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1.
Health Promot Int ; 2019 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31302691

RESUMO

The Healthy Municipalities and Communities Strategy (HMCS) was developed by the Pan American Health Organization in 1990. Evaluation and monitoring are fundamental components of health promotion policies. The aim of this study is to explore the indicators used in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) countries to assess the performance of HMCS. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, BVSDE and Google Advanced Search for documents published between January 2000 and April 2016. We included only documents with assessment indicators of the strategy. All articles were independently assessed for eligibility by pairs of reviewers. We classified the indicators with a supporting framework proposed by O'Neill and Simard (Choosing indicators to evaluate Healthy Cities projects: a political task? Health Promot Int 2006, 21, 145-152.). Local level indicators figured far more prominently among countries and were distributed both in projects and specific activities. Regarding the evolution of the HMCS, indicators were reported in the five levels of analysis (local projects and activities, provincial, national and international networks). Empowerment was represented through the presence of active community organizations and different methods of community participation (forums, open hearing and participation maps). Public policies (such as for tobacco cessation) and bylaws adherence and changes in school's curricula regarding healthy eating were frequently mentioned. However, this review demonstrated that impact indicators related to lifestyle changes or built environment are not clearly defined and there is a lack of indicators to measure progress in achieving change in long-term outcomes in LAC. We highlight the importance of designing validated indicators for measuring the impact of health promotion policies in partnership with each country involved.

2.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 305: 108242, 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176953

RESUMO

Fusarium meridionale and F. boothii cause Gibberella Ear Rot (GER) in maize. This study determined the effects of temperature (5-35 °C) and water activity (0.90-0.995 aw) on the growth, and deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV) production of F. meridionale and F. boothii strains in maize grains. Fusarium graminearum sensu stricto strains from wheat were also tested. The three Fusarium species grew best at 0.995 aw and 25 °C. Growth was absent or marginal at 0.90 aw regardless of temperature. F. meridionale and F. boothii were sensitive to 30 °C and more affected by water stress than F. graminearum sensu stricto. The highest DON levels were at 0.995-0.97 aw and 30 °C and at 0.97 aw and 20 °C for F. graminearum sensu stricto, and at 0.995-0.97 aw and 20 °C for F. boothii. Fusarium meridionale reached maximum NIV accumulation at 0.995 aw and 20 °C. This produced DON at negligible levels compared to the other two Fusarium species. Growth of F. meridionale and F. boothii was well adapted to the usual autumn high humidity and mild temperatures associated with GER in northwest Argentina. Control strategies during grain development should be taken into account to reduce the risk of the presence of DON and NIV in the harvested grains.

3.
Cad Saude Publica ; 35(5): e00092618, 2019 May 20.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31116251

RESUMO

This study sought to describe experiences, barriers and facilitators to the implementation of interventions for controlling Aedes aegypti in Latin America and the Caribbean. A qualitative approach with semi-structured in-depth interviews with program implementation experts (19 participants in nine countries) was carried out. We used a software to codify the data and created matrices to compare them. Based on our findings, we developed a graphic representation of the theoretical dimensions that encompass the barriers and facilitators to the implementation of interventions. At the global level, the natural and built environment contributed to the mosquito's reproduction. In the health system, the lack of priority given to the problem and the scarcity of material and human resources are the most important obstacles. Sectors other than health must take responsibility for actions directed at improving social determinants of health. There are transversal barriers related to governance, lack of coordination between central and local levels, lack of continuity in terms of interventions and technical groups. The community faces problems such as lack of information, poverty or resistance to recommendations. Public opinion can have a positive or negative impact, indirectly influencing political decisions. This study proposes a framework of analytical dimensions based on our findings; describes factors that influence policy implementation, which can guide future actions from an integrated perspective.

4.
Transl Behav Med ; 2019 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30947329

RESUMO

Despite efforts to improve detection and treatment of adults with hypertension and diabetes in Argentina, many public healthcare system users remain undiagnosed or face barriers in managing these diseases. The purpose of this study is to identify health system, provider, and user-related factors that may hinder detection and treatment of hypertension and diabetes using a traditional and behavioral economics approach. We did qualitative research using in-depth semistructured interviews and focus groups with healthcare providers and adult users of Public Primary Care Clinics. Health system barriers included inadequate care accessibility; poor integration between primary care clinics and local hospitals; lack of resources; and gender bias and neglect of adult chronic disease. Healthcare provider-related barriers were inadequate training; lack of availability or reluctance to adopt Clinical Practice Guidelines; and lack of counseling prioritization. From a behavioral economics perspective, bottlenecks were related to inertia and a status quo, overconfidence, and optimism biases. User-related barriers for treatment adherence included lack of accurate information; resistance to adopt lifelong treatment; affordability; and medical advice mistrust. From a behavioral economics perspective, the most significant bottlenecks were overconfidence and optimism, limited attention, and present biases. Based on these findings, new interventions that aim to improve prevention and control of chronic conditions can be proposed. The study provides empirical evidence regarding the barriers and bottlenecks in managing chronic conditions in primary healthcare settings. Results may contribute to the design of behavioral interventions targeted towards healthcare provision for the affected population.

