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1.
J Thorac Oncol ; 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31655296

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We assessed the Aurora A kinase inhibitor, alisertib, plus paclitaxel as second-line treatment for small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). METHODS: In this double-blind study, patients with relapsed/refractory SCLC were stratified by relapse type (sensitive versus resistant/refractory) and brain metastases and randomized 1:1 to alisertib/paclitaxel or placebo/paclitaxel (28-day cycles). Primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Associations of c-Myc expression in tumor tissue (prespecified) and genetic alterations in circulating tumor DNA (retrospective) with clinical outcome were evaluated. RESULTS: 178 patients were enrolled (89 in each arm). Median PFS with alisertib/paclitaxel versus placebo/paclitaxel was 3.32 versus 2.17 months (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.557-1.067; p = 0.113 in intent-to-treat population, and HR: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.509-0.985; p = 0.038 applying corrected analysis). Among 140 patients with genetic alternations, patients with cell cycle regulator mutations (CDK6/RBL1/ RBL2/RB1) had significantly improved PFS (3.68 versus 1.80 months, HR: 0.395; 95% CI: 0.239-0.654; p = 0.0003) and overall survival (7.20 versus 4.47 months, HR: 0.427; 95% CI: 0.259-0.704; p = 0.00085) with alisertib/paclitaxel versus placebo/paclitaxel. A subset of patients with c-Myc expression showed significantly improved PFS with alisertib/paclitaxel. Incidence of grade ≥3 drug-related adverse events was 67% (58 patients) with alisertib/paclitaxel versus 22% (25 patients) with placebo/paclitaxel. Twelve (14%) versus 11 (12%) patients died on-study, including 4 versus 0 treatment-related deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Efficacy signals were seen with alisertib/paclitaxel in relapsed/refractory SCLC. c-Myc expression and mutations in cell cycle regulators may be potential predictive biomarkers of alisertib efficacy; further prospective validations are warranted.

2.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol ; 84(6): 1289-1301, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31549216

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Veliparib is an oral inhibitor of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1 and -2. PARP-1 expression may be increased in cancer, and this increase confers resistance to cytotoxic agents. We aimed to determine the recommended phase 2 dose (RP2D), maximum tolerated dose (MTD), dose-limiting toxicity (DLT), and pharmacokinetics (PK) of veliparib combined with paclitaxel and carboplatin. METHODS: Eligibility criteria included patients with advanced solid tumors treated with ≤ 3 prior regimens. Paclitaxel and carboplatin were administered on day 3 of a 21-day cycle. Veliparib was given PO BID days 1-7, except for cycle 1 in the first 46 patients to serve as control for toxicity and PK. A standard "3 + 3" design started veliparib at 10 mg BID, paclitaxel at 150 mg/m2, and carboplatin AUC 6. The pharmacokinetic (PK) disposition of veliparib, paclitaxel, and carboplatin was determined by LC-MS/MS and AAS during cycles 1 and 2. RESULTS: Seventy-three patients were enrolled. Toxicities were as expected with carboplatin/paclitaxel chemotherapy, including neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and peripheral neuropathy. DLTs were seen in two of seven evaluable patients at the maximum administered dose (MAD): veliparib 120 mg BID, paclitaxel 200 mg/m2, and carboplatin AUC 6 (febrile neutropenia, hyponatremia). The MTD and RP2D were determined to be veliparib 100 mg BID, paclitaxel 200 mg/m2, and carboplatin AUC 6. Median number of cycles of the three-agent combination was 4 (1-16). We observed 22 partial and 5 complete responses. Veliparib did not affect paclitaxel or carboplatin PK disposition. CONCLUSION: Veliparib, paclitaxel, and carboplatin were well tolerated and demonstrated promising antitumor activity.

