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1.
Vaccine ; 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33127187

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antenatal care providers have a key role in providing appropriate information and immunization recommendations to improve pregnant women's vaccine uptake. The objective of this study is to describe health care providers' perspectives and experience regarding the implementation of maternal immunization programs in Latin America. METHODS: We conducted 33 in-depth interviews of health care providers from Argentina, Brazil, Honduras, Mexico, and Peru (6-7 per country). Qualitative data analysis was conducted using a combination of both manual techniques and the computer software program NVivo. We identified and coded main themes related to maternal immunization. RESULTS: The main themes identified in this analysis were practices related to maternal immunization, knowledge and training, resource availability and interactions with pregnant women. Healthcare providers knew that recommendations exists but some did not know their content; they expressed concerns about insufficient training. Providers from all five countries expressed the need for additional human resources and supplies. They also expressed a desire for women to be more proactive and ask more questions during the health visits. CONCLUSION: This is the first multi-country study assessing the perspectives of health care providers about maternal immunization practices at the facility level in Latin America. Recommendations based on the results from this study include implementing additional trainings around maternal immunization, especially targeting obstetricians and midwives. These trainings should be conducted in coordination with improvements to supply chain and other structural issues.

2.
Vaccine ; 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32972734

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal immunization rates and vaccine uptake in Latin America vary from country to country. This variability stems from factors related to pregnant women, vaccine recommendations from healthcare providers and the health system. The aim of this paper is to describe women's knowledge and attitudes to maternal immunziation, and barriers to access and vaccination related decision-making processes in Latin American countries. METHODS: We conducted focus group discussions (FGD) with pregnant women in five middle-income countries: Argentina, Brazil, Honduras, Mexico and Peru, between July 2016 and July 2018. The FGDs were conducted by trained qualitative researchers in diverse clinics located in the capital cities of these countries. RESULTS: A total of 162 pregnant women participated in the FGDs. In general, participants were aware of the recommendation to receive vaccines during pregnancy but lacked knowledge regarding the diseases prevented by these vaccines. Pregnant women expressed a desire for clearer and more detailed communication on maternal vaccines by their healthcare professionals instead of relying on other sources of information such as the internet. Overall, participants had positive attitudes towards maternal immunization and were open to receiving vaccines in pregnancy based on general trust they have in recommendations made by their healthcare providers. The main obstacles pregnant women said they encounter were mainly centered around their clinical experience: long waiting times, vaccine shortages, and impolite behavior of healthcare providers or clinical staff. CONCLUSION: Important advances have been made in Latin America to promote maternal immunization. Results from this study show that an important aspect that remains to be addressed, and is crucial in improving vaccine uptake in pregnancy, is women's clinical experience. We recommend pregnant women to be treated as a priority population for providing immunization and related healthcare education. It is imperative to train healthcare providers in health communication so they can effectively communicate with pregnant women regarding maternal vaccines and can fill knowledge gaps that otherwise might be covered by unreliable sources dispensing inaccurate information.

3.
BMC Womens Health ; 20(1): 199, 2020 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32919474

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during pregnancy has severe consequences on the new-born. The World Health Organization declared the Zika outbreak to be a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) in 2016. Health facilities in the regions most affected by Zika lacked the capacity to respond to the increased demand for contraception. The objectives were to explore healthcare users' perceptions regarding contraception, Zika prevention during pregnancy and post-abortion care (PAC) services in the context of a Zika outbreak in Tegucigalpa, Honduras, and to follow these services over time. METHODS: This study was part of a broader implementation research study. We used qualitative research consistent with grounded theory approach. Semi-structured interviews and focus groups were performed with women and their partners who used contraceptive services or received PAC services. Data were collected in two stages from December 2017 to July 2018. Themes explored included contraception, Zika and PAC services. RESULTS: Participants had positive attitude towards the use of contraceptive methods and demanded more information on safety, efficacy and on side effects. Health care services were inconsistent in the provision of information on Zika and contraception services. ZIKV vector transmission was known but fewer participants were aware of risk of sexual transmission of Zika. Barriers to access healthcare services included contraceptive and PAC services included distance to healthcare facilities, disorganized admission process, long waiting times and out-of-pocket expenditure to purchase medicines. Furthermore, poor quality, mistreatment and abuse of women seeking PAC was prevalent. Some positive changes were noted over time, such as improvements in infrastructure including improved privacy and cleanliness, removal of fees, requisite to bring clean water to hospital. CONCLUSIONS: Our results highlight the challenges and areas for improvement in policy and practice related to contraceptive services and PAC in the context of ZIKV infection. Public policies to prevent epidemics should focus more on providing proper sanitation; removing barriers to access and use of effective contraception as human rights priority. Zika epidemic has highlighted weaknesses in health systems that obstruct access to and use of sexual and reproductive health services. The study results call for increased efforts to improve access, especially for women of low socio-economic status and intervene at different levels to eradicate discrimination and improve equity in the provision of health care. Qualitative methods can capture the community perspectives and can provide useful information to develop interventions to improve services.

