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1.
Clin Epigenetics ; 13(1): 44, 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33632299

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trimethylation of lysine 27 and dimethylation of lysine 9 of histone-H3 catalyzed by the histone methyltransferases EZH2 and G9a impede gene transcription in cancer. Our human bronchial epithelial (HBEC) pre-malignancy model studied the role of these histone modifications in transformation. Tobacco carcinogen transformed HBEC lines were characterized for cytosine DNA methylation, transcriptome reprogramming, and the effect of inhibiting EZH2 and G9a on the transformed phenotype. The effects of targeting EZH2 and G9a on lung cancer prevention was assessed in the A/J mouse lung tumor model. RESULTS: Carcinogen exposure induced transformation and DNA methylation of 12-96 genes in the four HBEC transformed (T) lines that was perpetuated in malignant tumors. In contrast, 506 unmethylated genes showed reduced expression in one or more HBECTs with many becoming methylated in tumors. ChIP-on-chip for HBEC2T identified 327 and 143 genes enriched for H3K27me3 and H3K9me2. Treatment of HBEC2T and HBEC13T with DZNep, a lysine methyltransferase inhibitor depleted EZH2, reversed transformation, and induced transcriptional reprogramming. The EZH2 small molecule inhibitor EPZ6438 also affected transformation and expression in HBEC2T, while a G9a inhibitor, UNC0642 was ineffective. Genetic knock down of EZH2 dramatically reduced carcinogen-induced transformation of HBEC2. Only DZNep treatment prevented progression of hyperplasia to adenomas in the NNK mouse lung tumor model through reducing EZH2 and affecting the expression of genes regulating cell growth and invasion. CONCLUSION: These studies demonstrate a critical role for EZH2 catalyzed histone modifications for premalignancy and its potential as a target for chemoprevention of lung carcinogenesis.

2.
Toxicol Sci ; 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33226417

RESUMO

Electronic cigarettes are the most commonly used nicotine containing product among teenagers. The oral epithelium is the first site of exposure and our recent work revealed considerable diversity among e-liquids for composition and level of chemical constituents that impact nicotine deposition in a human oral-trachea cast and affect the formation of reactive carbonyls. Here we evaluate the dose response for cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of e-cigarette-generated aerosols from ten diverse flavored e-liquid products with and without nicotine compared to unflavored in three immortalized oral epithelial cell lines. Three e-liquids, Blue Pucker, Love Potion, and Jamestown caused ≥20% cell toxicity assessed by the neutral red uptake assay. Nine products induced significant levels of oxidative stress up to 2.4-fold quantified by the ROS-Glo assay in at least one cell line, with dose response seen for Love Potion with and without nicotine across all cell lines. Lipid peroxidation detected by the TBARs assay was less common among products; however, dose response increases up to 12-fold were seen for individual cell lines. Micronuclei formation indicative of genotoxicity was increased up to 5-fold for some products. Blue Pucker was the most genotoxic e-liquid, inducing micronuclei across all cell lines irrespective of nicotine status. A potency score derived from all assays identified Blue Pucker and Love Potion as the most hazardous e-liquids. These in vitro acute exposure studies provide new insight about the potential for some flavored vaping products to induce significant levels of oxidative stress and genotoxicity.

