomic scale. We overcome this obstacle by applying low dose-rate in-line holography, which combines aberration-corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscopy with exit-wave reconstruction. This technique successfully yields the genuine atomic structure of ultrathin two-dimensional CsPbBr3 halide perovskites, and a quantitative structure determination was achieved atom column by atom column using the phase information of the reconstructed exit-wave function without causing electron beam-induced sample alterations. An extraordinarily high image quality enables an unambiguous structural analysis of coexisting high-temperature and low-temperature phases of CsPbBr3 in single particles. On a broader level, our approach offers unprecedented opportunities to better understand halide perovskites at the atomic level as well as other radiation-sensitive materials.

9.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 8(51): 35523-35533, 2016 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27991752

RESUMO

Lead halide perovskites hold promise for photonic devices, due to their superior optoelectronic properties. However, their use is limited by poor stability and toxicity. We demonstrate enhanced water and light stability of high-surface-area colloidal perovskite nanocrystals by encapsulation of colloidal CsPbBr3 quantum dots into matched hydrophobic macroscale polymeric matrices. This is achieved by mixing the quantum dots with presynthesized high-molecular-weight polymers. We monitor the photoluminescence quantum yield of the perovskite-polymer nanocomposite films under water-soaking for the first time, finding no change even after >4 months of continuous immersion in water. Furthermore, photostability is greatly enhanced in the macroscale polymer-encapsulated nanocrystal perovskites, which sustain >1010 absorption events per quantum dot prior to photodegradation, a significant threshold for potential device use. Control of the quantum dot shape in these thin-film polymer composite enables color tunability via strong quantum-confinement in nanoplates and significant room temperature polarized emission from perovskite nanowires. Not only does the high-molecular-weight polymer protect the perovskites from the environment but also no escaped lead was detected in water that was in contact with the encapsulated perovskites for months. Our ligand-passivated perovskite-macroscale polymer composites provide a robust platform for diverse photonic applications.

10.
J Am Chem Soc ; 138(37): 12065-8, 2016 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27606934

RESUMO

Ion-exchange transformations allow access to nanocrystalline materials with compositions that are inaccessible via direct synthetic routes. However, additional mechanistic insight into the processes that govern these reactions is needed. We present evidence for the presence of two distinct mechanisms of exchange during anion exchange in CsPbX3 nanocrystals (NCs), ranging in size from 6.5 to 11.5 nm, for transformations from CsPbBr3 to CsPbCl3 or CsPbI3. These NCs exhibit bright luminescence throughout the exchange, allowing their optical properties to be observed in real time, in situ. The iodine exchange presents surface-reaction-limited exchanges allowing all anionic sites within the NC to appear chemically identical, whereas the chlorine exchange presents diffusion-limited exchanges proceeding through a more complicated exchange mechanism. Our results represent the first steps toward developing a microkinetic description of the anion exchange, with implications not only for understanding the lead halide perovskites but also for nanoscale ion exchange in general.

11.
J Am Chem Soc ; 138(40): 13155-13158, 2016 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27673493

RESUMO

Highly uniform single crystal ultrathin CsPbBr3 nanowires (NWs) with diameter of 2.2 ± 0.2 nm and length up to several microns were successfully synthesized and purified using a catalyst-free colloidal synthesis method followed by a stepwise purification strategy. The NWs have bright photoluminescence (PL) with a photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) of about 30% after surface treatment. Large blue-shifted UV-vis absorption and PL spectra have been observed due to strong two-dimensional quantum confinement effects. A small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) pattern shows the periodic packing of the ultrathin NWs along the radial direction, demonstrates the narrow radial distribution of the wires, and emphasizes the deep intercalation of the surfactants. Despite the extreme aspect ratios of the ultrathin NWs, their composition and the resulting optical properties can be readily tuned by an anion-exchange reaction with good morphology preservation. These bright ultrathin NWs may be used as a model system to study strong quantum confinement effects in a one-dimensional halide perovskite system.

12.
J Am Chem Soc ; 138(23): 7236-9, 2016 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27213511

RESUMO

Here, we demonstrate the successful synthesis of brightly emitting colloidal cesium lead halide (CsPbX3, X = Cl, Br, I) nanowires (NWs) with uniform diameters and tunable compositions. By using highly monodisperse CsPbBr3 NWs as templates, the NW composition can be independently controlled through anion-exchange reactions. CsPbX3 alloy NWs with a wide range of alloy compositions can be achieved with well-preserved morphology and crystal structure. The NWs are highly luminescent with photoluminescence quantum yields (PLQY) ranging from 20% to 80%. The bright photoluminescence can be tuned over nearly the entire visible spectrum. The high PLQYs together with charge transport measurements exemplify the efficient alloying of the anionic sublattice in a one-dimensional CsPbX3 system. The wires increased functionality in the form of fast photoresponse rates and the low defect density suggest CsPbX3 NWs as prospective materials for optoelectronic applications.

