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1.
Crit Care Med ; 2021 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33935165

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine whether a statistically derived, trend-based, deterioration index is superior to other early warning scores at predicting adverse events and whether it can be integrated into an electronic medical record to enable real-time alerts. DESIGN: Forty-three variables and their trends from cases and controls were used to develop a logistic model and deterioration index to predict patient deterioration greater than or equal to 1 hour prior to an adverse event. SETTING: Two large Australian teaching hospitals. PATIENTS: Cases were considered as patients who suffered adverse events (unexpected death, unplanned ICU transfer, urgent surgery, and rapid-response alert) between August 1, 2016, and April 1, 2019. INTERVENTIONS: The logistic model and deterioration index were tested on historical data and then integrated into an electronic medical record for a 6-month prospective "silent" validation. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Data were acquired from 258,732 admissions. There were 8,002 adverse events. The addition of vital sign and laboratory trend values to the logistic model increased the area under the curve from 0.84 to 0.89 and the sensitivity to predict an adverse event 1-48 hours prior from 0.35 to 0.41. A 48-hour simulation showed that the logistic model had a higher area under the curve than the Modified Early Warning Score and National Early Warning Score (0.87 vs 0.74 vs 0.71). During the silently run prospective trial, the sensitivity of the deterioration index to detect adverse event any time prior to the adverse event was 0.474, 0.369 1 hour prior, and 0.327 4 hours prior, with a specificity of 0.972. CONCLUSIONS: A deterioration prediction model was developed using patient demographics, ward-based observations, laboratory values, and their trends. The model's outputs were converted to a deterioration index that was successfully integrated into a live hospital electronic medical record. The sensitivity and specificity of the tool to detect inpatient deterioration were superior to traditional early warning scores.

2.
J Sep Sci ; 2021 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33989452

RESUMO

We report the fabrication of 6-phenylhexylsilane derivatized, sputtered silicon, solid phase microextraction fibers that show parts per trillion detection limits for polyaromatic hydrocarbons, and negligible carry-over and phase bleed. Their fabrication involves sputtering silicon on silica fibers under various conditions. Six different fibers were evaluated by generating three different thicknesses of sputtered silicon at two different throw distances, which altered the morphologies of the silicon surfaces. All of the fibers were coated with similar thicknesses of 6-phenylhexylsilane (ca. 2 nm). These fibers were characterized with multiple analytical techniques. The optimum fiber configuration was then used to analyze polyaromatic hydrocarbons via direct immersion, GC-MS. Our best fiber for the extraction of low molecular weight polyaromatic hydrocarbons in water had similar performance to that of a commercial fiber. However, our fiber demonstrated ca. 3 times the extraction efficiency for higher molecular weight polyaromatic hydrocarbons. In addition, it outperformed the commercial fiber by showing better linearity, repeatability, and detection limits. A method for analyzing polyaromatic hydrocarbons in baby formula was developed, which showed very good linearity (0.5-125 ppb), repeatability (2-26%), detection limits (0.12-0.81 ppb), and recoveries (103-135%). In addition, our fiber showed much less (negligible) carry-over and phase bleed the commercially available fibers. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

3.
Environ Sci Technol ; 2021 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33961408

RESUMO

Atmospheric secondary organic aerosol (SOA) undergoes chemical and physical changes when exposed to UV radiation, affecting the atmospheric lifetime of the involved molecules. However, these photolytic processes remain poorly constrained. Here, we present a study aimed at characterizing, at a molecular level and in real time, the chemical composition of α-pinene SOA exposed to UV-A light at 50% relative humidity in an atmospheric simulation chamber. Significant SOA mass loss is observed at high loadings (∼100 µg m-3), whereas the effect is less prevalent at lower loadings (∼20 µg m-3). For the vast majority of molecules measured by the extractive electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometer, there is a fraction that is photoactive and decays when exposed to UV-A radiation and a fraction that appears photorecalcitrant. The molecules that are most photoactive contain between 4 and 6 oxygen atoms, while the more highly oxygenated compounds and dimers do not exhibit significant decay. Overall, photolysis results in a reduction of the volatility of SOA, which cannot be explained by simple evaporative losses but requires either a change in volatility related to changes in functional groups or a change in physical parameters (i.e., viscosity).