3.
J Clin Oncol ; 37(26): 2360-2367, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31361535

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pemetrexed or bevacizumab is used for maintenance therapy of advanced nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The combination of bevacizumab and pemetrexed has also demonstrated efficacy. We conducted a randomized study to determine the optimal maintenance therapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with advanced nonsquamous NSCLC and no prior systemic therapy received carboplatin (area under the curve, 6), paclitaxel (200 mg/m2), and bevacizumab (15 mg/kg) for up to four cycles. Patients without progression after four cycles were randomly assigned to maintenance therapy with bevacizumab (15 mg/kg), pemetrexed (500 mg/m2), or a combination of the two agents. The primary end point was overall survival, with bevacizumab serving as the control group. RESULTS: Of the 1,516 patients enrolled, 874 (57%) were randomly assigned after induction therapy to one of the three maintenance therapy groups. With a median follow-up of 50.6 months, median survival with pemetrexed was 15.9 months, compared with 14.4 months with bevacizumab (hazard ratio [HR], 0.86; P = .12); median survival with pemetrexed and bevacizumab was 16.4 months (HR, 0.9; P = .28); median progression-free survival was 4.2, 5.1 (HR, 0.85; P = .06), and 7.5 months (HR, 0.67; P < .001) for the three groups, respectively. Incidence of worst grade 3 to 4 toxicity was 29%, 37%, and 51%, respectively, for bevacizumab, pemetrexed, and the combination regimen. CONCLUSION: Single-agent bevacizumab or pemetrexed is efficacious as maintenance therapy for advanced nonsquamous NSCLC. Because of a lack of survival benefit and higher toxicity, the combination of bevacizumab and pemetrexed cannot be recommended.

4.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 85(11): 2499-2511, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271459

RESUMO

AIMS: The histone deacetylase inhibitor belinostat has activity in various cancers. Because belinostat is metabolized by the liver, reduced hepatic clearance could lead to excessive drug accumulation and increased toxicity. Safety data in patients with liver dysfunction are needed for this drug to reach its full potential in the clinic. METHODS: We performed a phase 1 trial to determine the safety, maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and pharmacokinetics of belinostat in patients with advanced cancer and varying degrees of liver dysfunction. RESULTS: Seventy-two patients were enrolled and divided into cohorts based on liver function. In patients with mild dysfunction, the MTD was the same as the recommended phase 2 dose (1000 mg/m2 /day). Belinostat was well tolerated in patients with moderate and severe liver dysfunction, although the trial was closed before the MTD in these cohorts could be determined. The mean clearance of belinostat was 661 mL/min/m2 in patients with normal liver function, compared to 542, 505 and 444 mL/min/m2 in patients with mild, moderate and severe hepatic dysfunction. Although this trial was not designed to assess clinical activity, of the 47 patients evaluable for response, 13 patients (28%) experienced stable disease. CONCLUSION: While a statistically significant difference in clearance indicates increased belinostat exposure with worsening liver function, no relationship was observed between belinostat exposure and toxicity. An assessment of belinostat metabolites revealed significant differences in metabolic pathway capability in patients with differing levels of liver dysfunction. Further studies are needed to establish formal dosing guidelines in this patient population.

5.
Clin Lung Cancer ; 2019 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31296433

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prognosis of patients with extensive-stage small-cell lung carcinoma (ES-SCLC) is poor. The benefit of consolidative thoracic radiation therapy (TRT) in ES-SCLC has been inconclusive, and its use inconsistent. The objective of this study was to evaluate overall survival (OS) of ES-SCLC patients treated with chemotherapy (CT) with or without TRT using an administrative database approach. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The National Cancer Database was queried to identify patients with ES-SCLC diagnosed between 2010 and 2014. Those with brain metastases, those who received radiotherapy before CT, or radiotherapy outside the thorax, were excluded. Propensity score-matching (PSM) was used to compare OS of patients treated with CT and TRT with those who received CT alone. Patients who received >10 radiotherapy fractions were also compared with those who received 10 or fewer. RESULTS: We included 14,367 patients in the primary analysis; 12,019 received CT alone, and 2348 received CT with TRT. In multivariate analysis, CT was associated with an increased risk of death relative to CT with TRT (hazard ratio [HR], 1.74 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.64-1.84]; log-rank P < .001), which remained significant with PSM. Median OS was 12.1 versus 8.2 months (CT with TRT vs. CT); 12-month OS was 50.5% versus 28.5%, and 5-year OS 7.6% versus 2.0% (HR, 1.80 [95% CI, 1.67-1.95], HR P < .001). Of 3099 patients who received TRT, >10 radiotherapy fractions was associated with superior OS (HR, 1.70 [95% CI, 1.49-1.95], log-rank P < .001); this finding remained significant with PSM. CONCLUSION: Use of TRT after CT in ES-SCLC patients was associated with long-term survival; its use should be considered in addition to standard of care CT.