3.
Toxicol Sci ; 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33021639

RESUMO

There has been limited toxicity testing of cigarillos, including comparison to cigarettes. The present study compared the smoke chemistry and the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of ten conventional cigarettes and ten cigarillos based on the greatest market share. Whole smoke and total particulate matter (TPM) were generated using the Canadian Intense (CI) and International Organization for Standardization (ISO) puffing protocols. Tobacco specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), carbonyls, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured using GC-MS. TPM smoke extracts were used for the in vitro assays. Cytotoxicity was assessed in HBEC4 cells using the neutral red uptake assay. Genotoxic potential was assessed using the micronucleus (MN; A549 cells), Ames, and thymidine kinase (TK) assays. TPM from all cigarillos tested was more cytotoxic than cigarettes. MN formation was significantly greater for cigarillos compared to cigarettes at the highest dose of TPM, with or without rat liver S9 fraction. In the Ames test +S9, both tobacco products exhibited significant dose-dependent increases in mutation frequency (MF), indicating metabolic activation is required for genotoxicity. In the TK assay +S9, cigarillos showed a significantly enhanced MF although both tobacco products were positive. The levels of all measured PAHs, TSNAs, and carbonyls (except acrolein) were significantly greater in cigarillos than cigarettes. The CI puffing protocol demonstrated increased smoke constituent levels compared to ISO. Even though the gas vapor phase was not tested, the results of this study showed that under the tested conditions the investigated cigarillos showed greater toxicity than comparator cigarettes. This study found that there is significantly greater toxicity in the tested US marketed cigarillos than cigarettes for tobacco constituent levels, cytotoxicity, and genotoxicity. These findings are important for understanding the human health toxicity from the use of cigarillos relative to cigarettes and for building upon knowledge regarding harm from cigarillos to inform risk mitigation strategies.

4.
Lung Cancer ; 146: 189-196, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32559455

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Smoking is a common risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer. Although COPD patients have higher risk of lung cancer compared to non-COPD smokers, the molecular links between these diseases are not well-defined. This study aims to identify genes that are downregulated by cigarette smoke and commonly repressed in COPD and lung cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Primary human airway epithelial cells (HAEC) were exposed to cigarette-smoke-extract (CSE) for 10-weeks and significantly suppressed genes were identified by transcriptome array. Epigenetic abnormalities of these genes in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) from patients with or without COPD were determined using genome-wide and gene-specific assays and by in vitro treatment of cell lines with trichostatin-A or 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine. RESULTS: The ten most commonly downregulated genes following chronic CSE exposure of HAEC and show promoter hypermethylation in LUAD were selected. Among these, expression of CCNA1, SNCA, and ZNF549 was significantly reduced in lung tissues from COPD compared with non-COPD cases while expression of CCNA1 and SNCA was further downregulated in tumors with COPD. The promoter regions of all three genes were hypermethylated in LUAD but not normal or COPD lungs. The reduced expression and aberrant promoter hypermethylation of these genes in LUAD were independently validated using data from the Cancer Genome Atlas project. Importantly, SNCA and ZNF549 methylation detected in sputum DNA from LUAD (52% and 38%) cases were more prevalent compared to cancer-free smokers (26% and 15%), respectively (p < 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that suppression of CCNA1, SNCA, and ZNF549 in lung cancer and COPD occurs with or without promoter hypermethylation, respectively. Detecting methylation of these and previously identified genes in sputum of cancer-free smokers may serve as non-invasive biomarkers for early detection of lung cancer among high risk smokers including COPD patients.

5.
Tob Control ; 2020 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32587113

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The diversity of e-liquids along with higher powered e-cigarette nicotine delivery devices are increasing. This study evaluated the effect of voltage and e-liquid composition on particle size, nicotine deposition in a human oral-trachea cast model and generation of carbonyls. METHODS: Nineteen e-liquids were evaluated for 30 common chemicals by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). E-cigarette aerosols containing nicotine (1.2%) were generated at 4 and 5 volts for assessment of particle size distribution using Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (APS), Fast Mobility Particle Size (FMPS) and an In-Tox cascade impactor and nicotine deposition by GC-MS. Carbonyl formation in aerosols was assessed by liquid chromatography tandem triple-quad mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Total chemical burden ranged from 0.35 to 14.6 mg/mL with ethyl maltol present in all e-liquids. Increasing voltage was associated with an increase in median size of aerosol particles and the deposition of nicotine in the oral cast. Two e-liquids caused a 2.5-fold to 5-fold increase in nicotine deposition independent of particle size and voltage. Increasing voltage caused an increase in formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein in the presence and absence of nicotine. Most striking, aerosols from several e-liquids significantly increased levels of acetaldehyde and acrolein compared with unflavoured. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing voltage and composition of e-liquid can increase the exposure of the oral pharynx and bronchial airways to carbonyls that can react with DNA to generate adducts, induce oxidative stress, inflammation and cell death. The elevated nicotine and carbonyls readily enter the circulation where they can also cause cardiovascular stress. The growing popularity of higher voltage e-cigarette delivery devices will likely further elevate health risks from chronic exposure to these complex aerosols.