4.
J Athl Train ; 2021 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33887766

RESUMO

CONTEXT: In the spring of 2020, schools closed to in-person teaching and sports were cancelled to control the transmission of CoVID-19. The changes that took place to the physical and mental health among young athletes during this time remain unknown, however. OBJECTIVE: Identify changes in the health (mental health, physical activity and quality of life) of athletes that occurred during the CoVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Sample recruited via social media. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: 3243 Wisconsin adolescent athletes (age=16.2±1.2 yrs., female=58% female) completed an online survey in May 2020 (DuringCoVID-19). Health measures for this cohort were compared with previously reported data for Wisconsin adolescent athletes (n=5231, age=15.7±1.2, 47% female) collected in 2016-2018 (PreCoVID-19). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Demographic information included: sex, grade and sports played. Health assessments included the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 Item (PHQ-9) to identify depression symptoms, the Pediatric Functional Activity Brief Scale (PFABS) for physical activity, and the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 (PedsQL) for health related quality of life (HRQoL). Univariable comparisons of these variables between groups were made via t-tests or chi-square tests. Means and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for each group were estimated by survey weighted ANOVA models. RESULTS: Compared to PreCoVID-19, a larger proportion of the During-CoVID-19 participants reported rates of moderate to severe levels of depression (9.7% vs 32.9%, p<0.001). During-CoVID-19 participants reported 50% lower (worse) PFABS scores (mean:12.2 [95%CI: 11.9, 12.5] vs 24.7 [24.5, 24.9] p<0.001) and lower (worse) PedsQL total scores compared to the PreCoVID-19 participants (78.4 [78.0, 78.8] vs. 90.9 [90.5, 91.3] p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: During the CoVID-19 pandemic, adolescent athletes reported increased symptoms of depression, decreased physical activity and decreased quality of life compared to adolescent athletes in previous years.

5.
BMC Pulm Med ; 21(1): 78, 2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33663453

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Supplemental oxygen is an essential treatment for childhood pneumonia but is often unavailable in low-resource settings or unreliable due to frequent and long-lasting power outages. We present a novel medium pressure reservoir (MPR) which delivers continuous oxygen to pediatric patients through power outages. METHODS: An observational case series pilot study assessing the capacity, efficacy and user appraisal of a novel MPR device for use in low-resource pediatric wards. We designed and tested a MPR in a controlled preclinical setting, established feasibility of the device in two rural Kenyan hospitals, and sought user feedback and satisfaction using a standardized questionnaire. RESULTS: Preclinical data showed that the MPR was capable of bridging power outages and delivering a continuous flow of oxygen to a simulated patient. The MPR was then deployed for clinical testing in nine pediatric patients at Ahero and Suba Hospitals. Power was unavailable for 2% of the total time observed due to 11 power outages (median 4.6 min, IQR 3.6-13.0 min) that occurred during treatment with the MPR. Oxygen flowrates remained constant across all 11 power outages. Feedback on the MPR was uniformly positive; all respondents indicated that the MPR was easy to use and provided clinically significant help to their patients. CONCLUSION: We present a MPR oxygen delivery device that has the potential to mitigate power insecurity and improve the standard of care for hypoxemic pediatric patients in resource-limited settings.