6.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0217657, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150457

RESUMO

Lung cancer is among the common and deadly cancers. Although the treatment options for late-stage cancer patients have continued to increase in numbers, the overall survival rates for these patients have not shown significant improvement. This highlights the need for new targets and drugs to more effectively treat lung cancer patients. In this study, we characterize the MCL-1 inhibitor maritoclax alone or in combination with a BCL-2/xL inhibitor in a panel of lung cancer cell lines. BCL-2 family proteins, phosphorylated proteins, and apoptosis were monitored following the treatments. We found that maritoclax was effective at inhibiting growth in these lung cancer cells. We also establish that cell lines with EGFR mutations were most sensitive to the combined inhibition of MCL-1 and BCL-2/xL. In addition, a high level of phosphorylated AKT (S473) was identified as a marker for sensitivity to the combination treatment. This work has defined EGFR mutations and AKT phosphorylation as markers for sensitivity to combined MCL-1 and BCL-2/xL targeted therapy and establishes a rationale to explore multiple BCL-2 family members in patients who are refractory to EGFR inhibitor treatment. Our data support the design of a clinical trial that aims to employ inhibitors of the BCL-2 family of proteins in lung cancer patients.

7.
Lung Cancer ; 131: 58-61, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31027698

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: High levels of circulating interleukin-6 (IL-6) are associated with a poor prognosis in many types of cancer including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). While the inflammatory cytokine can stimulate the immune system and promote tumor growth, it remains unclear how circulating IL-6 can potentiate a poor prognosis. We hypothesized that a mechanism for IL-6-associated poor prognosis is that these patients would have altered T-cell populations and impaired T-cell signaling. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Plasma levels of IL-6 were measured using a Cytometric Bead Array. T-cell populations from Non-small cell lung cancer patients were characterized using surface markers by flow cytometry, and signaling in the T-cell populations were measured by PhosFlow cytometry. RESULTS: We determine that patients with high circulating IL-6 levels had distinct T cell characteristics relative to those with low levels. Patients with high levels of IL-6 had significantly more Treg cells and elevated Programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) expression on CD4+, CD8+, Treg, and Th17 cells. These patients also showed impaired signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 (STAT1) signaling upon stimulation with IL-6 and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), and T-Cells from a healthy donor that were treated for four days with IL-6 displayed a similar muting of STAT signaling, which verified the effect seen in patient samples. CONCLUSIONS: This work directly links circulating IL-6 with other poor prognostic indicators, STAT1 and PD-1, and highlights the effects of circulating IL-6 on the immune system. Our data suggest that alteration in T cell populations and function may be a mechanism underlying the poor prognosis seen in NSCLC patients with high IL-6 levels.

8.
N Engl J Med ; 380(8): 720-728, 2019 02 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30786186

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ambulatory patients receiving systemic cancer therapy are at varying risk for venous thromboembolism. However, the benefit of thromboprophylaxis in these patients is uncertain. METHODS: In this double-blind, randomized trial involving high-risk ambulatory patients with cancer (Khorana score of ≥2, on a scale from 0 to 6, with higher scores indicating a higher risk of venous thromboembolism), we randomly assigned patients without deep-vein thrombosis at screening to receive rivaroxaban (at a dose of 10 mg) or placebo daily for up to 180 days, with screening every 8 weeks. The primary efficacy end point was a composite of objectively confirmed proximal deep-vein thrombosis in a lower limb, pulmonary embolism, symptomatic deep-vein thrombosis in an upper limb or distal deep-vein thrombosis in a lower limb, and death from venous thromboembolism and was assessed up to day 180. In a prespecified supportive analysis involving the same population, the same end point was assessed during the intervention period (first receipt of trial agent to last dose plus 2 days). The primary safety end point was major bleeding. RESULTS: Of 1080 enrolled patients, 49 (4.5%) had thrombosis at screening and did not undergo randomization. Of the 841 patients who underwent randomization, the primary end point occurred in 25 of 420 patients (6.0%) in the rivaroxaban group and in 37 of 421 (8.8%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.40 to 1.09; P = 0.10) in the period up to day 180. In the prespecified intervention-period analysis, the primary end point occurred in 11 patients (2.6%) in the rivaroxaban group and in 27 (6.4%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.20 to 0.80). Major bleeding occurred in 8 of 405 patients (2.0%) in the rivaroxaban group and in 4 of 404 (1.0%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 1.96; 95% CI, 0.59 to 6.49). CONCLUSIONS: In high-risk ambulatory patients with cancer, treatment with rivaroxaban did not result in a significantly lower incidence of venous thromboembolism or death due to venous thromboembolism in the 180-day trial period. During the intervention period, rivaroxaban led to a substantially lower incidence of such events, with a low incidence of major bleeding. (Funded by Janssen and others; CASSINI ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02555878.).