5.
Cad Saude Publica ; 35(4): e00092918, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30994739

RESUMO

This article presents the results of a dialogue between decision-makers and experts in Latin America and the Caribbean on priority-setting for interventions and studies on Aedes aegypti control. The article is part of a project that included a systematic review of mosquito control strategies and a qualitative study with key informants from the region. Using a collective deliberative process assisted by the results of the above-mentioned projects, a list of priorities was developed by consensus for the implementation of vector control strategies and the development of key regional research lines. It was agreed that the best strategy is integrated vector management, divided into: (a) chemical control; (b) biological control; (c) environmental management; (d) community participation; and (e) integrated surveillance. The workshop highlighted the crucial role of government leadership and inter-sector coordination between government agencies and civil society stakeholders. The proposed priorities for research lines were: Ae. aegypti vector competence and associated factors; community components of interventions; incorporation of technology into vector control and monitoring; most efficient modalities of integrated surveillance; entomological indicators with the best predictive capacity; and resistance to insecticides. The policy dialogue methodology allowed validating and enriching the results of other levels of research, besides establishing priorities for regional research and control strategies.

6.
Lancet Glob Health ; 7(5): e655-e663, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30910531

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite international recommendations, coverage of syphilis testing in pregnant women and treatment of those found seropositive remains limited in sub-Saharan Africa. We assessed whether combining the provision of supplies with a behavioural intervention was more effective than providing supplies only, to improve syphilis screening and treatment during antenatal care. METHODS: In this 18-month, cluster randomised controlled trial, we randomly assigned (1:1) 26 urban antenatal care clinics in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Lusaka, Zambia, to receive a behavioural intervention (opinion leader selection, academic detailing visits, reminders, audits and feedback, and supportive supervision) plus supplies for syphilis testing and treatment (intervention group) or to receive supplies only (control group). The primary outcomes were proportion of pregnant women who had syphilis screening out of the total who attended the clinic; and the proportion of women who had treatment with benzathine benzylpenicillin out of those who tested positive for syphilis at their first antenatal care visit. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02353117. FINDINGS: The 18-month study period was Feb 1, 2016, to July 14, 2017. 18 357 women were enrolled at the 13 intervention clinics and 17 679 women were enrolled at the 13 control clinics at their first antenatal care visit. Syphilis screening was done in a median of 99·9% (IQR 99·0-100·0) of women in the intervention clinics and 93·8% (85·0-98·9) in the control clinics (absolute difference 6·1% [95% CI 1·1-14·1]; p=0·00092). Syphilis treatment at the first visit was done in a median of 100% (IQR 99·7-100·0) of seropositive women in intervention clinics and 43·2% (2·6-83·2) of seropositive women in control clinics (absolute difference 56·8% [12·8-99·0]; p=0·0028). INTERPRETATION: A behavioural intervention, together with the provision of supplies, can lead to more than 95% of women being screened and treated for syphilis. The sole provision of supplies is sufficient to reach such levels of screening coverage but is not sufficient to ensure high levels of treatment. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30646502

RESUMO

Background: Obesogenic environments promote sedentary behavior and high dietary energy intake. The objective of the study was to identify barriers and facilitators to the implementation and impact evaluation of projects oriented to promote physical activity and healthy diet at community level. We analyzed experiences of the projects implemented within the Healthy Municipalities and Communities Program (HMCP) in Argentina. Methods: A mixed methods approach included (1) in-depth semi-structured interviews, with 44 stakeholders; and (2) electronic survey completed by 206 individuals from 96 municipalities across the country. Results: The most important barriers included the lack of: adequate funding (43%); skilled personnel (42%); equipment and material resources (31%); technical support for data management and analysis (20%); training on project designs (12%); political support from local authorities (17%) and acceptance of the proposed intervention by the local community (9%). Facilitators included motivated local leaders, inter-sectorial participation and seizing local resources. Project evaluation was mostly based on process rather than outcome indicators. Conclusions: This study contributes to a better understanding of the difficulties in the implementation of community-based intervention projects. Findings may guide stakeholders on how to facilitate local initiatives. There is a need to improve project evaluation strategies by incorporating process, outcome and context specific indicators.


Assuntos
Participação da Comunidade , Exercício , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Argentina , Assistência à Saúde , Feminino , Dieta Saudável , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
8.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 35(5): e00092618, 2019. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1001661

RESUMO

El objetivo fue describir experiencias, barreras y facilitadores en la implementación de intervenciones de control del Aedes aegypti en América Latina y Caribe. Fue realizado un abordaje cualitativo con entrevistas en profundidad semiestructuradas a expertos en implementación de programas (19 participantes de nueve países). Se utilizó un software para la codificar los datos y se confeccionaron matrices para su comparación. En base a los hallazgos desarrollamos una representación gráfica de dimensiones teóricas que agrupan las barreras y facilitadores para la implementación de intervenciones. A nivel global, el ambiente natural y construido contribuye a la reproducción del mosquito. En el sistema de salud, la falta de priorización del problema y la escasez de recursos materiales y humanos representan los obstáculos más importantes. Se necesita que otros sectores diferentes al de salud se responsabilicen de las acciones para mejorar los determinantes sociales de la salud. Existen barreras transversales relacionadas con la gobernanza, como la descoordinación entre los niveles centrales y locales, falta de continuidad de las intervenciones y de los grupos técnicos. La comunidad enfrenta problemas como la falta de información, pobreza o resistencias a recomendaciones. La opinión pública puede tener un impacto positivo o negativo, influyendo indirectamente en las decisiones políticas. Este estudio propone un marco de dimensiones de análisis construido desde los hallazgos; describe factores influyentes en la implementación de políticas que pueden orientar las acciones futuras desde un enfoque integrado.