6.
Am J Sports Med ; 49(6): 1634-1641, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33719583

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sports-related concussions may have a neurobiological recovery period that exceeds the period of clinical recovery, and one consequence of an extended neurobiological recovery may be the risk of subsequent musculoskeletal injuries. Most literature citing an increased risk of musculoskeletal injury after a sports-related concussion has been reported in populations other than adolescent athletes. PURPOSE/HYPOTHESIS: The purpose was to prospectively determine if incidence rates of musculoskeletal injury differ between adolescent athletes with and without a previous sports-related concussion, while controlling for sex, sport, and age. A secondary aim was to determine if this relationship differs between male and female athletes of the same sport. Our hypotheses were that acute-noncontact injury rates would be higher in athletes with a previous sports-related concussion when compared with athletes without a previous sports-related concussion, and that this relationship would exist only in female athletes and not male athletes. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. METHODS: High school soccer and volleyball players were recruited in 2 prospective cohort studies that observed 4837 athletes during their sporting season (females, 80%; soccer, 57%; mean [SD] age, 15.6 [1.1] years). At preseason, all participants self-reported demographics and previous sports-related concussion within the past 12 months. During the sport season, team athletic trainers electronically recorded athlete exposures and injury data, including injury characteristics. Injury rates per 1000 athlete exposures and injury rate ratios (IRRs) with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. All injury rates and IRRs were adjusted for sex, age, and sport. RESULTS: The rate of acute-noncontact lower extremity injury was 87% greater (IRR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.29-2.74) in participants with a previous sports-related concussion versus those without one. The acute-noncontact lower extremity injury rates (IRRs) for females and males with a previous sports-related concussion were 1.76 (95% CI, 1.19-2.59) and 2.83 (95% CI, 0.85-9.50), respectively. No difference was detected in acute-contact (IRR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.56-1.73) or overuse (IRR, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.51-2.37) lower extremity injury rates by previous sports-related concussion. CONCLUSION: Female adolescent athletes who reported a sports-related concussion within the past 12 months were more likely to sustain an acute-noncontact lower extremity injury during their high school sports season when compared with female athletes without a previous sport-related concussion.

7.
J Athl Train ; 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787895

RESUMO

CONTEXT: A single, widely accepted definition of sport specialization does not exist. A consensus definition is necessary to guide youth sport stakeholders on issues associated with sport specialization. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop a consensus definition of youth sport specialization and to identify elements that support the construct of specialization. DESIGN: Delphi Study Setting: Directed Surveys Patients or Other Participants: A consensus panel of 17 experts was created to provide a broad multidisciplinary perspective on sport specialization in youth athletes. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: The final definition was developed per an iterative process that involved four rounds of review. A comprehensive review of literature and expert input supported our initial proposed umbrella definition that included six additional elements. The study team reviewed the results after each round and changes were made to the definition based on panel feedback. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Panel members were provided with the definition and six elements and then asked to rate each specific to importance, relevance, and clarity using a 4-point Likert scale. RESULTS: In four Delphi consensus rounds, 17 experts reviewed the umbrella definition and six elements before consensus was reached. The umbrella definition and three of the initial six elements achieved >80% agreement for importance, relevance, and clarity after the fourth round of review. The remaining 3 components did not reach >80% agreement even after iterative edits and were removed. The process resulted in a final consensus definition: Sport specialization is intentional and focused participation in a single sport for a majority of the year that restricts opportunities for engagement in other sports and activities. CONCLUSIONS: A consensus-based conceptual definition for sport specialization has been developed using a Delphi method. This definition has important implications for clinicians and sports medicine professionals who support youth athletes.

8.
Acta Neurochir (Wien) ; 163(4): 1191-1198, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33550516

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Isolated acute bilateral foot drop due to degenerative spine disease is an extremely rare neurosurgical presentation, whilst the literature is rich with accounts of chronic bilateral foot drop occurring as a sequela of systemic illnesses. We present, to our knowledge, the largest case series of acute bilateral foot drop, with trauma and relevant systemic illness excluded. METHODS: Data from three different centres had been collected at the time of historic treatment, and records were subsequently reviewed retrospectively, documenting the clinical presentation, radiological level of compression, timing of surgery, and degree of neurological recovery. RESULTS: Seven patients are presented. The mean age at presentation was 52.1 years (range 41-66). All patients but one were male. All had a painful radiculopathic presentation. Relevant discopathy was observed from L2/3 to L5/S1, the commonest level being L3/4. Five were treated within 24 h of presentation, and two within 48 h. Three had concomitant cauda equina syndrome; of these, the first two made a full motor recovery, one by 6 weeks follow-up and the second on the same-day post-op evaluation. Overall, five out of seven cases had full resolution of their ankle dorsiflexion pareses. One patient with 1/5 power has not improved. Another with 1/5 weakness improved to normal on the one side and to 3/5 on the other. CONCLUSION: When bilateral foot drop occurs acutely, we encourage the consideration of degenerative spinal disease. Relevant discopathy was observed from L2/3 to L5/S1; aberrant innervation may be at play. Cauda equina syndrome is not necessarily associated with acute bilateral foot drop. The prognosis seems to be pretty good with respect to recovery of the foot drop, especially if partial at presentation and if treated within 48 h.