Assuntos
Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Rivaroxabana/uso terapêutico , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Administração Oral , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Método Duplo-Cego , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Incidência , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/complicações , Fatores de Risco , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia
9.
Proteomics ; 19(3): e1800135, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30585401

RESUMO

The current state of proteomics requires a choice between targeted and global discovery methods. A method, that combines targeted and data-independent acquisition for absolute quantification of all identified plasma proteins, in a single sequential window acquisition of all theoretical fragment ions (SWATH) acquisition run, using a panel of spike-in standards (SIS), is established and optimized. The absolute quantification (AQ) of SWATH and multiple-reaction monitoring-high resolution (MRM-HR) acquisition methods are compared using the 100 protein PlasmaDive SIS panel spiked into non-depleted human plasma. SWATH provides equivalent quantification and differentially abundant protein profiles as MRM-HR. Absolute quantities of the SIS peptides from the SWATH data are used to estimate the absolute quantities (eAQ) for all the proteins in the run. The eAQ values provide similar quantification and differentially abundant protein profiles as AQ and protein area (PA) values. As a proof-of-concept, the eAQ method is applied to 12 plasma samples from six non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients and the performance of eAQ values versus peak area quantification is evaluated. There is a strong correlation between AQ and peak area ratios producing significant overlap of differentially abundant proteins. This eAQ method can provide quantitative data equivalent to AQ or peak area values.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30513377

RESUMO

PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE(S): To present long-term results of XXXX, a randomized lung stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) trial of 34 Gy in 1 fraction versus 48 Gy in 4 fractions. MATERIALS/METHODS: This was a phase II multicenter study of medically inoperable non-small cell lung cancer patients with biopsy-proven peripheral T1 or T2 N0M0 tumors, with 1-year toxicity rates as primary endpoint and selected failure and survival outcomes as secondary endpoints. The study opened in September 2009 and closed in March 2011. Final data were analyzed through May 17, 2018. RESULTS: Eighty four of 94 patients accrued were eligible for analysis: 39 in arm 1 and 45 in arm 2. Median follow-up time was 4.0 years for all patients, and 6.0 years for those alive at analysis. Rates of grade 3 and higher toxicity were 2.6% in arm 1 and 11.1% in arm 2. Median survival times (in years) for 34 Gy and 48 Gy were 4.1 vs. 4.6, respectively. Five-year outcomes as % (95% CI) for 34 Gy and 48 Gy were: primary tumor failure rate of 10.6 (3.3, 23.1) vs. 6.8 (1.7, 16.9); overall survival of 29.6 (16.2, 44.4) vs. 41.1 (26.6, 55.1); and progression-free survival of 19.1 (8.5, 33.0) vs. 33.3 (20.2, 47.0); respectively. Distant failure as the sole failure or a component of first failure occurred in 6 patients (37.5%) in the 34 Gy arm and in 7 (41.2%) in the 48 Gy arm. CONCLUSIONS: No excess in late-appearing toxicity was seen in either arm. Primary tumor control rates at 5 years were similar by arm. Median survival times of 4 years for each arm suggest similar efficacy pending any larger studies appropriately powered to detect survival differences.