This study sought to describe experiences, barriers and facilitators to the implementation of interventions for controlling Aedes aegypti in Latin America and the Caribbean. A qualitative approach with semi-structured in-depth interviews with program implementation experts (19 participants in nine countries) was carried out. We used a software to codify the data and created matrices to compare them. Based on our findings, we developed a graphic representation of the theoretical dimensions that encompass the barriers and facilitators to the implementation of interventions. At the global level, the natural and built environment contributed to the mosquito's reproduction. In the health system, the lack of priority given to the problem and the scarcity of material and human resources are the most important obstacles. Sectors other than health must take responsibility for actions directed at improving social determinants of health. There are transversal barriers related to governance, lack of coordination between central and local levels, lack of continuity in terms of interventions and technical groups. The community faces problems such as lack of information, poverty or resistance to recommendations. Public opinion can have a positive or negative impact, indirectly influencing political decisions. This study proposes a framework of analytical dimensions based on our findings; describes factors that influence policy implementation, which can guide future actions from an integrated perspective.


O objetivo foi descrever experiências, barreiras e facilitadores na implementação de intervenções de controle do Aedes aegypti na América Latina e no Caribe. Uma abordagem qualitativa foi realizada com entrevistas semiestruturadas em profundidade com especialistas na implementação do programa (19 participantes de nove países). Foi usado um software para codificar os dados e foram feitas matrizes para comparação. Com base nos resultados, desenvolvemos uma representação gráfica das dimensões teóricas que agruparam as barreiras e facilitadores para a implementação das intervenções. Em nível global, o ambiente natural e construído contribui para a reprodução do mosquito. No sistema de saúde, a falta de priorização do problema e a escassez de recursos materiais e humanos representam os obstáculos mais importantes. É necessário que outros setores, além do setor saúde, assumam ações de melhoria dos determinantes sociais da saúde. Existem barreiras transversais relacionadas à governança, como a falta de coordenação entre os níveis central e local e a falta de continuidade das intervenções e dos grupos técnicos. A comunidade enfrenta problemas como falta de informação, pobreza ou resistência a recomendações. A opinião pública pode ter um impacto positivo ou negativo, influenciando indiretamente as decisões políticas. Este estudo propõe um quadro de dimensões de análise construído a partir dos resultados; descreve fatores influentes na implementação de políticas que podem orientar ações futuras a partir de uma abordagem integrada.

9.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 35(4): e00092918, 2019. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, PIE | ID: biblio-1001645

RESUMO

This article presents the results of a dialogue between decision-makers and experts in Latin America and the Caribbean on priority-setting for interventions and studies on Aedes aegypti control. The article is part of a project that included a systematic review of mosquito control strategies and a qualitative study with key informants from the region. Using a collective deliberative process assisted by the results of the above-mentioned projects, a list of priorities was developed by consensus for the implementation of vector control strategies and the development of key regional research lines. It was agreed that the best strategy is integrated vector management, divided into: (a) chemical control; (b) biological control; (c) environmental management; (d) community participation; and (e) integrated surveillance. The workshop highlighted the crucial role of government leadership and inter-sector coordination between government agencies and civil society stakeholders. The proposed priorities for research lines were: Ae. aegypti vector competence and associated factors; community components of interventions; incorporation of technology into vector control and monitoring; most efficient modalities of integrated surveillance; entomological indicators with the best predictive capacity; and resistance to insecticides. The policy dialogue methodology allowed validating and enriching the results of other levels of research, besides establishing priorities for regional research and control strategies.


Este trabalho apresenta os resultados de um diálogo entre tomadores de decisão e expertos da América Latina e do Caribe sobre a priorização de intervenções e pesquisas para o controle do mosquito Aedes aegypti. Faz parte de um projeto que compreendeu uma revisão sistemática sobre estratégias e controle do mosquito e um estudo qualitativo com informantes chave da região. Através de um processo deliberativo em instâncias coletivas, assistido pelos resultados dos mencionados projetos, foi elaborada uma listagem consensuada de prioridades de implementação de estratégias de controle vetorial e de desenvolvimento regional de linhas essenciais de pesquisa. Foi acordado que a melhor estratégia é a gestão integrada de vetores ou Estratégia de Gestão Integrada, desagregada em: (a) controle químico; (b) controle biológico; (c) gestão ambiental; (d) participação comunitária; (e) vigilância integrada. Foi destacado o rol fundamental e indelegável da direção do estado e a coordenação intersetorial entre agências estaduais com atores da sociedade civil. Foi proposto priorizar como linhas de pesquisa: a capacidade vetorial do Ae. aegypti e fatores associados; componentes comunitários das intervenções; a incorporação de tecnologia para o controle vetorial e para o monitoramento; modos mais eficientes de vigilância integrada; indicadores entomológicos com melhor capacidade preditiva e resistência a pesticidas. A metodologia do diálogo de políticas permitiu validar e enriquecer os resultados de outras áreas de pesquisa, possibilitou estabelecer prioridades a propósito da pesquisa, além de estratégias para o controle regional.