9.
Malar J ; 20(1): 110, 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33632222

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Manual microscopy remains a widely-used tool for malaria diagnosis and clinical studies, but it has inconsistent quality in the field due to variability in training and field practices. Automated diagnostic systems based on machine learning hold promise to improve quality and reproducibility of field microscopy. The World Health Organization (WHO) has designed a 55-slide set (WHO 55) for their External Competence Assessment of Malaria Microscopists (ECAMM) programme, which can also serve as a valuable benchmark for automated systems. The performance of a fully-automated malaria diagnostic system, EasyScan GO, on a WHO 55 slide set was evaluated. METHODS: The WHO 55 slide set is designed to evaluate microscopist competence in three areas of malaria diagnosis using Giemsa-stained blood films, focused on crucial field needs: malaria parasite detection, malaria parasite species identification (ID), and malaria parasite quantitation. The EasyScan GO is a fully-automated system that combines scanning of Giemsa-stained blood films with assessment algorithms to deliver malaria diagnoses. This system was tested on a WHO 55 slide set. RESULTS: The EasyScan GO achieved 94.3 % detection accuracy, 82.9 % species ID accuracy, and 50 % quantitation accuracy, corresponding to WHO microscopy competence Levels 1, 2, and 1, respectively. This is, to our knowledge, the best performance of a fully-automated system on a WHO 55 set. CONCLUSIONS: EasyScan GO's expert ratings in detection and quantitation on the WHO 55 slide set point towards its potential value in drug efficacy use-cases, as well as in some case management situations with less stringent species ID needs. Improved runtime may enable use in general case management settings.

10.
Br J Sports Med ; 2021 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33627336

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The psychological impacts of injuries in youth athletes remain poorly defined. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of injury on quality of life (QOL) and sleep in female high school volleyball athletes. METHODS: 2073 female high school volleyball players (15.6±1.1 years) completed the Pediatric Quality of Life survey (total QOL, physical, social, school, emotional and psychosocial function) and reported average sleep duration at the start and end of the season. Injury data were collected by school athletic trainers. Mixed effects linear regression models were used to compare changes in QOL and sleep duration during the season between (1) injured and uninjured athletes and (2) injured athletes who did or did not suffer a season-ending injury. RESULTS: Time-loss injuries were reported in 187 athletes with complete preseason and postseason data. During the season, injured athletes demonstrated a greater decrease in total QOL (ß=-1.3±0.5, p=0.012), as well as physical function (ß=-1.6±0.6, p=0.012), school function (ß=-2.0±0.76, p=0.01) and psychosocial function domains (ß=-1.2±0.6, p=0.039) compared with uninjured athletes. Athletes who sustained a season-ending injury had a significantly greater decrease in total QOL (ß=-6.8±2.0, p=0.006) and physical function (ß=-17±2.9, p<0.001) compared with injured athletes who were able to return to play during the season. CONCLUSION: In-season injuries are associated with significant decreases in total QOL as well as physical and psychosocial function. Healthcare providers should consider the impacts of injuries on QOL and sleep in youth athletes in order to optimise management and improve overall health.

11.
Phys Ther Sport ; 48: 76-82, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33387901

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Determine the association between concussion and subsequent contact, non-contact, and overuse lower extremity (LE) injuries in a cohort of adolescent athletes. Secondarily, to identify this association between males and females. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Summer athletic events with participants ages 12-18. MAIN OUTCOME: Anonymous survey included sport-related injuries (injury month/year) and participants classified injuries as a contact, non-contact, overuse injury, or concussion. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to examine associations between a concussion event and a subsequent LE injury while controlling for age and any previous LE injury. RESULTS: A concussion was reported in 219 athletes (Female = 96, 44%) and were matched with 219 non-concussed athletes (438 total participants). Concussion was not association with a specific injury mechanism but was significant for any subsequent LE injury (OR = 1.58 95%CI = [1.03-2.41]; p < 0.05). Concussed females were more likely to report any subsequent LE injury compared to non-concussed female athletes (2.49[1.31, 4.74]; p < 0.01). This relationship was not observed between concussed and non-concussed males (1.11[0.62-1.99]; p > 0.5). CONCLUSION: A history of concussion was associated with any subsequent LE injury, but not associated with a specific mechanism of injury. The association with concussion and a subsequent LE injury was different between males and females.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas/epidemiologia , Concussão Encefálica/epidemiologia , Extremidade Inferior/lesões , Adolescente , Atletas/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Transtornos Traumáticos Cumulativos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Traumatismos da Perna/epidemiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Esportes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Sports Health ; 13(1): 25-30, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32631208