4.
Value Health ; 23(7): 880-888, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762989

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: (1) To produce Peruvian general population EQ-5D-5L value sets on a quality-adjusted life-year scale, (2) to investigate the feasibility of a "Lite" protocol less reliant on the composite time trade-off (cTTO), and (3) to compare cTTO and discrete choice experiment (DCE) value sets. METHODS: A random sample of adults (N = 1000) in Lima, Arequipa, and Iquitos did a home interview; 300 were randomly selected to complete 11 cTTOs first. All respondents completed a DCE, including 10 latent-scale pairs (A/B) with 5 EQ-5D-5L attributes, and 12 matched pairs (A/B and B/C) with 5 EQ-5D-5L and one lifespan attributes. We estimated a cTTO heteroscedastic tobit (N = 300) model and 3 DCE Zermelo-Bradley-Terry models (N = 300, 700, and 1000). RESULTS: Each model produced a consistent value set (20 positive incremental parameters). Nevertheless, their lowest quality-adjusted life-year values differed greatly (cTTO: -1.076 [N = 300]; DCE: -0.984 [300], 0.048 [700], -0.213 [1000]). Compared with the cTTO, the DCE (N = 300) produced different parameters (Pearson's correlation = 0.541), fewer insignificant parameters (0 vs 8), and fewer values less than 0 (26% vs 44%). Compared with the DCE (N = 300), the DCE (N = 700) produced higher values but similar parameters (Pearson's correlation = 0.800). CONCLUSIONS: Besides producing EQ-5D-5L value sets for Peru, the results casts doubt about the feasibility of a Lite protocol like the one in this study. Additionally, fundamental differences between cTTO and DCE-without the existence of a gold standard-need further clarification. The choice between the two rational value sets produced in the current study is a matter of judgment and may have substantial policy implications.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , Modelos Teóricos , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peru , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores de Tempo
5.
Health Promot Int ; 2019 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31302691

RESUMO

The Healthy Municipalities and Communities Strategy (HMCS) was developed by the Pan American Health Organization in 1990. Evaluation and monitoring are fundamental components of health promotion policies. The aim of this study is to explore the indicators used in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) countries to assess the performance of HMCS. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, BVSDE and Google Advanced Search for documents published between January 2000 and April 2016. We included only documents with assessment indicators of the strategy. All articles were independently assessed for eligibility by pairs of reviewers. We classified the indicators with a supporting framework proposed by O'Neill and Simard (Choosing indicators to evaluate Healthy Cities projects: a political task? Health Promot Int 2006, 21, 145-152.). Local level indicators figured far more prominently among countries and were distributed both in projects and specific activities. Regarding the evolution of the HMCS, indicators were reported in the five levels of analysis (local projects and activities, provincial, national and international networks). Empowerment was represented through the presence of active community organizations and different methods of community participation (forums, open hearing and participation maps). Public policies (such as for tobacco cessation) and bylaws adherence and changes in school's curricula regarding healthy eating were frequently mentioned. However, this review demonstrated that impact indicators related to lifestyle changes or built environment are not clearly defined and there is a lack of indicators to measure progress in achieving change in long-term outcomes in LAC. We highlight the importance of designing validated indicators for measuring the impact of health promotion policies in partnership with each country involved.

6.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 305: 108242, 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176953

RESUMO

Fusarium meridionale and F. boothii cause Gibberella Ear Rot (GER) in maize. This study determined the effects of temperature (5-35 °C) and water activity (0.90-0.995 aw) on the growth, and deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV) production of F. meridionale and F. boothii strains in maize grains. Fusarium graminearum sensu stricto strains from wheat were also tested. The three Fusarium species grew best at 0.995 aw and 25 °C. Growth was absent or marginal at 0.90 aw regardless of temperature. F. meridionale and F. boothii were sensitive to 30 °C and more affected by water stress than F. graminearum sensu stricto. The highest DON levels were at 0.995-0.97 aw and 30 °C and at 0.97 aw and 20 °C for F. graminearum sensu stricto, and at 0.995-0.97 aw and 20 °C for F. boothii. Fusarium meridionale reached maximum NIV accumulation at 0.995 aw and 20 °C. This produced DON at negligible levels compared to the other two Fusarium species. Growth of F. meridionale and F. boothii was well adapted to the usual autumn high humidity and mild temperatures associated with GER in northwest Argentina. Control strategies during grain development should be taken into account to reduce the risk of the presence of DON and NIV in the harvested grains.


Assuntos
Fusarium/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Tricotecenos/metabolismo , Água/análise , Zea mays/microbiologia , Argentina , Fusarium/classificação , Fusarium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fusarium/isolamento & purificação , Umidade , Estações do Ano , Temperatura , Tricotecenos/análise , Triticum/química , Triticum/microbiologia , Água/metabolismo , Zea mays/química
7.
Cad Saude Publica ; 35(5): e00092618, 2019 05 20.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31116251

RESUMO

This study sought to describe experiences, barriers and facilitators to the implementation of interventions for controlling Aedes aegypti in Latin America and the Caribbean. A qualitative approach with semi-structured in-depth interviews with program implementation experts (19 participants in nine countries) was carried out. We used a software to codify the data and created matrices to compare them. Based on our findings, we developed a graphic representation of the theoretical dimensions that encompass the barriers and facilitators to the implementation of interventions. At the global level, the natural and built environment contributed to the mosquito's reproduction. In the health system, the lack of priority given to the problem and the scarcity of material and human resources are the most important obstacles. Sectors other than health must take responsibility for actions directed at improving social determinants of health. There are transversal barriers related to governance, lack of coordination between central and local levels, lack of continuity in terms of interventions and technical groups. The community faces problems such as lack of information, poverty or resistance to recommendations. Public opinion can have a positive or negative impact, indirectly influencing political decisions. This study proposes a framework of analytical dimensions based on our findings; describes factors that influence policy implementation, which can guide future actions from an integrated perspective.