Este trabajo presenta los resultados de un diálogo entre tomadores de decisión y expertos de América Latina y el Caribe sobre la priorización de intervenciones e investigaciones para el control del mosquito Aedes aegypti. Forma parte de un proyecto que comprendió una revisión sistemática sobre estrategias control del mosquito y un estudio cualitativo con informantes clave de la región. Mediante un proceso deliberativo en instancias colectivas, asistido por los resultados de los mencionados proyectos, se elaboró un listado consensuado de prioridades de implementación de estrategias de control vectorial y de desarrollo regional de líneas clave de investigación. Se convino en que la mejor estrategia es el manejo integrado de vectores o Estrategia de Gestión Integrada, desagregada en: (a) control químico; (b) control biológico; (c) manejo ambiental; (d) participación comunitaria; y (e) vigilancia integrada. Se destacó el fundamental e indelegable rol de rectoría del estado y la coordinación intersectorial entre agencias estatales y con actores de la sociedad civil. Se propuso priorizar como líneas de investigación: la capacidad vectorial del Ae. aegypti y factores asociados; componentes comunitarios de las intervenciones; la incorporación de tecnología al control vectorial y al monitoreo; los modos más eficientes de vigilancia integrada; indicadores entomológicos con mejor capacidad predictiva y resistencia a insecticidas. La metodología del diálogo de políticas permitió validar y enriquecer los resultados de otras instancias de investigación, y permitió establecer prioridades sobre investigación y estrategias para el control regional.


Assuntos
Humanos , Aedes , Mosquitos Vetores , Planejamento em Saúde/organização & administração , Conferências de Consenso como Assunto , Região do Caribe/epidemiologia
10.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 42, sep. 2018. Special Issue Alma-Ata.
Artigo em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-49465

RESUMO

[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Explorar las motivaciones y expectativas de los usuarios del Programa de Estaciones Saludables en la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires y evaluar su potencial impacto sanitario. Métodos. Se realizaron entrevistas en profundidad (n = 34) y una encuesta autoadministrada (n = 605) a usuarios del programa. Se desarrolló un modelo epidemiológico para estimar el impacto del programa sobre los eventos cardiovasculares y los años de vida ajustados por discapacidad (AVAD). Resultados. Los principales factores motivadores para el uso de las estaciones saludables fueron la accesibilidad geográfica, económica (servicios gratuitos) y la satisfacción con la atención recibida. El 14,4% (intervalos de confianza del 95% [IC95%] 10,3–18,5%) de los usuarios hipertensos y el 24,8% (IC95% 17,6–32,0%) de los diabéticos informó haberse enterado de sus valores alterados en las estaciones saludables. Más de la mitad de los encuestados reportó alguna mejora de conocimientos sobre los beneficios de realizar actividad física y una alimentación saludable; esto fue más frecuente entre los usuarios más jóvenes, de menor nivel educativo, usuarios del sistema público de salud, usuarios de estaciones saludables de la zona sur y los que tenían algún factor de riesgo cardiometabólico (p<0.05). Se estimó que debido a la existencia de estaciones saludables se evitarían 12,5 eventos cardiovasculares y cerebrovasculares por año en la población asistida (4,75 eventos/100 000 personas) y 47,75 AVAD por estas causas. Conclusiones. Las estaciones saludables resultan un espacio propicio para la implementación de acciones de promoción de la salud y prevención, contribuyendo en la detección y facilitando el monitoreo de los factores de riesgo, con potencialidad para prevenir eventos cardiovasculares y sus consecuencias.


[ABSTRACT]. Objective. To explore the motivations and expectations of the users of the Program for Healthy Centers in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires and to evaluate its potential health impact. Methods. In-depth interviews were conducted (n = 34) and a self-administered survey was sent to users of the program (n = 605). An epidemiological model was developed to estimate the impact of the program on cardiovascular events (CVE) and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Results. The main motivating factors for using the healthy centers were geographic and economic accessibility (free services) and satisfaction with the care received. 14.4% (95% CI, 10.3-18.5%) of hypertensive users and 24.8% (95% CI, 17.6-32.0%) of diabetic users reported having learned of their altered values in the healthy center. More than half of the respondents reported some improvement in their knowledge about the benefits of physical activity and healthy eating; this was more frequent among those who were younger, of lower educational level, users of the public health system, users of a healthy center in the South zone and those who had a cardiometabolic risk factor (p<0.05). It was estimated that the healthy centers would prevent 12.5 cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events per year in the assisted population (4.75 events/100 000) and 47.75 DALYs due to these causes. Conclusions. The healthy centers are a favorable space for the implementation of health promotion and prevention actions, contributing to the detection of and facilitating the monitoring of risk factors, with a potential to prevent cardiovascular events and its consequences.