11.
Histol Histopathol ; : 18051, 2018 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30302745

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Port wine stain (PWS) is characterized as a progressive dilatation of immature venule-like vasculatures which result from differentiation-impaired endothelial cells. In this study, we aimed to identify the major biological pathways accounting for the pathogenesis of PWS. METHODS: Sequential windowed acquisition of all theoretical fragment ion mass spectra (SWATH-MS) was used to identify differentially expressed proteins in PWS lesions, followed by confirmative studies with immunohistochemistry, immunoblot and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). RESULTS: 107 out of 299 identified proteins showed differential expressions in PWS lesions as compared to normal skin, mainly involving the functions of biosynthesis, membrane trafficking, cytoskeleton and cell adhesion/migration. The confirmative studies showed that expressions of membrane trafficking/exocytosis related proteins such as VAT1, IQGAP1, HSC70, clathrin, perlecan, spectrin α1 and GDIR1 were significantly increased in PWS blood vessels as compared to normal ones; while collagen subtypes 6A1 and 6A3 were decreased in PWS skin. Furthermore, TEM studies showed there is a significant upregulation of extracellular vesicle exocytosis from PWS blood vessels as compared to control. CONCLUSIONS: The biological process of membrane trafficking and exocytosis is enhanced in PWS blood vessels. Our results imply that the extracellular vesicles released by lesional endothelial cells may act as potential intercellular signaling mediators to contribute to the pathogenesis of PWS.

12.
Lung Cancer ; 115: 121-126, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29290253

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In the JMEN trial, patients with advanced non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) without progression after platinum-based first-line therapy derived extended survival, delayed disease progression, and maintained overall quality of life (QoL) from pemetrexed maintenance therapy. However, fatigue was the most common physician-reported non-hematological toxicity in the pemetrexed group. This post hoc analysis investigated dynamic change of fatigue. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Analysis of the overall safety population with squamous and non-squamous NSCLC subgroups included Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events to summarize adverse event (AE) rates by cycle and AE investigator-reported severity. Worsening of fatigue, defined as +15mm or more from baseline on a 100mm scale, evaluated QoL using the patient-reported Lung Cancer Symptom Scale. Patients with worsening fatigue and time-to-worsening of fatigue symptoms were also analyzed. RESULTS: Drug-related fatigue occurred more frequently with pemetrexed than placebo. The drug-related grade 3/4 fatigue was also higher in the overall population on pemetrexed than with placebo. Fatigue incidence during pemetrexed maintenance after induction was not altered with cumulative exposure. Percentage of patients who experienced worsening of fatigue based on patient-reported LCSS scores was comparable between the two arms in cycles 1-10. The time-to-worsening of fatigue was similar between the pemetrexed arm and the placebo arm in the overall population; however, the East Asian subpopulation patients taking pemetrexed experienced a longer median time-to-worsening of fatigue than patients taking placebo. CONCLUSION: Analyses suggest that despite higher incidence of any grade drug-related fatigue compared with placebo in patients with advanced NSCLC, pemetrexed maintenance does not impair patient-reported QoL.

13.
Cancer ; 124(2): 271-277, 2018 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28960263

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Monoclonal antibodies against programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) are effective therapies in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Herein, the authors performed a systematic review investigating differences in the toxicities of PD-1 and PD-L1 inhibitors. METHODS: An electronic literature search was performed of public databases (MEDLINE, Excerpta Medica dataBASE [EMBASE], and Cochrane) and conference proceedings for trials using PD-1 inhibitors (nivolumab and pembrolizumab) and PD-L1 inhibitors (atezolizumab, durvalumab, and avelumab) in patients with NSCLC. A formal systematic analysis was conducted with Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software (version 2.2). Clinical and demographic characteristics, response, and toxicity data were compared between both groups. RESULTS: A total of 23 studies reported between 2013 and 2016 were eligible for analysis. The total number of patients evaluated for toxicities was 3284 patients in the PD-1 group and 2460 patients in the PD-L1 group. The baseline patient characteristics of the 2 groups were similar, although there was a trend toward increased squamous histology in the group treated with PD-L1 (32% vs 25%; P = .6). There was no difference in response rate noted between PD-1 (19%) and PD-L1 (18.6%) inhibitors (P = .17). The incidence of overall adverse events (AEs) was comparable between the PD-1 and PD-L1 inhibitors (64% [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 63%-66%] vs 66% [95% CI, 65%-69%]; P = .8). Fatigue was the most frequently reported AE with both classes of drugs. Patients treated with PD-1 inhibitors were found to have a slightly increased rate of immune-related AEs (16% [95% CI, 14%-17%] vs 11% [95% CI, 10%-13%]; P = .07) and pneumonitis (4% [95% CI, 3%-5%] vs 2% [95% CI, 1%-3%]; P = .01) compared with patients who received PD-L1 inhibitors. CONCLUSIONS: In this systematic review involving 5744 patients with NSCLC, the toxicity and efficacy profiles of PD-1 and PD-L1 inhibitors appear to be similar. Cancer 2018;124:271-7. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