Assuntos
Aedes , Febre de Chikungunya/prevenção & controle , Dengue/prevenção & controle , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Infecção por Zika virus/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Região do Caribe , Participação da Comunidade , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , América Latina , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Opinião Pública , Pesquisa Qualitativa
8.
Transl Behav Med ; 2019 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30947329

RESUMO

Despite efforts to improve detection and treatment of adults with hypertension and diabetes in Argentina, many public healthcare system users remain undiagnosed or face barriers in managing these diseases. The purpose of this study is to identify health system, provider, and user-related factors that may hinder detection and treatment of hypertension and diabetes using a traditional and behavioral economics approach. We did qualitative research using in-depth semistructured interviews and focus groups with healthcare providers and adult users of Public Primary Care Clinics. Health system barriers included inadequate care accessibility; poor integration between primary care clinics and local hospitals; lack of resources; and gender bias and neglect of adult chronic disease. Healthcare provider-related barriers were inadequate training; lack of availability or reluctance to adopt Clinical Practice Guidelines; and lack of counseling prioritization. From a behavioral economics perspective, bottlenecks were related to inertia and a status quo, overconfidence, and optimism biases. User-related barriers for treatment adherence included lack of accurate information; resistance to adopt lifelong treatment; affordability; and medical advice mistrust. From a behavioral economics perspective, the most significant bottlenecks were overconfidence and optimism, limited attention, and present biases. Based on these findings, new interventions that aim to improve prevention and control of chronic conditions can be proposed. The study provides empirical evidence regarding the barriers and bottlenecks in managing chronic conditions in primary healthcare settings. Results may contribute to the design of behavioral interventions targeted towards healthcare provision for the affected population.

9.
Cad Saude Publica ; 35(4): e00092918, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30994739

RESUMO

This article presents the results of a dialogue between decision-makers and experts in Latin America and the Caribbean on priority-setting for interventions and studies on Aedes aegypti control. The article is part of a project that included a systematic review of mosquito control strategies and a qualitative study with key informants from the region. Using a collective deliberative process assisted by the results of the above-mentioned projects, a list of priorities was developed by consensus for the implementation of vector control strategies and the development of key regional research lines. It was agreed that the best strategy is integrated vector management, divided into: (a) chemical control; (b) biological control; (c) environmental management; (d) community participation; and (e) integrated surveillance. The workshop highlighted the crucial role of government leadership and inter-sector coordination between government agencies and civil society stakeholders. The proposed priorities for research lines were: Ae. aegypti vector competence and associated factors; community components of interventions; incorporation of technology into vector control and monitoring; most efficient modalities of integrated surveillance; entomological indicators with the best predictive capacity; and resistance to insecticides. The policy dialogue methodology allowed validating and enriching the results of other levels of research, besides establishing priorities for regional research and control strategies.


Assuntos
Aedes , Controle de Mosquitos/organização & administração , Mosquitos Vetores , Animais , Política de Saúde , Humanos , América Latina , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Viroses/prevenção & controle
10.
Lancet Glob Health ; 7(5): e655-e663, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30910531

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite international recommendations, coverage of syphilis testing in pregnant women and treatment of those found seropositive remains limited in sub-Saharan Africa. We assessed whether combining the provision of supplies with a behavioural intervention was more effective than providing supplies only, to improve syphilis screening and treatment during antenatal care. METHODS: In this 18-month, cluster randomised controlled trial, we randomly assigned (1:1) 26 urban antenatal care clinics in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Lusaka, Zambia, to receive a behavioural intervention (opinion leader selection, academic detailing visits, reminders, audits and feedback, and supportive supervision) plus supplies for syphilis testing and treatment (intervention group) or to receive supplies only (control group). The primary outcomes were proportion of pregnant women who had syphilis screening out of the total who attended the clinic; and the proportion of women who had treatment with benzathine benzylpenicillin out of those who tested positive for syphilis at their first antenatal care visit. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02353117. FINDINGS: The 18-month study period was Feb 1, 2016, to July 14, 2017. 18 357 women were enrolled at the 13 intervention clinics and 17 679 women were enrolled at the 13 control clinics at their first antenatal care visit. Syphilis screening was done in a median of 99·9% (IQR 99·0-100·0) of women in the intervention clinics and 93·8% (85·0-98·9) in the control clinics (absolute difference 6·1% [95% CI 1·1-14·1]; p=0·00092). Syphilis treatment at the first visit was done in a median of 100% (IQR 99·7-100·0) of seropositive women in intervention clinics and 43·2% (2·6-83·2) of seropositive women in control clinics (absolute difference 56·8% [12·8-99·0]; p=0·0028). INTERPRETATION: A behavioural intervention, together with the provision of supplies, can lead to more than 95% of women being screened and treated for syphilis. The sole provision of supplies is sufficient to reach such levels of screening coverage but is not sufficient to ensure high levels of treatment. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