6.
Arch Toxicol ; 94(3): 761-771, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32076763

RESUMO

Carbon black (CB) particulates as virtually pure elemental carbon can deposit deep in the lungs of humans. International Agency for Research on Cancer classified CB as a Group 2B carcinogen due to inconclusive human evidence. A molecular epidemiological study was conducted in an established cohort of CB packers (CBP) to assess associations between CB exposure and genomic instability in peripheral lymphocytes using cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMN). Carbon content in airway macrophages (CCAM) was quantified as a bio-effective dosimeter for chronic CB exposure. Dose-response observed in CBPs was compared to that seen in workers exposed to diesel exhaust. The association between CB exposure status and CBMN endpoints was identified in 85 CBPs and 106 non-CBPs from a 2012 visit and replicated in 127 CBPs and 105 non-CBPs from a 2018 visit. The proportion of cytoplasm area occupied by carbon particles in airway macrophages was over fivefold higher in current CBPs compared to non-CBPs and was associated with CBMN endpoints in a dose-dependent manner. CB aerosol and diesel exhaust shared the same potency of inducing genomic instability in workers. Circulatory pro-inflammatory factors especially TNF-α was found to mediate associations between CB exposure and CBMN endpoints. In vitro functional validation supported the role of TNF-α in inducing genomic instability. An estimated range of lower limits of benchmark dose of 4.19-7.28% of CCAM was recommended for risk assessment. Chronic CB exposure increased genomic instability in human circulation and this provided novel evidence supporting its reclassification as a human carcinogen.

7.
Br J Cancer ; 122(8): 1194-1204, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32103148

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epigenetic therapy through demethylation of 5-methylcytosine has been largely ineffective in treating lung cancer, most likely due to poor tissue distribution with oral or subcutaneous delivery of drugs such as 5-azacytidine (5AZA). An inhalable, stable dry powder formulation of 5AZA was developed. METHODS: Pharmacokinetics of inhaled dry powder and aqueous formulations of 5AZA were compared to an injected formulation. Efficacy studies and effect of therapy on the epigenome were conducted in an orthotopic rat lung cancer model for inhaled formulations. RESULTS: Inhaled dry powder 5AZA showed superior pharmacokinetic properties in lung, liver, brain and blood compared to the injected formulation and for all tissues except lung compared to an inhaled aqueous formulation. Only dry powder 5AZA was detected in brain (~4-h half-life). Inhaled dry powder was superior to inhaled aqueous 5AZA in reducing tumour burden 70-95%. Superiority of inhaled 5AZA dry powder was linked to effectively reprogramming the cancer genome through demethylation and gene expression changes in cancer signalling and immune pathways. CONCLUSIONS: These findings could lead to widespread use of this drug as the first inhaled dry powder therapeutic for treating local and metastatic lung cancer, for adjuvant therapy, and in combination with immunotherapy to improve patient survival.

8.
Transl Oncol ; 13(2): 372-382, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887632

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents in killing cancer cells is mainly attributed to the induction of apoptosis. However, the tremendous efforts on enhancing apoptosis-related mechanisms have only moderately improved lung cancer chemotherapy, suggesting that other cell death mechanisms such as necroptosis could be involved. In this study, we investigated the role of the necroptosis pathway in the responsiveness of nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) to chemotherapy. METHODS: In vitro cell culture and in vivo xenograft tumor therapy models and clinical sample studies are combined in studying the role of necroptosis in chemotherapy and mechanism of necroptosis suppression involving RIP3 expression regulation. RESULTS: While chemotherapeutic drugs were able to induce necroptotic cell death, this pathway was suppressed in lung cancer cells at least partly through downregulation of RIP3 expression. Ectopic RIP3 expression significantly sensitized lung cancer cells to the cytotoxicity of anticancer drugs such as cisplatin, etoposide, vincristine, and adriamycin. In addition, RIP3 suppression was associated with RIP3 promoter methylation, and demethylation partly restored RIP3 expression and increased chemotherapeutic-induced necroptotic cell death. In a xenograft tumor therapy model, ectopic RIP3 expression significantly sensitized anticancer activity of cisplatin in vivo. Furthermore, lower RIP3 expression was associated with worse chemotherapy response in NSCLC patients. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that the necroptosis pathway is suppressed in lung cancer through RIP3 promoter methylation, and reactivating this pathway should be exploited for improving lung cancer chemotherapy.