14.
J Appl Biobehav Res ; 22(3)2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28966544

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This longitudinal study characterized psychological adjustment in a sample of lung cancer patients by examining the occurrence of posttraumatic stress and growth and their relationships with mental and physical health quality of life and survival over time. METHODS: Two waves of consecutive cohort samples, totaling 115 participants diagnosed with lung cancer, were identified from outpatient oncology clinics. Of these, 93 consented and completed the first of three assessments, and 57 completed the study. Prevalence of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSD Checklist) and posttraumatic growth (Posttraumatic Growth Inventory) were assessed and used to predict physical and mental health components of quality of life (Short Form 36) and survival. RESULTS: Patients reported both negative and positive psychological sequelae, with prevalence of estimated PTSD ranging from 5-16% at each assessment as determined by symptom and cut-off methods. Posttraumatic stress and growth were positively related, but were differentially associated with outcomes. More posttraumatic stress predicted lower mental health quality of life, whereas more posttraumatic growth predicted better physical health quality of life and longer survival. These relationships persisted after accounting for disease variables and attrition due to death or illness. CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight the importance of using longitudinal designs to identify relationships between stress and resilience factors in predicting outcomes.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28966872

RESUMO

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) can mediate intercellular communication by transferring cargo proteins and nucleic acids between cells. The pathophysiological roles and clinical value of EVs are under intense investigation, yet most studies are limited by technical challenges in the isolation of nanoscale EVs (nEVs). Here, we report a lipid nanoprobe that enables spontaneous labelling and magnetic enrichment of nEVs in 15 minutes, with isolation efficiency and cargo composition similar to what can be achieved by the much slower and bulkier method of ultracentrifugation. We also show that the lipid nanoprobes, which allow for downstream analyses of nucleic acids and proteins, enabled the identification of EGFR and KRAS mutations following nEV isolation from blood plasma from non-small-cell lung-cancer patients. The efficiency and versatility of the lipid nanoprobe opens up opportunities in point-of-care cancer diagnostics.

16.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol ; 80(3): 631-643, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28770300

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Veliparib (ABT-888) is an oral PARP inhibitor expected to increase gemcitabine activity. This phase I determined the maximal tolerable dose (MTD), dose-limiting toxicities (DLT), antitumor activity, pharmacokinetics (PK), and pharmacodynamics (PD) of veliparib combined with gemcitabine. METHODS: Patients with advanced solid tumors received veliparib (10-40-mg PO BID) on chemotherapy weeks with gemcitabine 500-750-mg/m2 IV on days 1, 8, and 15 (28-day cycle), or on days 1 and 8 (21-day cycle). The MTD, DLT, adverse events, PK, and PD were evaluated. RESULTS: Eleven patients were enrolled on the 28-day schedule. The 28-day schedule was considered intolerable and amended to a 21-day schedule, with 20 patients enrolled. Grade ≥ 3 adverse events were myelosuppression-related. The MTD was determined to be 750-mg/m2 gemcitabine IV on days 1 and 8- and 20-mg PO veliparib BID days 1-14 on a 21-day schedule. Of 27 patients evaluable for response, 3 had PR and 15 had SD. There was no evidence of any major drug-drug interaction, and PK parameter values for veliparib, gemcitabine, and dFdU were as expected. Analysis of PBMCs showed evidence of PARP inhibition and DNA damage associated with therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Gemcitabine at 750-mg/m2 IV on days 1 and 8 combined with veliparib at a dose of 20-mg PO BID days 1-14 on a 21-day schedule is relatively well-tolerated, with manageable, expected toxicities. Clinical responses were observed in a pretreated population of patients, suggesting that this combination should be further evaluated in the phase II setting.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Benzimidazóis/uso terapêutico , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Benzimidazóis/farmacologia , Desoxicitidina/farmacologia , Desoxicitidina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias/patologia
17.
JAMA Oncol ; 3(8): 1120-1129, 2017 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27978552