11.
JMIR Diabetes ; 4(1): e10350, 2019 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30882362

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Engagement in self-care behaviors that are essential to optimize diabetes care is challenging for many patients with diabetes. mHealth interventions have been shown to be effective in improving health care outcomes in diabetes. However, more research is needed on patient perceptions to support these interventions, especially in resource settings in low- and middle-income countries. OBJECTIVE: The goal of the research was to explore perceptions and acceptability of a short message service (SMS) text messaging intervention for diabetes care in underserved people with diabetes in Argentina. METHODS: A qualitative exploratory methodology was adopted as part of the evaluation of a program to strengthen diabetes services in primary care clinics located in low-resource settings. The diabetes program included a text messaging intervention for people with diabetes. A total of 24 semistructured telephone interviews were conducted with people with diabetes. RESULTS: Twenty-four middle-aged persons with diabetes were interviewed. Acceptability was considered adequate in terms of its actual use, frequency, and the role of texts as a reminder. We found that text messages could be a mediating device in the patient's learning processes. Also, being exposed to the texts seemed to help bring about changes in risk perception and care practices and to function as psychosocial support. Another relevant finding was the role of text messaging as a potential facilitator in diabetes care. In this sense, we observed a strong association between receiving text messages and having a better patient-physician relationship. Additionally, social barriers that affect diabetes care such as socioeconomic and psychosocial vulnerability were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show positive contributions of a text messaging intervention for the care of people with diabetes. We consider that an SMS strategy has potential to be replicated in other contexts. However, further studies are needed to explore its sustainability and long-term impact from the perspective of patients.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30646502

RESUMO

Background: Obesogenic environments promote sedentary behavior and high dietary energy intake. The objective of the study was to identify barriers and facilitators to the implementation and impact evaluation of projects oriented to promote physical activity and healthy diet at community level. We analyzed experiences of the projects implemented within the Healthy Municipalities and Communities Program (HMCP) in Argentina. Methods: A mixed methods approach included (1) in-depth semi-structured interviews, with 44 stakeholders; and (2) electronic survey completed by 206 individuals from 96 municipalities across the country. Results: The most important barriers included the lack of: adequate funding (43%); skilled personnel (42%); equipment and material resources (31%); technical support for data management and analysis (20%); training on project designs (12%); political support from local authorities (17%) and acceptance of the proposed intervention by the local community (9%). Facilitators included motivated local leaders, inter-sectorial participation and seizing local resources. Project evaluation was mostly based on process rather than outcome indicators. Conclusions: This study contributes to a better understanding of the difficulties in the implementation of community-based intervention projects. Findings may guide stakeholders on how to facilitate local initiatives. There is a need to improve project evaluation strategies by incorporating process, outcome and context specific indicators.


Assuntos
Participação da Comunidade , Exercício Físico , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Argentina , Assistência à Saúde , Dieta Saudável , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
13.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 35(4): e00092918, 2019. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, PIE | ID: biblio-1001645

RESUMO

This article presents the results of a dialogue between decision-makers and experts in Latin America and the Caribbean on priority-setting for interventions and studies on Aedes aegypti control. The article is part of a project that included a systematic review of mosquito control strategies and a qualitative study with key informants from the region. Using a collective deliberative process assisted by the results of the above-mentioned projects, a list of priorities was developed by consensus for the implementation of vector control strategies and the development of key regional research lines. It was agreed that the best strategy is integrated vector management, divided into: (a) chemical control; (b) biological control; (c) environmental management; (d) community participation; and (e) integrated surveillance. The workshop highlighted the crucial role of government leadership and inter-sector coordination between government agencies and civil society stakeholders. The proposed priorities for research lines were: Ae. aegypti vector competence and associated factors; community components of interventions; incorporation of technology into vector control and monitoring; most efficient modalities of integrated surveillance; entomological indicators with the best predictive capacity; and resistance to insecticides. The policy dialogue methodology allowed validating and enriching the results of other levels of research, besides establishing priorities for regional research and control strategies.


Este trabalho apresenta os resultados de um diálogo entre tomadores de decisão e expertos da América Latina e do Caribe sobre a priorização de intervenções e pesquisas para o controle do mosquito Aedes aegypti. Faz parte de um projeto que compreendeu uma revisão sistemática sobre estratégias e controle do mosquito e um estudo qualitativo com informantes chave da região. Através de um processo deliberativo em instâncias coletivas, assistido pelos resultados dos mencionados projetos, foi elaborada uma listagem consensuada de prioridades de implementação de estratégias de controle vetorial e de desenvolvimento regional de linhas essenciais de pesquisa. Foi acordado que a melhor estratégia é a gestão integrada de vetores ou Estratégia de Gestão Integrada, desagregada em: (a) controle químico; (b) controle biológico; (c) gestão ambiental; (d) participação comunitária; (e) vigilância integrada. Foi destacado o rol fundamental e indelegável da direção do estado e a coordenação intersetorial entre agências estaduais com atores da sociedade civil. Foi proposto priorizar como linhas de pesquisa: a capacidade vetorial do Ae. aegypti e fatores associados; componentes comunitários das intervenções; a incorporação de tecnologia para o controle vetorial e para o monitoramento; modos mais eficientes de vigilância integrada; indicadores entomológicos com melhor capacidade preditiva e resistência a pesticidas. A metodologia do diálogo de políticas permitiu validar e enriquecer os resultados de outras áreas de pesquisa, possibilitou estabelecer prioridades a propósito da pesquisa, além de estratégias para o controle regional.


