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1.
JACC Heart Fail ; 7(12): 1022-1028, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779923

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The authors examined efficacy and safety of spironolactone by age in the Americas region (N = 1,767) of the TOPCAT (Treatment of Preserved Cardiac Function Heart Failure with an Aldosterone Antagonist) trial. BACKGROUND: Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction disproportionately affects older adults who may exhibit changes in physiology and variable pharmacokinetics. METHODS: TOPCAT enrolled patients with heart failure and a left ventricular ejection fraction ≥45% who were age 50 or older with an estimated glomerular filtration rate ≥30 mL/min/1.73 m2 and prior heart failure hospitalization or elevated natriuretic peptide levels. Participants were randomized to spironolactone or placebo with a mean follow-up duration of 3.3 years. We assessed treatment effect and safety by protocol-defined age categories (<65, 65 to 74, and ≥75 years). RESULTS: The mean age was 72 ± 10 years (range 50 to 97 years) with 41% over the age of 75 years. Participants ≥75 years were more commonly women and white and had a lower body mass index and estimated glomerular filtration rate compared with the younger age categories. Spironolactone reduced the primary composite outcome compared with placebo across all age categories (p interaction = 0.42). However, spironolactone was associated with an increased risk of the safety endpoint (hazard ratio: 2.54; 95% confidence interval: 1.91 to 3.37; p < 0.001), particularly in older age groups (p interaction = 0.02). Findings in the whole TOPCAT cohort were consistent with results from the Americas region. CONCLUSIONS: In this post hoc, exploratory analysis of the TOPCAT trial data from the Americas region, although there was no effect of age on efficacy, there were considerable effects of age on increased rates of adverse safety outcomes. These results should be weighed when considering spironolactone for older heart failure with preserved ejection fraction patients. (Treatment of Preserved Cardiac Function Heart Failure with an Aldosterone Antagonist [TOPCAT]; NCT00094302).

2.
J Card Fail ; 25(11): 866-874, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319165

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Changes in renal function have been associated with differential outcomes in patients with acute heart failure (HF). However, individual trajectories of changes in renal function are unknown, and it is unclear whether they relate to different clinical characteristics and clinical outcomes. Our aim was to investigate the prognostic importance of individual trajectories of change in renal function in acute HF. METHODS: This was a retrospective, observational analysis from the double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled PROTECT trial in patients with acute HF. We identified and internally validated 8 different renal trajectories among 1897 patients by visual inspection of inhospital serum creatinine changes. The primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality at 180 days. Mean age was 70 ± 12 years; 70% were male, and mean baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate was 49.0 mL/min/1.73m2. RESULTS: A total of 8 different trajectories was established. The most prevalent trajectories were an inhospital bump (19.0%), a sustained increase (17.6%) and a dip (14.5%) in serum creatinine. Overall, the clinical characteristics of patients in different trajectories were remarkably similar. Crude 180-day mortality rates ranged from 12.0% in the trajectory, with no significant changes to 18.3% in the trajectory of sustained increase without significant differences. Overall, after multivariable adjustment, there was no trajectory of changes in renal function that was associated with significantly better or worse outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Trajectories of changes in renal function in acute HF differ considerably on the patient level. Despite these differences, clinical characteristics and outcomes were similar, therefore, questioning the prognostic importance of changes in renal function in acute HF.

3.
JACC Heart Fail ; 7(1): 25-32, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30606484

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the association between baseline renal function and the net benefit of spironolactone in patients with heart failure (HF) with a preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). BACKGROUND: Guidelines recommend consideration of spironolactone to reduce HF hospitalization in HFpEF. However, spironolactone may increase risk for hyperkalemia and worsening renal function, particularly in patients with chronic kidney disease. METHODS: This investigation analyzed data from patients enrolled in the TOPCAT (Treatment of Preserved Cardiac Function Heart Failure With an Aldosterone Antagonist Trial) Americas study (N = 1,767) to examine the association between the baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and the primary composite outcome of cardiovascular death, HF hospitalization, or aborted cardiac arrest, as well as safety outcomes, including hyperkalemia, worsening renal function, and permanent drug discontinuation for adverse events (AEs). Variations in the efficacy and safety of spironolactone according to eGFR were examined in Cox models using interaction terms. RESULTS: The incidence of both the primary outcome and drug-related AEs increased with declining eGFR. Compared with placebo, across all eGFR categories, spironolactone was associated with lower relative risk for the primary efficacy outcome and for hypokalemia, but higher relative risk for hyperkalemia, worsening renal function, and drug discontinuation. During 4-year follow-up, the absolute risk for AEs that prompted drug discontinuation was amplified in the lower eGFR categories, which suggested heightened risk for drug intolerance with declining renal function. CONCLUSIONS: Although consistent efficacy of spironolactone was observed across the range of eGFR, the risk of AEs was amplified in the lower eGFR categories. These data supported use of spironolactone to treat HFpEF patients with advanced chronic kidney disease only when close laboratory surveillance is possible.