[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Explorar as motivações e expectativas dos usuários do Programa Estações Saudáveis na Cidade Autônoma de Buenos Aires e avaliar seu impacto potencial na saúde. Métodos. Foram realizadas entrevistas em profundidade (n = 34) e uma pesquisa auto-administrada (n = 605) a usuários do programa. Um modelo epidemiológico foi desenvolvido para estimar o impacto do programa em eventos cardiovasculares e anos de vida ajustados por incapacidade (DALY). Resultados. Os principais fatores motivadores para o uso do estações saudáveis foram a acessibilidade geográfica, econômica (serviços gratuitos) e a satisfação com o atendimento recebido. 14,4% (intervalo de confiança de 95% [IC95%] 10,3-18,5%) de usuários hipertensos e 24,8% (IC95% 17,6-32,0%) dos diabéticos relataram ter aprendido sobre seus valores alterados na estação saudável. Mais da metade dos entrevistados relataram alguma melhora no conhecimento sobre os benefícios da atividade física e da alimentação saudável, com maior freqüência entre os mais jovens, de menor escolaridade, usuários do sistema público de saúde, usuários de estações saudáveis na zona sul e aqueles que apresentaram algum fator de risco cardiometabólico (p<0,05). Estimou-se que, devido à existência de estações saudáveis, 12,5 eventos cardiovasculares e cerebrovasculares por ano seriam evitados na população atendida (4,75 eventos/100 000) e 47,75 DALY por essas causas. Conclusões. As estações saudáveis são um espaço propício para a implementação de ações de promoção e prevenção da saúde, contribuindo para a detecção e facilitação do monitoramento dos fatores de risco, com potencial para prevenir os eventos cardiovasculares e suas consequências.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde , Prevenção Primária , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Avaliação em Saúde , Argentina , Promoção da Saúde , Prevenção Primária , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Avaliação em Saúde , Promoção da Saúde , Prevenção Primária , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Avaliação em Saúde
11.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 42: e150, 2018. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-961831

RESUMO

RESUMEN Objetivo Explorar las motivaciones y expectativas de los usuarios del Programa de Estaciones Saludables en la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires y evaluar su potencial impacto sanitario. Métodos Se realizaron entrevistas en profundidad (n = 34) y una encuesta autoadministrada (n = 605) a usuarios del programa. Se desarrolló un modelo epidemiológico para estimar el impacto del programa sobre los eventos cardiovasculares y los años de vida ajustados por discapacidad (AVAD). Resultados Los principales factores motivadores para el uso de las estaciones saludables fueron la accesibilidad geográfica, económica (servicios gratuitos) y la satisfacción con la atención recibida. El 14,4% (intervalos de confianza del 95% [IC95%] 10,3-18,5%) de los usuarios hipertensos y el 24,8% (IC95% 17,6-32,0%) de los diabéticos informó haberse enterado de sus valores alterados en las estaciones saludables. Más de la mitad de los encuestados reportó alguna mejora de conocimientos sobre los beneficios de realizar actividad física y una alimentación saludable; esto fue más frecuente entre los usuarios más jóvenes, de menor nivel educativo, usuarios del sistema público de salud, usuarios de estaciones saludables de la zona sur y los que tenían algún factor de riesgo cardiometabólico (p<0.05). Se estimó que debido a la existencia de estaciones saludables se evitarían 12,5 eventos cardiovasculares y cerebrovasculares por año en la población asistida (4,75 eventos/100 000 personas) y 47,75 AVAD por estas causas. Conclusiones Las estaciones saludables resultan un espacio propicio para la implementación de acciones de promoción de la salud y prevención, contribuyendo en la detección y facilitando el monitoreo de los factores de riesgo, con potencialidad para prevenir eventos cardiovasculares y sus consecuencias.


ABSTRACT Objective To explore the motivations and expectations of the users of the Program for Healthy Centers in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires and to evaluate its potential health impact. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted (n = 34) and a self-administered survey was sent to users of the program (n = 605). An epidemiological model was developed to estimate the impact of the program on cardiovascular events (CVE) and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Results The main motivating factors for using the healthy centers were geographic and economic accessibility (free services) and satisfaction with the care received. 14.4% (95% CI, 10.3-18.5%) of hypertensive users and 24.8% (95% CI, 17.6-32.0%) of diabetic users reported having learned of their altered values in the healthy center. More than half of the respondents reported some improvement in their knowledge about the benefits of physical activity and healthy eating; this was more frequent among those who were younger, of lower educational level, users of the public health system, users of a healthy center in the South zone and those who had a cardiometabolic risk factor (p<0.05). It was estimated that the healthy centers would prevent 12.5 cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events per year in the assisted population (4.75 events/100 000) and 47.75 DALYs due to these causes. Conclusions The healthy centers are a favorable space for the implementation of health promotion and prevention actions, contributing to the detection of and facilitating the monitoring of risk factors, with a potential to prevent cardiovascular events and its consequences.