RESUMO

Importance: The 2 most common chemotherapy regimens used concurrently with thoracic radiation for patients with unresectable IIIA and IIIB non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are carboplatin-paclitaxel and cisplatin-etoposide. There are no prospective comparisons of these 2 regimens in this setting. Objective: To conduct a systematic review of published trials to compare outcomes and toxic effects between cisplatin-etoposide and carboplatin-paclitaxel in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer receiving thoracic radiation. Evidence Review: Studies that enrolled patients with stage III disease receiving radiotherapy (RT) with carboplatin-paclitaxel or cisplatin-etoposide were identified using electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane library) and meeting abstracts. Trials were excluded if they were phase 1, enrolled less than 10 patients, or included surgical resection. A systematic analysis of extracted data was performed with software using random and fixed effect models. Clinical outcomes were compared using point estimates for weighted values of median overall survival, progression-free survival, response rate, and toxic effects. A 2-tailed t test with a significance level of .05 was used for all comparisons. Findings: Overall, 3090 patients were included from 31 studies in the cisplatin-etoposide groups (median age, 61 years; 65% male; 40% squamous histology; median radiation dose, 63.0 Gy), and 3728 patients from 48 studies in carboplatin-paclitaxel groups (median age, 63 years; 65% male; 40% squamous histology; median radiation dose, 64.6 Gy). There was no significant difference in response rates between cisplatin-etoposide and carboplatin-paclitaxel (58% vs 56%; P = .26), respectively. For cisplatin-etoposide vs carboplatin-paclitaxel, there was no significant difference in median progression free survival (12 months vs 9.3 months; P = .20), overall survival (19.6 months vs 18.4 months; P = .40), or 3-year survival rate (31% vs 25%; P = .50). Cisplatin-etoposide was associated with higher grade 3 to 4 hematological toxic effects compared with carboplatin-paclitaxel (eg, neutropenia [54% vs 23%; P < .001] and grade 3/4 nausea/vomiting [20% vs 11%; P = .03]), while rates of grade 3 to 4 pneumonitis (12% vs 9%; P = .12) and esophagitis (23% vs 21%; P = .27) were similar. Conclusions and Relevance: Cisplatin-etoposide and carboplatin-paclitaxel regimens were associated with comparable efficacy when used with concurrent definitive radiotherapy for patients with stage III unresectable NSCLC. The toxic effect profiles favored the carboplatin-paclitaxel regimen.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/terapia , Quimiorradioterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carboplatina/uso terapêutico , Cisplatino/uso terapêutico , Etoposídeo/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Paclitaxel/uso terapêutico , Tórax
18.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 97(1): 128-137, 2017 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27979443