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationships between sport specialization, physical activity, sleep, and illness in younger athletes are unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the independent effects of sport specialization, sleep, and physical activity on illness in middle school athletes. HYPOTHESIS: Decreased sleep, decreased physical activity, and higher levels of sport specialization will be associated with an increased risk of illness among middle school athletes. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 4. METHODS: Parents of middle school-aged children reported baseline sport specialization (low, moderate, or high) as well as sleep duration, physical activity, and illnesses every week throughout the academic year. A mixed-effects logistic regression model was used to assess the association between illness and specialization while accounting for sleep and physical activity for the prior week as fixed effects and each individual as a random effect. RESULTS: A total of 233 children (mean age, 12.1 ± 1.2 years; 61% male) participated, of whom 41%, 25%, and 34% were categorized as low, moderate, and high specialization, respectively. The proportion of individuals who experienced illness did not differ by specialization level (low, 76%; moderate, 70%; high, 59%; P = 0.064). In the multivariable model, the odds of illness compared with the low specialization group was not significantly different for moderate (odds ratio [OR], 0.93; 95% CI, 0.70-1.23; P = 0.61) or high specialization (OR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.56-1.03; P = 0.073). A decreased risk of illness was associated with greater prior week sleep (OR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.69-0.91; P < 0.001) and physical activity (OR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.92-0.96; P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Sport specialization is not associated with an increased risk of illness among middle school athletes, while increased sleep duration and physical activity appear to reduce the risk of illness. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Interventions to promote physical activity and improve sleep may reduce the risk of illness in early adolescent athletes.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Privação do Sono/fisiopatologia , Especialização , Esportes Juvenis/fisiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Transtornos Traumáticos Cumulativos/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Condicionamento Físico Humano/fisiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
13.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 23(4): 877-885, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33319474

RESUMO

Drugs that protect against cardiovascular events in the patient with diabetes may also positively or negatively affect glycaemic control in the patient with established diabetes and may induce the development of diabetes in the predisposed patient. Mainly through increasing insulin resistance, beta-blockers, statins and high-dose diuretics have the potential to worsen glycaemic control. Dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers, low-dose diuretics, vasodilating beta-blockers, alpha-blockers and pitavastatin have little or no effect on glycaemic control. Blockers of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, colesevelam, ranolazine and verapamil, through slowing breakdown of bradykinin, vasodilation, increasing cholecystokinin levels, blocking sodium channels and decreasing beta cell apoptosis, may improve glycaemic control and avoid the development of diabetes.