9.
Transl Oncol ; 13(1): 32-41, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31760267

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Escaping cell death pathways is an important event during carcinogenesis. We previously identified anti-TNFα-induced apoptosis (ATIA, also known as vasorin) as an antiapoptotic factor that suppresses reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. However, the role of vasorin in lung carcinogenesis has not been investigated. METHODS: Vasorin expression was examined in human lung cancer tissues with immunohistochemistry and database analysis. Genetic and pharmacological approaches were used to manipulate protein expression and autophagy activity in human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs). ROS generation was measured with fluorescent indicator, apoptosis with release of lactate dehydrogenase, and cell transformation was assessed with colony formation in soft agar. RESULTS: Vasorin expression was increased in human lung cancer tissues and cell lines, which was inversely associated with lung cancer patient survival. Cigarette smoke extract (CSE) and benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide (BPDE)-induced vasorin expression in HBECs. Vasorin knockdown in HBECs significantly suppressed CSE-induced transformation in association with enhanced ROS accumulation and autophagy. Scavenging ROS attenuated autophagy and cytotoxicity in vasorin knockdown cells, suggesting that vasorin potentiates transformation by impeding ROS-mediated CSE cytotoxicity and improving survival of the premalignant cells. Suppression of autophagy effectively inhibited CSE-induced apoptosis, suggesting that autophagy was pro-apoptotic in CSE-treated cells. Importantly, blocking autophagy strongly potentiated CSE-induced transformation. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that vasorin is a potential lung cancer-promoting factor that facilitates cigarette smoke-induced bronchial epithelial cell transformation by suppressing autophagy-mediated apoptosis, which could be exploited for lung cancer prevention.

10.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 10: 612360, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33614527

RESUMO

Background: The role of lung epithelial cells in HIV-1-related lung comorbidities remains unclear, and the major hurdle in curing HIV is the persistence of latent HIV reservoirs in people living with HIV (PLWH). The advent of combined antiretroviral therapy has considerably increased the life span; however, the incidence of chronic lung diseases is significantly higher among PLWH. Lung epithelial cells orchestrate the respiratory immune responses and whether these cells are productively infected by HIV-1 is debatable. Methods: Normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBEs) grown on air-liquid interface were infected with X4-tropic HIV-1LAV and examined for latency using latency-reversing agents (LRAs). The role of CD4 and CXCR4 HIV coreceptors in NHBEs were tested, and DNA sequencing analysis was used to analyze the genomic integration of HIV proviral genes, Alu-HIVgag-pol, HIV-nef, and HIV-LTR. Lung epithelial sections from HIV-infected humans and SHIV-infected macaques were analyzed by FISH for HIV-gag-pol RNA and epithelial cell-specific immunostaining. Results and Discussion: NHBEs express CD4 and CXCR4 at higher levels than A549 cells. NHBEs are infected with HIV-1 basolaterally, but not apically, by X4-tropic HIV-1LAV in a CXCR4/CD4-dependent manner leading to HIV-p24 antigen production; however, NHBEs are induced to express CCR5 by IL-13 treatment. In the presence of cART, HIV-1 induces latency and integration of HIV provirus in the cellular DNA, which is rescued by the LRAs (endotoxin/vorinostat). Furthermore, lung epithelial cells from HIV-infected humans and SHIV-infected macaques contain HIV-specific RNA transcripts. Thus, lung epithelial cells are targeted by HIV-1 and could serve as potential HIV reservoirs that may contribute to the respiratory comorbidities in PLWH.