Este trabajo presenta los resultados de un diálogo entre tomadores de decisión y expertos de América Latina y el Caribe sobre la priorización de intervenciones e investigaciones para el control del mosquito Aedes aegypti. Forma parte de un proyecto que comprendió una revisión sistemática sobre estrategias control del mosquito y un estudio cualitativo con informantes clave de la región. Mediante un proceso deliberativo en instancias colectivas, asistido por los resultados de los mencionados proyectos, se elaboró un listado consensuado de prioridades de implementación de estrategias de control vectorial y de desarrollo regional de líneas clave de investigación. Se convino en que la mejor estrategia es el manejo integrado de vectores o Estrategia de Gestión Integrada, desagregada en: (a) control químico; (b) control biológico; (c) manejo ambiental; (d) participación comunitaria; y (e) vigilancia integrada. Se destacó el fundamental e indelegable rol de rectoría del estado y la coordinación intersectorial entre agencias estatales y con actores de la sociedad civil. Se propuso priorizar como líneas de investigación: la capacidad vectorial del Ae. aegypti y factores asociados; componentes comunitarios de las intervenciones; la incorporación de tecnología al control vectorial y al monitoreo; los modos más eficientes de vigilancia integrada; indicadores entomológicos con mejor capacidad predictiva y resistencia a insecticidas. La metodología del diálogo de políticas permitió validar y enriquecer los resultados de otras instancias de investigación, y permitió establecer prioridades sobre investigación y estrategias para el control regional.


Assuntos
Humanos , Aedes , Mosquitos Vetores , Planejamento em Saúde/organização & administração , Conferências de Consenso como Assunto , Região do Caribe/epidemiologia
14.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 35(5): e00092618, 2019. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001661

RESUMO

El objetivo fue describir experiencias, barreras y facilitadores en la implementación de intervenciones de control del Aedes aegypti en América Latina y Caribe. Fue realizado un abordaje cualitativo con entrevistas en profundidad semiestructuradas a expertos en implementación de programas (19 participantes de nueve países). Se utilizó un software para la codificar los datos y se confeccionaron matrices para su comparación. En base a los hallazgos desarrollamos una representación gráfica de dimensiones teóricas que agrupan las barreras y facilitadores para la implementación de intervenciones. A nivel global, el ambiente natural y construido contribuye a la reproducción del mosquito. En el sistema de salud, la falta de priorización del problema y la escasez de recursos materiales y humanos representan los obstáculos más importantes. Se necesita que otros sectores diferentes al de salud se responsabilicen de las acciones para mejorar los determinantes sociales de la salud. Existen barreras transversales relacionadas con la gobernanza, como la descoordinación entre los niveles centrales y locales, falta de continuidad de las intervenciones y de los grupos técnicos. La comunidad enfrenta problemas como la falta de información, pobreza o resistencias a recomendaciones. La opinión pública puede tener un impacto positivo o negativo, influyendo indirectamente en las decisiones políticas. Este estudio propone un marco de dimensiones de análisis construido desde los hallazgos; describe factores influyentes en la implementación de políticas que pueden orientar las acciones futuras desde un enfoque integrado.


This study sought to describe experiences, barriers and facilitators to the implementation of interventions for controlling Aedes aegypti in Latin America and the Caribbean. A qualitative approach with semi-structured in-depth interviews with program implementation experts (19 participants in nine countries) was carried out. We used a software to codify the data and created matrices to compare them. Based on our findings, we developed a graphic representation of the theoretical dimensions that encompass the barriers and facilitators to the implementation of interventions. At the global level, the natural and built environment contributed to the mosquito's reproduction. In the health system, the lack of priority given to the problem and the scarcity of material and human resources are the most important obstacles. Sectors other than health must take responsibility for actions directed at improving social determinants of health. There are transversal barriers related to governance, lack of coordination between central and local levels, lack of continuity in terms of interventions and technical groups. The community faces problems such as lack of information, poverty or resistance to recommendations. Public opinion can have a positive or negative impact, indirectly influencing political decisions. This study proposes a framework of analytical dimensions based on our findings; describes factors that influence policy implementation, which can guide future actions from an integrated perspective.