RESUMO Objetivo Explorar as motivações e expectativas dos usuários do Programa Estações Saudáveis na Cidade Autônoma de Buenos Aires e avaliar seu impacto potencial na saúde. Métodos Foram realizadas entrevistas em profundidade (n = 34) e uma pesquisa auto-administrada (n = 605) a usuários do programa. Um modelo epidemiológico foi desenvolvido para estimar o impacto do programa em eventos cardiovasculares e anos de vida ajustados por incapacidade (DALY). Resultados Os principais fatores motivadores para o uso do estações saudáveis foram a acessibilidade geográfica, econômica (serviços gratuitos) e a satisfação com o atendimento recebido. 14,4% (intervalo de confiança de 95% [IC95%] 10,3-18,5%) de usuários hipertensos e 24,8% (IC95% 17,6-32,0%) dos diabéticos relataram ter aprendido sobre seus valores alterados na estação saudável. Mais da metade dos entrevistados relataram alguma melhora no conhecimento sobre os benefícios da atividade física e da alimentação saudável, com maior freqüência entre os mais jovens, de menor escolaridade, usuários do sistema público de saúde, usuários de estações saudáveis na zona sul e aqueles que apresentaram algum fator de risco cardiometabólico (p<0,05). Estimou-se que, devido à existência de estações saudáveis, 12,5 eventos cardiovasculares e cerebrovasculares por ano seriam evitados na população atendida (4,75 eventos/100 000) e 47,75 DALY por essas causas. Conclusões As estações saudáveis são um espaço propício para a implementação de ações de promoção e prevenção da saúde, contribuindo para a detecção e facilitação do monitoramento dos fatores de risco, com potencial para prevenir os eventos cardiovasculares e suas consequências.


Assuntos
Prevenção Primária , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Argentina/epidemiologia , Avaliação em Saúde
12.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 17(1): 556, 2017 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28807019

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impact of untreated syphilis during pregnancy on neonatal health remains a major public health threat worldwide. Given the high prevalence of syphilis during pregnancy in Zambia and Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), the Preventive Congenital Syphilis Trial (PCS Trial), a cluster randomized trial, was proposed to increase same-day screening and treatment of syphilis during antenatal care visits. To design an accepted and feasible intervention, we conducted a qualitative  formative research. Our objective was to identify context-specific  barriers and facilitators to the implementation of antenatal screening and treatment during pregnancy. METHODS: Qualitative research included in-depth semi-structured interviews with clinic administrators, group interviews with health care providers, and focus groups with pregnant women in primary care clinics (PCCs) in Kinshasa (DRC) and Lusaka (Zambia). RESULTS: A total of 112 individuals participated in the interviews and focus groups. Barriers for the implementation of syphilis testing and treatment were identified at the a) system level: fragmentation of the health system, existence of ANC guidelines in conflict with proposed intervention, poor accessibility of clinics (geographical and functional), staff and product shortages at the PCCs; b) healthcare providers' level: lack of knowledge and training about evolving best practices, reservations regarding same-day screening and treatment; c) Pregnant women level: late enrollment in ANC, lack of knowledge about consequences and treatment of syphilis, and stigma. Based on these results, we developed recommendations for the design of the PCS Trial intervention. CONCLUSION: This research allowed us to identify barriers and facilitators to improve the feasibility and acceptability of a behavioral intervention. Formative research is a critical step in designing appropriate and effective interventions by closing the "know-do gap".


Assuntos
Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Sífilis/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Terapia Comportamental/métodos , República Democrática do Congo/epidemiologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Gestantes , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal/métodos , Prevalência , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Sífilis Congênita/epidemiologia , Sífilis Congênita/prevenção & controle , Zâmbia/epidemiologia
13.
Artigo em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-33877

RESUMO

Antecedentes. Al momento no se ha logrado sintetizar toda la información cualicuantitativa relacionada al control de Aedes aegypti (A. aegypti) en América Latina y el Caribe (ALC). Objetivo. Describir la existencia y el grado de ejecución de los programas específicos o actividades de control vectorial en ALC como parte de programas sanitarios, establecer los costos y/o costoefectividad de las estrategias de control vectorial e identificar barreras y facilitadores para la implementación de las estrategias. Métodos. El estudio se llevará a cabo en dos fases complementarias. La primera fase será cuantitativa en la forma de una revisión sistemática, cuyos detalles han sido publicados en la base PROSPERO (CRD42016038067). La segunda fase será cualitativa y consistirá en la realización de entrevistas en profundidad semiestructuradas a informants clave como investigadores, responsables programáticos,referentes nacionales, agentes del sistema sanitario y representantes de organizaciones no gubernamentales. Discusión. El abordaje cualicuantitativo permitirá describir las estrategias y el nivel de implementación para el control de vector y su efectividad, sus costos programáticos y costo-efectividad. Permitirá también analizar factores influyent es en la implementación de programas.


Assuntos
Controle de Vetores , Aedes , Análise Qualitativa , Revisão , América Latina
14.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-961699

RESUMO

RESUMEN Antecedentes Al momento no se ha logrado sintetizar toda la información cuali-cuantitativa relacionada al control de Aedes aegypti (A. aegypti) en América Latina y el Caribe (ALC). Objetivo Describir la existencia y el grado de ejecución de los programas específicos o actividades de control vectorial en ALC como parte de programas sanitarios, establecer los costos y/o costoefectividad de las estrategias de control vectorial e identificar barreras y facilitadores para la implementación de las estrategias. Métodos El estudio se llevará a cabo en dos fases complementarias. La primera fase será cuantitativa en la forma de una revisión sistemática, cuyos detalles han sido publicados en la base PROSPERO (CRD42016038067). La segunda fase será cualitativa y consistirá en la realización de entrevistas en profundidad semiestructuradas a informantes clave como investigadores, responsables programáticos,referentes nacionales, agentes del sistema sanitario y representantes de organizaciones no gubernamentales. Discusión El abordaje cualicuantitativo permitirá describir las estrategias y el nivel de implementación para el control de vector y su efectividad, sus costos programáticos y costo-efectividad. Permitirá también analizar factores influyentes en la implementación de programas.