14.
J Athl Train ; 2020 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33290516

RESUMO

CONTEXT: In the spring of 2020, US schools closed to in-person teaching and sports were cancelled to control the transmission of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). It is critical to understand the mental and physical health of adolescent athletes during this time. OBJECTIVE: To describe the health of athletes during COVID-19-related school closures and sport cancellations. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: A national sample recruited via social media. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: A total of 13 002 US adolescent athletes (age = 16.3 ± 1.2 years, females = 52.9%, males = 47.0%) completed an anonymous online survey. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Demographic information collected was sex, grade, sport(s) played, and zip code. Assessments used were the General Anxiety Disorder 7-Item for anxiety, Patient Health Questionnaire 9-Item for depression, the Pediatric Functional Activity Brief Scale for physical activity, and the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 for quality of life. Mental health, physical activity, and health-related quality-of-life variables were compared among sex, grade, sport(s) played, and poverty level using means and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) from the survey-weighted analysis of variance. RESULTS: Females reported a higher prevalence of moderate to severe anxiety symptoms (females = 43.7% versus males = 28.2%). The Pediatric Functional Activity Brief Scale score was highest (best) for grade 9 (mean = 14.5, 95% CI = 14.0, 15.0) and lowest for grade 11 (mean = 10.9, 95% CI = 10.5, 11.3. The prevalence of depression symptoms was highest in team sport (74.1%) and lowest in individual sport (64.9%) participants. The total Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory score was lowest (worst) for athletes from counties with the highest poverty levels (high: mean = 74.5, 95% CI = 73.7, 75.3; middle: mean = 78.9, 95% CI = 78.0, 79.8; and low: mean = 78.3, 95% CI = 77.4, 79.1). CONCLUSIONS: The health of US adolescents during the COVID-19-related school closures and sport cancellations varied to differing degrees depending on sex, grade level, type of sport participation, and level of poverty. Health policy experts should consider these findings in the future when creating and implementing policies to improve the health of adolescents in the United States.

15.
Traffic ; 2020 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33263222

RESUMO

The structural organization of the Golgi stacks in mammalian cells is intrinsically linked to function, including glycosylation, but the role of morphology is less clear in lower eukaryotes. Here we investigated the link between the structural organization of the Golgi and secretory pathway function using Pichia pastoris as a model system. To unstack the Golgi cisternae, we disrupted 18 genes encoding proteins in the secretory pathway without loss of viability. Using biosensors, confocal microscopy and transmission electron microscopy we identified three strains with irreversible perturbations in the stacking of the Golgi cisternae, all of which had disruption in gene that encode proteins with annotated function as or homology to calcium/calcium permeable ion channels. Despite this, no variation in the secretory pathway for ER size, whole cell glycomics or recombinant protein glycans was observed. Our investigations showed the robust nature of the secretory pathway in P. pastoris and suggest that Ca2+ concentration, homeostasis, or signalling may play a significant role for Golgi stacking in this organism and should be investigated in other organisms. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33345456

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify discrete clusters of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients based on symptoms and investigate differences across clusters. METHODS: Data were collected in the United States of America and five European countries via the Adelphi Real World Lupus Disease Specific Programme™, a cross-sectional survey. Rheumatologists provided data for five consecutively consulting adult patients with SLE, who were invited to participate. Identified SLE symptoms were reduced to factors based on commonly concurrent symptoms, using principal-component factor analysis. Factors were used as covariates in a latent class cluster analysis to identify discrete patient clusters. Patient-reported outcomes and physician-reported data were compared across clusters. RESULTS: Among 1,376 patients, 87% of patients were female and 74% of patients were white. We identified four patient clusters ("very mild", "mild", "moderate", "severe") based on 39 signs/symptoms. Physician-reported symptom burden, organ involvement, disease activity and number of flares increased with increasing cluster severity (p<0.0001). Patient-reported impact (health status, fatigue, work productivity impairment, anxiety/depression, emotional impact) increased with increasing cluster severity (p<0.0001). Glucocorticoid and immunosuppressant use increased, and anti-malarial use decreased, with increasing cluster severity. In all clusters, <20% of patients received biologics; >15% of patients not receiving biologics were considered eligible for treatment by their physician. The proportion of physicians and patients satisfied with treatment decreased with increasing cluster severity (p<0.0001). CONCLUSION: Our large, international real-world survey of SLE patients and physicians demonstrated strong associations between increased impairment, organ involvement and humanistic burden in SLE, highlighting unmet need for effective treatment options in high disease activity patients.