O objetivo foi descrever experiências, barreiras e facilitadores na implementação de intervenções de controle do Aedes aegypti na América Latina e no Caribe. Uma abordagem qualitativa foi realizada com entrevistas semiestruturadas em profundidade com especialistas na implementação do programa (19 participantes de nove países). Foi usado um software para codificar os dados e foram feitas matrizes para comparação. Com base nos resultados, desenvolvemos uma representação gráfica das dimensões teóricas que agruparam as barreiras e facilitadores para a implementação das intervenções. Em nível global, o ambiente natural e construído contribui para a reprodução do mosquito. No sistema de saúde, a falta de priorização do problema e a escassez de recursos materiais e humanos representam os obstáculos mais importantes. É necessário que outros setores, além do setor saúde, assumam ações de melhoria dos determinantes sociais da saúde. Existem barreiras transversais relacionadas à governança, como a falta de coordenação entre os níveis central e local e a falta de continuidade das intervenções e dos grupos técnicos. A comunidade enfrenta problemas como falta de informação, pobreza ou resistência a recomendações. A opinião pública pode ter um impacto positivo ou negativo, influenciando indiretamente as decisões políticas. Este estudo propõe um quadro de dimensões de análise construído a partir dos resultados; descreve fatores influentes na implementação de políticas que podem orientar ações futuras a partir de uma abordagem integrada.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Aedes , Dengue/prevenção & controle , Febre de Chikungunya/prevenção & controle , Infecção por Zika virus/prevenção & controle , Opinião Pública , Pessoal de Saúde , Região do Caribe , Participação da Comunidade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , América Latina
15.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 42, sep. 2018. Special Issue Alma-Ata.
Artigo em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-49465

RESUMO

[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Explorar las motivaciones y expectativas de los usuarios del Programa de Estaciones Saludables en la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires y evaluar su potencial impacto sanitario. Métodos. Se realizaron entrevistas en profundidad (n = 34) y una encuesta autoadministrada (n = 605) a usuarios del programa. Se desarrolló un modelo epidemiológico para estimar el impacto del programa sobre los eventos cardiovasculares y los años de vida ajustados por discapacidad (AVAD). Resultados. Los principales factores motivadores para el uso de las estaciones saludables fueron la accesibilidad geográfica, económica (servicios gratuitos) y la satisfacción con la atención recibida. El 14,4% (intervalos de confianza del 95% [IC95%] 10,3–18,5%) de los usuarios hipertensos y el 24,8% (IC95% 17,6–32,0%) de los diabéticos informó haberse enterado de sus valores alterados en las estaciones saludables. Más de la mitad de los encuestados reportó alguna mejora de conocimientos sobre los beneficios de realizar actividad física y una alimentación saludable; esto fue más frecuente entre los usuarios más jóvenes, de menor nivel educativo, usuarios del sistema público de salud, usuarios de estaciones saludables de la zona sur y los que tenían algún factor de riesgo cardiometabólico (p<0.05). Se estimó que debido a la existencia de estaciones saludables se evitarían 12,5 eventos cardiovasculares y cerebrovasculares por año en la población asistida (4,75 eventos/100 000 personas) y 47,75 AVAD por estas causas. Conclusiones. Las estaciones saludables resultan un espacio propicio para la implementación de acciones de promoción de la salud y prevención, contribuyendo en la detección y facilitando el monitoreo de los factores de riesgo, con potencialidad para prevenir eventos cardiovasculares y sus consecuencias.


[ABSTRACT]. Objective. To explore the motivations and expectations of the users of the Program for Healthy Centers in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires and to evaluate its potential health impact. Methods. In-depth interviews were conducted (n = 34) and a self-administered survey was sent to users of the program (n = 605). An epidemiological model was developed to estimate the impact of the program on cardiovascular events (CVE) and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Results. The main motivating factors for using the healthy centers were geographic and economic accessibility (free services) and satisfaction with the care received. 14.4% (95% CI, 10.3-18.5%) of hypertensive users and 24.8% (95% CI, 17.6-32.0%) of diabetic users reported having learned of their altered values in the healthy center. More than half of the respondents reported some improvement in their knowledge about the benefits of physical activity and healthy eating; this was more frequent among those who were younger, of lower educational level, users of the public health system, users of a healthy center in the South zone and those who had a cardiometabolic risk factor (p<0.05). It was estimated that the healthy centers would prevent 12.5 cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events per year in the assisted population (4.75 events/100 000) and 47.75 DALYs due to these causes. Conclusions. The healthy centers are a favorable space for the implementation of health promotion and prevention actions, contributing to the detection of and facilitating the monitoring of risk factors, with a potential to prevent cardiovascular events and its consequences.