Assuntos
Análise Qualitativa/estatística & dados numéricos , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Aedes , América Latina
15.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 15: 200, 2015 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26330022

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal mortality remains a daunting problem in Mozambique and many other low-resource countries. High quality antenatal care (ANC) services can improve maternal and newborn health outcomes and increase the likelihood that women will seek skilled delivery care. This study explores the factors influencing provider uptake of the recommended package of ANC interventions in Mozambique. METHODS: This study used qualitative research methods including key informant interviews with stakeholders from the health sector and a total of five focus group discussions with women with experience with ANC or women from the community. Study participants were selected from three health centers located in Maputo city, Tete, and Cabo Delgado provinces in Mozambique. Staff responsible for the medicines/supply chain at national, provincial and district level were interviewed. A check list was implemented to confirm the availability of the supplies required for ANC. Deductive content analysis was conducted. RESULTS: Three main groups of factors were identified that hinder the implementation of the ANC package in the study setting: a) system or organizational: include chronic supply chain deficiencies, failures in the continuing education system, lack of regular audits and supervision, absence of an efficient patient record system and poor environmental conditions at the health center; b) health care provider factors: such as limited awareness of current clinical guidelines and a resistant attitude to adopting new recommendations; and c) Users: challenges with accessing ANC, poor recognition amongst women about the purpose and importance of the specific interventions provided through ANC, and widespread perception of an unfriendly environment at the health center. CONCLUSIONS: The ANC package in Mozambique is not being fully implemented in the three study facilities, and a major barrier is poor functioning of the supply chain system. Recommendations for improving the implementation of antenatal interventions include ensuring clinical protocols based on the ANC model. Increasing the community understanding of the importance of ANC would improve demand for high quality ANC services. The supply chain functioning could be strengthened through the introduction of a kit system with all the necessary supplies for ANC and a simple monitoring system to track the stock levels is recommended.


Assuntos
Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Serviços de Saúde Materna/organização & administração , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Cuidado Pré-Natal/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Lista de Checagem , Estudos Transversais , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Moçambique , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Avaliação de Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde) , Pobreza , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Medição de Risco , Adulto Jovem
16.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 15: 74, 2015 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25885336

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing women's access to and use of facilities for childbirth is a critical national strategy to improve maternal health outcomes in Ethiopia; however coverage alone is not enough as the quality of emergency obstetric services affects maternal mortality and morbidity. Addis Ababa has a much higher proportion of facility-based births (82%) than the national average (11%), but timely provision of quality emergency obstetric care remains a significant challenge for reducing maternal mortality and improving maternal health. The purpose of this study was to assess barriers to the provision of emergency obstetric care in Addis Ababa from the perspective of healthcare providers by analyzing three factors: implementation of national referral guidelines, staff training, and staff supervision. METHODS: A mixed methods approach was used to assess barriers to quality emergency obstetric care. Qualitative analyses included twenty-nine, semi-structured, key informant interviews with providers from an urban referral network consisting of a hospital and seven health centers. Quantitative survey data were collected from 111 providers, 80% (111/138) of those providing maternal health services in the same referral network. RESULTS: Respondents identified a lack of transportation and communication infrastructure, overcrowding at the referral hospital, insufficient pre-service and in-service training, and absence of supportive supervision as key barriers to provision of quality emergency obstetric care. CONCLUSIONS: Dedicated transportation and communication infrastructure, improvements in pre-service and in-service training, and supportive supervision are needed to maximize the effective use of existing human resources and infrastructure, thus increasing access to and the provision of timely, high quality emergency obstetric care in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/normas , Serviços de Saúde Materna/normas , Tocologia/normas , Enfermagem Obstétrica/normas , Obstetrícia/normas , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Encaminhamento e Consulta/normas , Adulto , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/organização & administração , Etiópia , Feminino , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Humanos , Masculino , Serviços de Saúde Materna/organização & administração , Tocologia/educação , Tocologia/organização & administração , Enfermagem Obstétrica/educação , Enfermagem Obstétrica/organização & administração , Obstetrícia/educação , Obstetrícia/organização & administração , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Pesquisa Qualitativa
17.
Health Expect ; 16(4): e146-63, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21895902

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Cochrane Consumer Network is an internet-based community of international users of health care contributing to the work of The Cochrane Collaboration, whose mission is to inform healthcare decision making through development of systematic reviews of best evidence on healthcare interventions. OBJECTIVE: To prioritize existing review titles listed on The Cochrane Library from a healthcare user perspective, with particular emphasis on patients, carers and health consumers. DESIGN: An online survey was developed and after piloting was made available internationally. The broad dissemination strategy targeted Consumer Network members and Cochrane Review Group editorial staff to identify champions who notified patient support groups and participated in snowballing. The first part of the survey defined criteria that could be applied to review titles and asked survey respondents to rank them. The second part asked respondents to select a health area and prioritize review titles that were of importance to them. Each health area corresponded to a Cochrane Review Group. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Sufficient responses were obtained from 522 valid responses to prioritize review topics in 19 health areas. A total of 321 respondents completed the titles assessment. The types of prioritized interventions were determined by the health area. An important observation was the emphasis on lifestyle and non-medication therapies in many of the included health areas. The clearest exception to this broad observation was where acute care is required such as antibiotics for acute respiratory tract and HIV-associated infections and for cardiac conditions. For some cancers, advanced cancer interventions were prioritized. The most important criteria were for the title to convey a clear meaning and the title conveyed that the review would have an impact on health and well-being. The least important criteria were that the topic was newsworthy or prioritized in the healthcare system. CONCLUSION: This project was able to identify priority Cochrane review topics for users of health care in 19 of the 50 areas of health care covered by The Cochrane Collaboration. Reviews addressing lifestyle and non-medical interventions were strongly represented in the prioritized review titles. These findings highlight the importance of developing readable, informative lay summaries to support evidence-based decision making by healthcare users.