17.
J Athl Train ; 2020 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370438

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Postoperative functional and return-to-sport outcomes after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) differ by sex. However, whether sex disparities are observed in patient-reported outcome measures (PROMS) before return to sport after ACLR is unclear. OBJECTIVES: To compare common PROMS between young men and women who had not yet returned to sport after ACLR. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: University laboratory. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Forty-five young men (age = 18.7 ± 2.7 years, time since surgery = 6.8 ± 1.4 months) and 45 matched for age (±1 year) and time since surgery (±1 month; age = 18.8 ± 2.8 years, time since surgery = 6.9 ± 1.4 months) with ACLR participated. Participants completed the Tegner Activity Scale, ACL Return to Sport After Injury scale, Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia, International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) Subjective Knee Evaluation Score, and Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS). The PROMS were compared between men and women using Mann-Whitney U tests. Odds ratios were calculated to evaluate the odds of a male reporting a PROM value above the previously established normative value as compared with a female. RESULTS: Sex differences were present for the IKDC score (P = .01) and KOOS Pain score (P = .04) but not for the Tegner activity level (P = .22), ACL Return to Sport after Injury scale score (P = .78), Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia score (P = .64), or other KOOS subscales (P values = .40 to .52). The odds of reporting values above normative levels differed only for the IKDC score (odds ratio = 2.72, 95% confidence level = 1.16, 6.38). CONCLUSIONS: After ACLR, young men and women reported similar levels of knee-related function, fear of movement, and readiness for return to sport and were equally likely to meet clinically meaningful normative values before return to sport. Overreliance on patient reports or objective functional outcomes in evaluating patient progress and readiness for return to sport after ACLR may limit clinicians in their ability to comprehensively evaluate and develop individualized interventional approaches that optimize patient outcomes.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33222008

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (COVID-19) pandemic has had drastic effects on global healthcare with the UK amongst the countries most severely impacted. The aim of this study was to examine how COVID-19 challenged the neurosurgical delivery of care in a busy tertiary unit serving a socio-economically diverse population. METHODS: A prospective single-centre cohort study including all patients referred to the acute neurosurgical service or the subspecialty multidisciplinary teams (MDT) as well as all emergency and elective admissions during COVID-19 (18th March 2020-15th May 2020) compared to pre-COVID-19 (18th of January 2020-17th March 2020). Data on demographics, diagnosis, operation, and treatment recommendation/outcome were collected and analysed. RESULTS: Overall, there was a reduction in neurosurgical emergency referrals by 33.6% and operations by 55.6% during the course of COVID-19. There was a significant increase in the proportion of emergency operations performed during COVID-19 (75.2% of total, n=155) when compared to pre-COVID-19 (n = 198, 43.7% of total, p < 0.00001). In contrast to other published series, the 30-day perioperative mortality remained low (2.0%) with the majority of post-operative COVID-19-infected patients (n = 13) having underlying medical co-morbidities and/or suffering from post-operative complications. CONCLUSION: The capacity to safely treat patients requiring urgent or emergency neurosurgical care was maintained at all times. Strategies adopted to enable this included proactively approaching the referrers to maintain lines of communications, incorporating modern technology to run clinics and MDTs, restructuring patient pathways/facilities, and initiating the delivery of NHS care within private sector hospitals. Through this multi-modal approach we were able to minimize service disruptions, the complications, and mortality.

19.
Mil Med ; 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33175955

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Graduate medical education (GME) faculty and trainees have required scholarly activities to meet accreditation requirements. The impact of this contribution to the Military Health System, especially regarding innovations in military medicine, has not been previously examined. This study measured the contribution of GME in published manuscripts from a tertiary military medical center. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Utilizing the Scopus database, published manuscripts from the primary military GME institutions for the San Antonio Uniformed Services Health Education Consortium were identified from 2008 to 2018. Manuscripts were sorted based on the number of citations in Scopus and analyzed for their overall impact in medicine to include military unique topics. RESULTS: A total of 3,700 manuscripts were identified through Scopus and based on a 10 citation minimum, 1,365 manuscripts were further analyzed; 1,152 (84.4%) included authors with GME affiliation and 554 (40.6%) had direct applicability to unique aspects of military medicine. The mean number of citations per manuscript was 39.2 ± 63.6; Mean Cite Score was 2.97 ± 2.14 and Field Weighted Citation Index of 2.22 ± 3.27. Analysis of number of citations (10-19; 20-39; or >40) did not show any significant differences in Cite Score or military relevance, whereas the percentage of military relevant articles remained consistent yearly. CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight the importance of military medical research and addressing specific medical needs of the warfighter. Graduate medical education in a tertiary Military Health System facility has enormous impact in scholarly activity, in particular the importance related to military medicine topics that emphasize combat casualty care and military readiness.

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