11.
J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv ; 32(5): 266-277, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347939

RESUMO

Background: This study evaluated the antineoplastic and immunostimulatory effects of inhaled (IH) submicron particle paclitaxel (NanoPac®) in an orthotopic non-small cell lung cancer rodent model. Methods: Male nude rats were whole body irradiated, intratracheally instilled with Calu-3 cancer cells and divided into six treatment arms (n = 20 each): no treatment (Group 1); intravenous nab-paclitaxel at 5.0 mg/kg once weekly for 3 weeks (Group 2); IH NanoPac at 0.5 or 1.0 mg/kg, once weekly for 4 weeks (Groups 3 and 4), or twice weekly for 4 weeks (Groups 5 and 6). Upon necropsy, left lungs were paraffin embedded, serially sectioned, and stained for histopathological examination. A subset was evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC), anti-pan cytokeratin staining AE1/AE3+ tumor cells and CD11b+ staining dendritic cells, natural killer lymphocytes, and macrophage immune cells (n = 2, Group 1; n = 3 each for Groups 2-6). BCL-6 staining identified B lymphocytes (n = 1 in Groups 1, 2, and 6). Results: All animals survived to scheduled necropsy, exhibited no adverse clinical observations due to treatment, and gained weight at the same rate throughout the study. Histopathological evaluation of Group 1 lung samples was consistent with unabated tumor growth. Group 2 exhibited regression in 10% of animals (n = 2/20). IH NanoPac-treated groups exhibited significantly higher tumor regression incidence per group (n = 11-13/20; p < 0.05, χ2). IHC subset analysis revealed tumor-nodule cluster separation, irregular borders between tumor and non-neoplastic tissue, and an increased density of infiltrating CD11b+ cells in Group 2 animals (n = 2/3) and in all IH NanoPac-treated animals reviewed (n = 3/3 per group). A single animal in Group 4 and Group 6 exhibited signs of pathological complete response at necropsy with organizing stroma and immune cells replacing areas presumed to have previously contained adenocarcinoma nodules. Conclusion: Tumor regression and immune cell infiltration were observed in all treatment groups, with an increased incidence noted in animals receiving IH submicron particle paclitaxel treatment.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Paclitaxel/administração & dosagem , Administração por Inalação , Albuminas/administração & dosagem , Animais , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Paclitaxel/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Nus
12.
DNA Repair (Amst) ; 79: 1-9, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31055244

RESUMO

The expression of DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKc) is highly variable in smokers and reduced enzyme activity has been associated with risk for lung cancer. An in vitro model of lung pre-malignancy was used to evaluate the role of double-strand break DNA repair capacity in transformation of hTERT/CDK4 immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) and reprograming of the epigenome. Here we show that knockdown of DNA-PKc to levels simulating haploinsufficiency dramatically reduced DNA repair capacity following challenge with bleomycin and significantly increased transformation efficiency of HBEC lines exposed weekly for 12 weeks to this radiomimetic. Transformed HBEC lines with wild type or knockdown of DNA-PKc showed altered expression of more than 1,000 genes linked to major cell regulatory pathways involved in lung cancer. While lung cancer driver mutations were not detected in transformed clones, more than 300 genes that showed reduced expression associated with promoter methylation in transformed clones or predictive for methylation in malignant tumors were identified. These studies support reduced DNA repair capacity as a key factor in the initiation and clonal expansion of pre-neoplastic cells and double-strand break DNA damage as causal for epigenetic mediated silencing of many lung cancer-associated genes. The fact that DNA damage, repair, and epigenetic silencing of genes are causal for many other cancers that include colon and prostate extends the generalizability and impact of these findings.


Assuntos
Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Metilação de DNA , Reparo do DNA , Proteína Quinase Ativada por DNA/genética , Epigênese Genética , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Bleomicina/farmacologia , Brônquios/citologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Haploinsuficiência , Humanos , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Mucosa Respiratória/metabolismo , Mucosa Respiratória/patologia
13.
Mol Carcinog ; 58(6): 1046-1055, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30790354