Assuntos
Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , Adulto , Coleta de Dados , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/normas , Feminino , Prioridades em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
18.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 11: 243, 2011 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21958353

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Audit and feedback is an established strategy for improving maternal, neonatal and child health. The Perinatal Problem Identification Programme (PPIP), implemented in South African public hospitals in the late 1990s, measures perinatal mortality rates and identifies avoidable factors associated with each death. The aim of this study was to elucidate the processes involved in the implementation and sustainability of this programme. METHODS: Clinicians' experiences of the implementation and maintenance of PPIP were explored qualitatively in two workshop sessions. An analytical framework comprising six stages of change, divided into three phases, was used: pre-implementation (create awareness, commit to implementation); implementation (prepare to implement, implement) and institutionalisation (integrate into routine practice, sustain new practices). RESULTS: Four essential factors emerged as important for the successful implementation and sustainability of an audit system throughout the different stages of change: 1) drivers (agents of change) and team work, 2) clinical outreach visits and supervisory activities, 3) institutional perinatal review and feedback meetings, and 4) communication and networking between health system levels, health care facilities and different role-players.During the pre-implementation phase high perinatal mortality rates highlighted the problem and indicated the need to implement an audit programme (stage 1). Commitment to implementing the programme was achieved by obtaining buy-in from management, administration and health care practitioners (stage 2).Preparations in the implementation phase included the procurement and installation of software and training in its use (stage 3). Implementation began with the collection of data, followed by feedback at perinatal review meetings (stage 4).The institutionalisation phase was reached when the results of the audit were integrated into routine practice (stage 5) and when data collection had been sustained for a longer period (stage 6). CONCLUSION: Insights into the factors necessary for the successful implementation and maintenance of an audit programme and the process of change involved may also be transferable to similar low- and middle-income public health settings where the reduction of the neonatal mortality rate is a key objective in reaching Millennium Development Goal 4. A tool for reflecting on the implementation and maintenance of an audit programme is also proposed.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Auditoria Médica/organização & administração , Assistência Perinatal/organização & administração , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Países em Desenvolvimento , Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto , Feminino , Implementação de Plano de Saúde , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , África do Sul
19.
Lancet ; 377(9777): 1610-23, 2011 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21496910

RESUMO

The causes of stillbirths are inseparable from the causes of maternal and neonatal deaths. This report focuses on prevention of stillbirths by scale-up of care for mothers and babies at the health-system level, with consideration for effects and cost. In countries with high mortality rates, emergency obstetric care has the greatest effect on maternal and neonatal deaths, and on stillbirths. Syphilis detection and treatment is of moderate effect but of lower cost and is highly feasible. Advanced antenatal care, including induction for post-term pregnancies, and detection and management of hypertensive disease, fetal growth restriction, and gestational diabetes, will further reduce mortality, but at higher cost. These interventions are best packaged and provided through linked service delivery methods tailored to suit existing health-care systems. If 99% coverage is reached in 68 priority countries by 2015, up to 1·1 million (45%) third-trimester stillbirths, 201 000 (54%) maternal deaths, and 1·4 million (43%) neonatal deaths could be saved per year at an additional total cost of US$10·9 billion or $2·32 per person, which is in the range of $0·96-2·32 for other ingredients-based intervention packages with only recurrent costs.


Assuntos
Cuidado Pré-Concepcional , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Natimorto , Feminino , Humanos , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido , Mortalidade Materna
20.
J Ambul Care Manage ; 33(3): 182-9, 2010 Jul-Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20539144

RESUMO

The Cochrane Consumer Network (CCNet) is an international organization of volunteers, operating through the Internet, to enhance the accessibility and relevance of Cochrane systematic reviews and to promote evidence-based health care through consumer and community participation. This article presents the accomplishments and challenges of involving consumers in The Cochrane Collaboration as indicated by 2 surveys (CCNet-led evaluation 2006 and External consultant-led evaluation 2009). While consumers are effectively involved in commenting on prepublished Cochrane systematic reviews, opportunities exist to strengthen consumer participation in prioritizing, producing, and disseminating Cochrane systematic reviews and in promoting greater understanding and application of evidence-based health care in various countries and cultures. It is important that consumer participation adds value for all involved in the process and that it is developed in partnership.


Assuntos
Participação da Comunidade , Bases de Dados Bibliográficas , Cooperação Internacional , Internet , Adulto , Austrália , Coleta de Dados , Europa (Continente) , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Feminino , Humanos , Serviços de Informação , Masculino , América do Norte
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