[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Explorar as motivações e expectativas dos usuários do Programa Estações Saudáveis na Cidade Autônoma de Buenos Aires e avaliar seu impacto potencial na saúde. Métodos. Foram realizadas entrevistas em profundidade (n = 34) e uma pesquisa auto-administrada (n = 605) a usuários do programa. Um modelo epidemiológico foi desenvolvido para estimar o impacto do programa em eventos cardiovasculares e anos de vida ajustados por incapacidade (DALY). Resultados. Os principais fatores motivadores para o uso do estações saudáveis foram a acessibilidade geográfica, econômica (serviços gratuitos) e a satisfação com o atendimento recebido. 14,4% (intervalo de confiança de 95% [IC95%] 10,3-18,5%) de usuários hipertensos e 24,8% (IC95% 17,6-32,0%) dos diabéticos relataram ter aprendido sobre seus valores alterados na estação saudável. Mais da metade dos entrevistados relataram alguma melhora no conhecimento sobre os benefícios da atividade física e da alimentação saudável, com maior freqüência entre os mais jovens, de menor escolaridade, usuários do sistema público de saúde, usuários de estações saudáveis na zona sul e aqueles que apresentaram algum fator de risco cardiometabólico (p<0,05). Estimou-se que, devido à existência de estações saudáveis, 12,5 eventos cardiovasculares e cerebrovasculares por ano seriam evitados na população atendida (4,75 eventos/100 000) e 47,75 DALY por essas causas. Conclusões. As estações saudáveis são um espaço propício para a implementação de ações de promoção e prevenção da saúde, contribuindo para a detecção e facilitação do monitoramento dos fatores de risco, com potencial para prevenir os eventos cardiovasculares e suas consequências.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde , Prevenção Primária , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Avaliação em Saúde , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Argentina , Promoção da Saúde , Prevenção Primária , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Avaliação em Saúde , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Promoção da Saúde , Prevenção Primária , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Avaliação em Saúde
16.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 42: e150, 2018.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31093178

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the motivations and expectations of the users of the Program for Healthy Centers in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires and to evaluate its potential health impact. Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted (n = 34) and a self-administered survey was sent to users of the program (n = 605). An epidemiological model was developed to estimate the impact of the program on cardiovascular events (CVE) and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Results: The main motivating factors for using the healthy centers were geographic and economic accessibility (free services) and satisfaction with the care received. 14.4% (95% CI, 10.3-18.5%) of hypertensive users and 24.8% (95% CI, 17.6-32.0%) of diabetic users reported having learned of their altered values in the healthy center. More than half of the respondents reported some improvement in their knowledge about the benefits of physical activity and healthy eating; this was more frequent among those who were younger, of lower educational level, users of the public health system, users of a healthy center in the South zone and those who had a cardiometabolic risk factor (p<0.05). It was estimated that the healthy centers would prevent 12.5 cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events per year in the assisted population (4.75 events/100 000) and 47.75 DALYs due to these causes. Conclusions: The healthy centers are a favorable space for the implementation of health promotion and prevention actions, contributing to the detection of and facilitating the monitoring of risk factors, with a potential to prevent cardiovascular events and its consequences.

17.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 42: e150, 2018. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-961831

RESUMO

RESUMEN Objetivo Explorar las motivaciones y expectativas de los usuarios del Programa de Estaciones Saludables en la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires y evaluar su potencial impacto sanitario. Métodos Se realizaron entrevistas en profundidad (n = 34) y una encuesta autoadministrada (n = 605) a usuarios del programa. Se desarrolló un modelo epidemiológico para estimar el impacto del programa sobre los eventos cardiovasculares y los años de vida ajustados por discapacidad (AVAD). Resultados Los principales factores motivadores para el uso de las estaciones saludables fueron la accesibilidad geográfica, económica (servicios gratuitos) y la satisfacción con la atención recibida. El 14,4% (intervalos de confianza del 95% [IC95%] 10,3-18,5%) de los usuarios hipertensos y el 24,8% (IC95% 17,6-32,0%) de los diabéticos informó haberse enterado de sus valores alterados en las estaciones saludables. Más de la mitad de los encuestados reportó alguna mejora de conocimientos sobre los beneficios de realizar actividad física y una alimentación saludable; esto fue más frecuente entre los usuarios más jóvenes, de menor nivel educativo, usuarios del sistema público de salud, usuarios de estaciones saludables de la zona sur y los que tenían algún factor de riesgo cardiometabólico (p<0.05). Se estimó que debido a la existencia de estaciones saludables se evitarían 12,5 eventos cardiovasculares y cerebrovasculares por año en la población asistida (4,75 eventos/100 000 personas) y 47,75 AVAD por estas causas. Conclusiones Las estaciones saludables resultan un espacio propicio para la implementación de acciones de promoción de la salud y prevención, contribuyendo en la detección y facilitando el monitoreo de los factores de riesgo, con potencialidad para prevenir eventos cardiovasculares y sus consecuencias.


ABSTRACT Objective To explore the motivations and expectations of the users of the Program for Healthy Centers in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires and to evaluate its potential health impact. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted (n = 34) and a self-administered survey was sent to users of the program (n = 605). An epidemiological model was developed to estimate the impact of the program on cardiovascular events (CVE) and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Results The main motivating factors for using the healthy centers were geographic and economic accessibility (free services) and satisfaction with the care received. 14.4% (95% CI, 10.3-18.5%) of hypertensive users and 24.8% (95% CI, 17.6-32.0%) of diabetic users reported having learned of their altered values in the healthy center. More than half of the respondents reported some improvement in their knowledge about the benefits of physical activity and healthy eating; this was more frequent among those who were younger, of lower educational level, users of the public health system, users of a healthy center in the South zone and those who had a cardiometabolic risk factor (p<0.05). It was estimated that the healthy centers would prevent 12.5 cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events per year in the assisted population (4.75 events/100 000) and 47.75 DALYs due to these causes. Conclusions The healthy centers are a favorable space for the implementation of health promotion and prevention actions, contributing to the detection of and facilitating the monitoring of risk factors, with a potential to prevent cardiovascular events and its consequences.