RESUMO

Platinum anticancer agents are essential components in chemotherapeutic regimens for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients ineligible for targeted therapy. However, platinum-based regimens have reached a plateau of therapeutic efficacy; therefore, it is critical to implement novel approaches for improvement. The hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP), which produces amino-sugar N-acetyl-glucosamine for protein glycosylation, is important for protein function and cell survival. Here we show a beneficial effect by the combination of cisplatin with HBP inhibition. Expression of glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase (GFAT), the rate-limiting enzyme of HBP, was increased in NSCLC cell lines and tissues. Pharmacological inhibition of GFAT activity or knockdown of GFATimpaired cell proliferation and exerted synergistic or additive cytotoxicity to the cells treated with cisplatin. Mechanistically, GFAT positively regulated the expression of binding immunoglobulin protein (BiP; also known as glucose-regulated protein 78, GRP78), an endoplasmic reticulum chaperone involved in unfolded protein response (UPR). Suppressing GFAT activity resulted in downregulation of BiP that activated inositol-requiring enzyme 1α, a sensor protein of UPR, and exacerbated cisplatin-induced cell apoptosis. These data identify GFAT-mediated HBP as a target for improving platinum-based chemotherapy for NSCLC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Diazo-Oxo-Norleucina/farmacologia , Glutamina-Frutose-6-Fosfato Transaminase (Isomerizante)/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Células A549 , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Baixo , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hexosaminas/biossíntese , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico
14.
Nat Genet ; 51(3): 494-505, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804561

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the leading cause of respiratory mortality worldwide. Genetic risk loci provide new insights into disease pathogenesis. We performed a genome-wide association study in 35,735 cases and 222,076 controls from the UK Biobank and additional studies from the International COPD Genetics Consortium. We identified 82 loci associated with P < 5 × 10-8; 47 of these were previously described in association with either COPD or population-based measures of lung function. Of the remaining 35 new loci, 13 were associated with lung function in 79,055 individuals from the SpiroMeta consortium. Using gene expression and regulation data, we identified functional enrichment of COPD risk loci in lung tissue, smooth muscle, and several lung cell types. We found 14 COPD loci shared with either asthma or pulmonary fibrosis. COPD genetic risk loci clustered into groups based on associations with quantitative imaging features and comorbidities. Our analyses provide further support for the genetic susceptibility and heterogeneity of COPD.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Asma/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/genética , Loci Gênicos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fibrose Pulmonar/genética , Fumar/genética
15.
Cancer Res ; 79(8): 1758-1768, 2019 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30622117

RESUMO

The role of transcriptional regulator ten-eleven translocation methylcytosine dioxygenease 1 (TET1) has not been well characterized in lung cancer. Here we show that TET1 is overexpressed in adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinomas. TET1 knockdown reduced cell growth in vitro and in vivo and induced transcriptome reprogramming independent of its demethylating activity to affect key cancer signaling pathways. Wild-type p53 bound the TET1 promoter to suppress transcription, while p53 transversion mutations were most strongly associated with high TET1 expression. Knockdown of TET1 in p53-mutant cell lines induced senescence through a program involving generalized genomic instability manifested by DNA single- and double-strand breaks and induction of p21 that was synergistic with cisplatin and doxorubicin. These data identify TET1 as an oncogene in lung cancer whose gain of function via loss of p53 may be exploited through targeted therapy-induced senescence. SIGNIFICANCE: These studies identify TET1 as an oncogene in lung cancer whose gain of function following loss of p53 may be exploited by targeted therapy-induced senescence.See related commentary by Kondo, p. 1751.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Senescência Celular , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Oxigenases de Função Mista , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas
16.
Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol ; 60(6): 659-666, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30562054