4.
Circ Heart Fail ; 11(11): e005312, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30571192

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Levels of cTn (cardiac troponin) are frequently elevated in patients with heart failure (HF) and reduced ejection fraction (EF) and correlate with the risk for mortality. However, factors associated with high cTn concentrations and the association with cardiovascular events in patients with HF and preserved EF are unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: Of 1767 subjects with symptomatic HF with preserved EF from the Americas part of the TOPCAT trial (Treatment of Preserved Cardiac Function Heart Failure With an Aldosterone Antagonist Trial), 236 underwent baseline measurements of high-sensitivity (hs) cTnI using the Abbott Architect STAT assay. Baseline factors correlated with hs-cTnI levels were assessed in stepwise linear regression models and the association between hs-cTnI and adjudicated study outcomes was examined in Cox models. The median hs-cTnI concentration at baseline was 6.3 ng/L (interquartile range, 3.4-12.9 ng/L) with levels detectable in 99.2% of patients. Higher hs-cTnI concentrations were associated with male sex, black race, lower estimated glomerular filtration rate and higher NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide) levels. After multivariable adjustment, higher concentrations of hs-cTnI were associated with greater risk for the composite of cardiovascular death or HF hospitalization (69 events during mean follow-up 2.6±1.5 years): hazard ratio 1.42 (95% CI, 1.20-1.69), P<0.001 per doubling of hs-cTnI. Compared with those in the lowest quartile of hs-cTnI, patients in the highest quartile demonstrated a nearly 5-fold higher risk of cardiovascular death and HF hospitalization (hazard ratio 4.85 [1.99-11.83], P=0.001). There was no interaction between hs-cTnI and spironolactone treatment with regard to the primary composite end point (interaction P=0.94). CONCLUSIONS: In ambulatory patients with HF with preserved EF, levels of hs-cTnI are higher in male patients with black race, lower estimated glomerular filtration rate, and higher NT-proBNP. As in those with HF and reduced EF, higher hs-cTnI levels are independently associated with risk for cardiovascular death and HF hospitalization. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT00094302.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/metabolismo , Troponina I/metabolismo , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Prognóstico , Espironolactona/uso terapêutico , Volume Sistólico/efeitos dos fármacos , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico
5.
Circ Heart Fail ; 10(2)2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28209765

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Renin-angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors significantly improve outcome in heart failure (HF) patients with reduced ejection fraction (HFREF), irrespective of the occurrence of worsening renal function (WRF). However, in HF patients with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF), RAAS inhibitors have not been shown to improve outcome but are still frequently prescribed. METHODS AND RESULTS: Random effect meta-analysis was performed to investigate the relationship between RAAS inhibitor therapy, WRF in both HF phenotypes, and mortality. Studies were selected based on literature search in MEDLNE and included randomized, placebo controlled trials of RAAS inhibitors in chronic HF. The primary outcome consisted of the interaction analysis for the association between RAAS inhibition-induced WRF, HF phenotype and outcome. A total of 8 studies (6 HFREF and 2 HFPEF, including 28 961 patients) were included in our analysis. WRF was more frequent in the RAAS inhibitor group, compared with the placebo group, in both HFREF and HFPEF. In HFREF, WRF induced by RAAS inhibitor therapy was associated with a less increased relative risk of mortality (relative risk, 1.19 (1.08-1.31); P<0.001), compared with WRF induced by placebo (relative risk, 1.48 (1.35-1.62); P<0.001; P for interaction 0.005). In contrast, WRF induced by RAAS inhibitor therapy was strongly associated with worse outcomes in HFPEF (relative risk, 1.78 (1.43-2.21); P<0.001), whereas placebo-induced WRF was not (relative risk, 1.25 (0.88-1.77); P=0.21; P for interaction 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: RAAS inhibitors induce renal dysfunction in both HFREF and HFPEF. However, in contrast to patients with HFREF where mortality increase with WRF is small, HFPEF patients with RAAS inhibitor-induced WRF have an increased mortality risk, without experiencing improved outcome with RAAS inhibition.


Assuntos
Bloqueadores do Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina II/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/efeitos dos fármacos , Volume Sistólico/efeitos dos fármacos , Função Ventricular Esquerda/efeitos dos fármacos , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/efeitos dos fármacos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Rim/fisiopatologia , Razão de Chances , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
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