RESUMO Objetivo Explorar as motivações e expectativas dos usuários do Programa Estações Saudáveis na Cidade Autônoma de Buenos Aires e avaliar seu impacto potencial na saúde. Métodos Foram realizadas entrevistas em profundidade (n = 34) e uma pesquisa auto-administrada (n = 605) a usuários do programa. Um modelo epidemiológico foi desenvolvido para estimar o impacto do programa em eventos cardiovasculares e anos de vida ajustados por incapacidade (DALY). Resultados Os principais fatores motivadores para o uso do estações saudáveis foram a acessibilidade geográfica, econômica (serviços gratuitos) e a satisfação com o atendimento recebido. 14,4% (intervalo de confiança de 95% [IC95%] 10,3-18,5%) de usuários hipertensos e 24,8% (IC95% 17,6-32,0%) dos diabéticos relataram ter aprendido sobre seus valores alterados na estação saudável. Mais da metade dos entrevistados relataram alguma melhora no conhecimento sobre os benefícios da atividade física e da alimentação saudável, com maior freqüência entre os mais jovens, de menor escolaridade, usuários do sistema público de saúde, usuários de estações saudáveis na zona sul e aqueles que apresentaram algum fator de risco cardiometabólico (p<0,05). Estimou-se que, devido à existência de estações saudáveis, 12,5 eventos cardiovasculares e cerebrovasculares por ano seriam evitados na população atendida (4,75 eventos/100 000) e 47,75 DALY por essas causas. Conclusões As estações saudáveis são um espaço propício para a implementação de ações de promoção e prevenção da saúde, contribuindo para a detecção e facilitação do monitoramento dos fatores de risco, com potencial para prevenir os eventos cardiovasculares e suas consequências.


Assuntos
Prevenção Primária , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Argentina/epidemiologia , Avaliação em Saúde
18.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 17(1): 556, 2017 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28807019

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impact of untreated syphilis during pregnancy on neonatal health remains a major public health threat worldwide. Given the high prevalence of syphilis during pregnancy in Zambia and Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), the Preventive Congenital Syphilis Trial (PCS Trial), a cluster randomized trial, was proposed to increase same-day screening and treatment of syphilis during antenatal care visits. To design an accepted and feasible intervention, we conducted a qualitative  formative research. Our objective was to identify context-specific  barriers and facilitators to the implementation of antenatal screening and treatment during pregnancy. METHODS: Qualitative research included in-depth semi-structured interviews with clinic administrators, group interviews with health care providers, and focus groups with pregnant women in primary care clinics (PCCs) in Kinshasa (DRC) and Lusaka (Zambia). RESULTS: A total of 112 individuals participated in the interviews and focus groups. Barriers for the implementation of syphilis testing and treatment were identified at the a) system level: fragmentation of the health system, existence of ANC guidelines in conflict with proposed intervention, poor accessibility of clinics (geographical and functional), staff and product shortages at the PCCs; b) healthcare providers' level: lack of knowledge and training about evolving best practices, reservations regarding same-day screening and treatment; c) Pregnant women level: late enrollment in ANC, lack of knowledge about consequences and treatment of syphilis, and stigma. Based on these results, we developed recommendations for the design of the PCS Trial intervention. CONCLUSION: This research allowed us to identify barriers and facilitators to improve the feasibility and acceptability of a behavioral intervention. Formative research is a critical step in designing appropriate and effective interventions by closing the "know-do gap".


Assuntos
Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Sífilis/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Terapia Comportamental/métodos , República Democrática do Congo/epidemiologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Gestantes , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal/métodos , Prevalência , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Sífilis Congênita/epidemiologia , Sífilis Congênita/prevenção & controle , Zâmbia/epidemiologia
19.
Artigo em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-33877

RESUMO

Antecedentes. Al momento no se ha logrado sintetizar toda la información cualicuantitativa relacionada al control de Aedes aegypti (A. aegypti) en América Latina y el Caribe (ALC). Objetivo. Describir la existencia y el grado de ejecución de los programas específicos o actividades de control vectorial en ALC como parte de programas sanitarios, establecer los costos y/o costoefectividad de las estrategias de control vectorial e identificar barreras y facilitadores para la implementación de las estrategias. Métodos. El estudio se llevará a cabo en dos fases complementarias. La primera fase será cuantitativa en la forma de una revisión sistemática, cuyos detalles han sido publicados en la base PROSPERO (CRD42016038067). La segunda fase será cualitativa y consistirá en la realización de entrevistas en profundidad semiestructuradas a informants clave como investigadores, responsables programáticos,referentes nacionales, agentes del sistema sanitario y representantes de organizaciones no gubernamentales. Discusión. El abordaje cualicuantitativo permitirá describir las estrategias y el nivel de implementación para el control de vector y su efectividad, sus costos programáticos y costo-efectividad. Permitirá también analizar factores influyent es en la implementación de programas.


Assuntos
Controle de Vetores , Aedes , Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto , Revisão , América Latina
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