RESUMO

Altered expression of syndecan-2 (SDC2), a heparan sulfate proteoglycan, has been associated with diverse types of human cancers. However, the mechanisms by which SDC2 may contribute to the pathobiology of lung adenocarcinoma have not been previously explored. SDC2 levels were measured in human lung adenocarcinoma samples and lung cancer tissue microarrays using immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR. To understand the role of SDC2 in vitro, SDC2 was silenced or overexpressed in A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells. The invasive capacity of cells was assessed using Matrigel invasion assays and measuring matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 9 expression. Finally, we assessed tumor growth and metastasis of SDC2-deficient A549 cells in a xenograft tumor model. SDC2 expression was upregulated in malignant epithelial cells and macrophages obtained from human lung adenocarcinomas. Silencing of SDC2 decreased MMP9 expression and attenuated the invasive capacity of A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells. The inhibitory effect of SDC2 silencing on MMP9 expression and cell invasion was reversed by overexpression of MMP9 and syntenin-1. SDC2 silencing attenuated NF-κB p65 subunit nuclear translocation and its binding to the MMP9 promoter, which were restored by overexpression of syntenin-1. SDC2 silencing in vivo reduced tumor mass volume and metastasis. These findings suggest that SDC2 plays an important role in the invasive properties of lung adenocarcinoma cells and that its effects are mediated by syntenin-1. Thus, inhibiting SDC2 expression or activity could serve as a potential therapeutic target to treat lung adenocarcinoma.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Sindecana-2/metabolismo , Células A549 , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/genética , Animais , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Inativação Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , Camundongos SCID , Invasividade Neoplásica , Sinteninas/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição RelA/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/genética
17.
Carcinogenesis ; 40(1): 61-69, 2019 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30321299

RESUMO

Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease, characterized by molecularly and phenotypically distinct tumor subtypes, linked to disparate clinical outcomes. American women of African ancestry (AA) are more likely than those of European ancestry (EA) to be diagnosed with aggressive, estrogen receptor negative (ER-) or triple negative breast cancer, and to die of this disease. However, the underlying causes of AA predisposition to ER-/triple negative breast cancer are still largely unknown. In this study, we performed high-throughput whole-genome miRNA expression profiling in breast tissue samples from both AA and EA women. A number of differentially expressed miRNAs, i.e., DEmiRs defined as >2-fold change in expression and false discovery rate <0.05, were identified as up- or downregulated by tumor ER status or by ancestry. We found that among 102 ER-subtype-related DEmiRs identified in breast tumors, the majority of these DEmiRs were race specific, with only 23 DEmiRs shared in tumors from both AAs and EAs; this finding indicates that there are unique subsets of miRNAs differentially expressed between ER- and ER positive tumors within AAs versus EAs. Our overall results support the notion that miRNA expression patterns may differ not only by tumor subtype but by ancestry, indicating differences in tumor biology and heterogeneity of breast cancer between AAs and EAs. These results will provide the basis for further functional analysis to elucidate biological differences between AAs and EAs and to help develop targeted treatment strategies to reduce disparities in breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , MicroRNAs/análise , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptores Estrogênicos/análise
18.
J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv ; 32(2): 99-109, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30359162

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inhaled chemotherapeutics may enhance pulmonary drug exposure to malignant lesions in the lung without substantially contributing to systemic toxicities. The pharmacokinetic profile of inhaled submicron particle paclitaxel (NanoPac®) in healthy rodent plasma and lung tissue is evaluated here to determine administration proof-of-principle. METHODS: Healthy male Sprague Dawley rats received paclitaxel in one of three arms: intravenous nab-paclitaxel at 2.9 mg/kg (IVnP), inhaled NanoPac low dose (IHNP-LD) at 0.38 mg/kg, or inhaled NanoPac high dose (IHNP-HD) at 1.18 mg/kg. Plasma and lung tissue paclitaxel concentrations were determined using ultraperformance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry from animals sacrificed at 10 time points ranging up to 2 weeks after administration. Peak concentration (Cmax), apparent residence half-life (T1/2), exposure (AUC(last)), and dose-normalized exposure (AUCD(last)) were determined. Pulmonary histopathology was performed on rats sacrificed at the 336-hour time point. RESULTS: Paclitaxel was detectable and quantifiable in the rat lung for both inhaled NanoPac arms sampled at the final necropsy, 336 hours postadministration. Substantial paclitaxel deposition and retention resulted in an order of magnitude increase in dose-normalized pulmonary exposure over IVnP. Inhaled NanoPac arms had an order of magnitude lower plasma Cmax than IVnP, but followed a similar plasma T1/2 clearance (quantifiable only to 72 hours postadministration). Pulmonary histopathology found all treated animals indistinguishable from treatment-naive rats. CONCLUSION: In the rodent model, inhaled NanoPac demonstrated substantial deposition and retention of paclitaxel in sampled lung tissue. Further research to determine NanoPac's toxicity profile and potential efficacy as lung cancer therapy is underway.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/administração & dosagem , Pulmão/metabolismo , Paclitaxel/administração & dosagem , Administração por Inalação , Albuminas/administração & dosagem , Albuminas/farmacocinética , Animais , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacocinética , Área Sob a Curva , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Meia-Vida , Masculino , Paclitaxel/farmacocinética , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Fatores de Tempo , Distribuição Tecidual
19.
Lung Cancer ; 123: 99-106, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30089603