13.
J Am Chem Soc ; 137(51): 16008-11, 2015 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26669631

RESUMO

Anisotropic colloidal quasi-two-dimensional nanoplates (NPLs) hold great promise as functional materials due to their combination of low dimensional optoelectronic properties and versatility through colloidal synthesis. Recently, lead-halide perovskites have emerged as important optoelectronic materials with excellent efficiencies in photovoltaic and light-emitting applications. Here we report the synthesis of quantum confined all inorganic cesium lead halide nanoplates in the perovskite crystal structure that are also highly luminescent (PLQY 84%). The controllable self-assembly of nanoplates either into stacked columnar phases or crystallographic-oriented thin-sheet structures is demonstrated. The broad accessible emission range, high native quantum yields, and ease of self-assembly make perovskite NPLs an ideal platform for fundamental optoelectronic studies and the investigation of future devices.

14.
Harefuah ; 153(5): 257-8, 306, 2014 May.
Artigo em Hebraico | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25112115

RESUMO

We have previously shown that heart-shaped balloons have a different explosion mechanism than spherical balloons in which the former splits into two rubber parts still attached to the balloon base with a backward whiplash motion. This backward whiplash motion may cause significant blunt ocular trauma if the balloon is inflated by mouth. In this article, the energy of the blunt ocular trauma is estimated by the high speed camera photos analysis of the balloon burst. Furthermore, we describe the followup of eight patients with ocular trauma following inflation of heart-shaped balloons.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Traumatismos Oculares , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Irite , Hemorragia Retiniana , Transtornos da Visão , Ferimentos não Penetrantes , Administração Oftálmica , Adulto , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Oftalmológico , Traumatismos Oculares/complicações , Traumatismos Oculares/etiologia , Traumatismos Oculares/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Irite/etiologia , Irite/fisiopatologia , Irite/terapia , Masculino , Midríase , Fotofobia , Hemorragia Retiniana/etiologia , Hemorragia Retiniana/fisiopatologia , Hemorragia Retiniana/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento , Transtornos da Visão/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Visão/etiologia , Acuidade Visual , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/complicações , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/etiologia , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/fisiopatologia
15.
Nat Mater ; 13(3): 301-7, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24553656

RESUMO

Colloidal nanocrystal synthesis provides a powerful approach for creating unique nanostructures of relevance for applications. Here, we report that wurtzite ZnSe nanorod couples connected by twinning structures can be synthesized by means of a self-limited assembly process. Unlike for individual nanorods, the band-edge states calculated for the nanorod couples are predominantly confined to the short edges of the structure and this leads to low photoluminescence polarization anisotropy, as confirmed by single-particle fluorescence. Through a cation-exchange approach, the composition of nanorod couples can be readily expanded to additional materials, such as CdSe and PbSe. We anticipate that this family of nanorod-couple structures with distinct compositions and controlled properties will constitute an ideal system for the investigation of electronic coupling effects between individual nanorod components on the nanoscale, with relevance to applications in optics, photocatalysis and optoelectronic devices.

17.
Phys Rev Lett ; 111(3): 037401, 2013 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23909359

RESUMO

Infrared absorption measurements of amorphous and crystalline nanoparticles of GeTe reveal a localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) mode in the crystalline phase that is absent in the amorphous phase. The LSPR mode emerges upon crystallization of amorphous nanoparticles. The contrasting plasmonic properties are elucidated with scanning tunneling spectroscopy measurements indicating a Burstein-Moss shift of the band gap in the crystalline phase and a finite density of electronic states throughout the band gap in the amorphous phase that limits the effective free carrier density.

18.
Nanotechnology ; 23(50): 505710, 2012 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23196692

RESUMO

Hybrid inorganic nanoparticles, comprising a semiconducting Cu(2)S quantum-dot (QD) core encapsulated by a metallic Ru cage-like shell, and each of their individual components, are studied via scanning tunneling spectroscopy. Bare Cu(2)S QDs show nearly identical semiconducting-like I-V characteristics while the empty Ru cages exhibit single electron tunneling effects-the Coulomb blockade and staircase. Surprisingly, in some cases negative differential conductance features, with periodicity that correlates to the Coulomb staircase, were observed. The tunneling spectra measured on the hybrid QDs varies greatly along a single particle, manifesting synergetic electrical properties that originate from this unique semiconducting-metallic interface.

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