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To analyze outcomes and predictors associated with proton radiation therapy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in the National Cancer Database. METHODS AND MATERIALS: The National Cancer Database was queried to capture patients with stage I-IV NSCLC treated with thoracic radiation from 2004 to 2012. A logistic regression model was used to determine the predictors for utilization of proton radiation therapy. The univariate and multivariable association with overall survival were assessed by Cox proportional hazards models along with log-rank tests. A propensity score matching method was implemented to balance baseline covariates and eliminate selection bias. RESULTS: A total of 243,822 patients (photon radiation therapy: 243,474; proton radiation therapy: 348) were included in the analysis. Patients in a ZIP code with a median income of <$46,000 per year were less likely to receive proton treatment, with the income cohort of $30,000 to $35,999 least likely to receive proton therapy (odds ratio 0.63 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.44-0.90]; P=.011). On multivariate analysis of all patients, non-proton therapy was associated with significantly worse survival compared with proton therapy (hazard ratio 1.21 [95% CI 1.06-1.39]; P<.01). On propensity matched analysis, proton radiation therapy (n=309) was associated with better 5-year overall survival compared with non-proton radiation therapy (n=1549), 22% versus 16% (P=.025). For stage II and III patients, non-proton radiation therapy was associated with worse survival compared with proton radiation therapy (hazard ratio 1.35 [95% CI 1.10-1.64], P<.01). CONCLUSIONS: Thoracic radiation with protons is associated with better survival in this retrospective analysis; further validation in the randomized setting is needed to account for any imbalances in patient characteristics, including positron emission tomography-computed tomography staging.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/radioterapia , Bases de Dados Factuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Renda , Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , Fótons/uso terapêutico , Terapia com Prótons , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise de Variância , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Intervalos de Confiança , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/estatística & dados numéricos , Razão de Chances , Pontuação de Propensão , Terapia com Prótons/economia , Terapia com Prótons/mortalidade , Terapia com Prótons/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Viés de Seleção , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
19.
Clin Lung Cancer ; 17(3): 169-76, 2016 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27265742

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bavituximab is a phosphatidylserine-targeting antibody with a selective tumor, vascular-directed immune response. In this phase II trial the efficacy and safety of bavituximab combined with docetaxel for previously treated, advanced nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer were evaluated. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients were randomized 1:1:1 to receive docetaxel 75 mg/m(2) every 21 days for up to 6 cycles combined with weekly, blinded infusions of placebo, bavituximab 1 mg/kg, or bavituximab 3 mg/kg until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary end point was overall response rate (ORR), with a predefined end point of 26% in the bavituximab arms. After study unblinding, vial-coding discrepancies were discovered in the placebo and bavituximab 1 mg/kg groups. In exploratory analyses, data from these groups were pooled to form the control group and compared with the 3 mg/kg group. RESULTS: Efficacy end points in the bavituximab 3 mg/kg group (n = 41) and in the placebo/bavituximab 1 mg/kg group (n = 80), respectively, were as follows: ORR, 17.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.6%-28.6%) and ORR, 11.3% (95% CI, 4.3%-18.2%); median progression-free survival 4.5 and 3.3 months (hazard ratio [HR], 0.74 [95% CI, 0.45-1.21]; P = .24); median overall survival 11.7 and 7.3 months (HR, 0.66 [95% CI, 0.40-1.10]; P = .11). Toxicities were manageable and similar between arms. CONCLUSION: The combination of bavituximab and docetaxel is well tolerated. Although no firm efficacy conclusions can be drawn and the trial did not meet the predefined primary end point, exploratory analyses suggest trends favoring the combination of bavituximab 3 mg/kg with docetaxel. This regimen is being evaluated in the ongoing, global, phase III SUNRISE trial.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Taxoides/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Docetaxel , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Oncotarget ; 7(35): 56233-56240, 2016 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27191652

RESUMO

Recent success of using agents inhibiting the major immune check point, programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) pathway, offers a great promise for effective cancer therapy. Two blocking antibodies for PD-1, nivolumab and pembrolizumab have recently been approved for treating advanced recurrent non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Activation of PD-1 on T cells and PD-L1 on tumor cells or antigen presenting cells leads to T cell exhaustion and ultimately tumor growth. In this study, we performed flow cytometry analysis of peripheral blood samples collected from patients with advanced NSCLC at initial diagnosis. We report that surface expression of PD-1 on CD4+ T cells has a prognostic value in NSCLC patients, as high expression of PD-1 is associated with a shorter progression-free survival and overall survival. Importantly, we also found that high PD-1 expression on peripheral CD4+ T cells is associated with inferior clinical response in a subset of patients who received anti-PD-L1 treatment, indicating a potential predictive value of this marker. This work highlights the potential of a non-invasive and effective method to determine prognostic and predictive biomarkers for inhibiting the PD-1 pathway in NSCLC patients.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Células Apresentadoras de Antígenos/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/ultraestrutura , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/sangue , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/sangue , Resultado do Tratamento
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