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Lung adenocarcinoma in never-smokers accounts for 15-20% of all lung cancer. Although targetable mutations are more prevalent in these tumors, the biological and clinical importance of coexisting and/or mutually exclusive abnormalities is just emerging. This study evaluates the relationships between common genetic and epigenetic aberrations in these tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Next-generation sequencing was employed to screen 20 commonly mutated cancer-driver genes in 112 lung adenocarcinomas from never-smokers. The relationship of these mutations with cancer-related methylation of 59 genes, and geographical/ethnic differences in the prevalence for mutations compared to multiple East Asian never-smoker lung adenocarcinoma cohorts was studied. RESULTS: The most common driver mutation detected in 40% (45/112) of the tumors was EGFR, followed by TP53 (18%), SETD2 (11%), and SMARCA4 (11%). Over 72% (81/112) of the cases have mutation of at least one driver gene. While 30% (34/112) of the tumors have co-mutations of two or more genes, 42% (47/112) have only one driver gene mutation. Differences in the prevalence for some of these mutations were seen between adenocarcinomas in East Asian versus US (mainly Caucasian) never-smokers including a significantly lower rate of EGFR mutation among the US patients. Interestingly, aberrant methylation of multiple cancer-related genes was significantly associated with EGFR wildtype tumors. Among 15 differentially methylated genes by EGFR mutation, 14 were more commonly methylated in EGFR wildtype compared to mutant tumors. These findings were independently validated using publicly available data. CONCLUSION: Most lung adenocarcinomas from never-smokers harbor targetable mutation/co-mutations. In the absence of EGFR mutation that drives 40% of these tumors, EGFR wildtype tumors appear to develop by acquiring aberrant promoter methylation that silences tumor-suppressor genes.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/etiologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Metilação de DNA , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação , Oncogenes , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alelos , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Adulto Jovem
20.
Drug Deliv ; 25(1): 1127-1136, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29779406

RESUMO

Intravenous (IV) topotecan is approved for the treatment of various malignancies including lung cancer but its clinical use is greatly undermined by severe hematopoietic toxicity. We hypothesized that inhalation delivery of topotecan would increase local exposure and efficacy against lung cancer while reducing systemic exposure and toxicity. These hypotheses were tested in a preclinical setting using a novel inhalable formulation of topotecan against the standard IV dose. Respirable dry-powder of topotecan was manufactured through spray-drying technology and the pharmacokinetics of 0.14 and 0.79 mg/kg inhalation doses were compared with 0.7 mg/kg IV dose. The efficacy of four weekly treatments with 1 mg/kg inhaled vs. 2 mg/kg IV topotecan were compared to untreated control using an established orthotopic lung cancer model for a fast (H1975) and moderately growing (A549) human lung tumors in the nude rat. Inhalation delivery increased topotecan exposure of lung tissue by approximately 30-fold, lung and plasma half-life by 5- and 4-folds, respectively, and reduced the maximum plasma concentration by 2-fold than the comparable IV dose. Inhaled topotecan improved the survival of rats with the fast-growing lung tumors from 7 to 80% and reduced the tumor burden of the moderately-growing lung tumors over 5- and 10-folds, respectively, than the 2-times higher IV topotecan and untreated control (p < .00001). These results indicate that inhalation delivery increases topotecan exposure of lung tissue and improves its efficacy against lung cancer while also lowering the effective dose and maximum systemic concentration that is responsible for its dose-limiting toxicity.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Topotecan/administração & dosagem , Células A549 , Administração por Inalação , Administração Intravenosa/métodos , Animais , Inaladores de Pó Seco/métodos , Humanos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Tamanho da Partícula , Pós/administração & dosagem , Ratos , Ratos Nus
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