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1.
Epigenetics ; : 1-21, 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31607210

RESUMO

Anniston, Alabama was home to a major polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) production facility from 1929 until 1971. The Anniston Community Health Survey I and II (ACHS-I 2005-2007, ACHS-II 2013-2014) were conducted to explore the effects of PCB exposures. In this report we examined associations between PCB exposure and DNA methylation in whole blood using EPIC arrays (ACHS-I, n = 518; ACHS-II, n = 299). For both cohorts, 35 PCBs were measured in serum. We modelled methylation versus PCB wet-weight concentrations for: the sum of 35 PCBs, mono-ortho substituted PCBs, di-ortho substituted PCBs, tri/tetra-ortho substituted PCBs, oestrogenic PCBs, and antiestrogenic PCBs. Using robust multivariable linear regression, we adjusted for age, race, sex, smoking, total lipids, and six blood cell-type percentages. We carried out a two-stage analysis; discovery in ACHS-I followed by replication in ACHS-II. In ACHS-I, we identified 28 associations (17 unique CpGs) at p ≤ 6.70E-08 and 369 associations (286 unique CpGs) at FDR p ≤ 5.00E-02. A large proportion of the genes have been observed to interact with PCBs or dioxins in model studies. Among the 28 genome-wide significant CpG/PCB associations, 14 displayed replicated directional effects in ACHS-II; however, only one in ACHS-II was statistically significant at p ≤ 1.70E-04. While we identified many novel CpGs significantly associated with PCB exposures in ACHS-I, the differential methylation was modest and the effect was attenuated seven years later in ACHS-II, suggesting a lack of persistence of the associations between PCB exposures and altered DNA methylation in blood cells.

2.
J Hered ; 110(6): 696-706, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31414124

RESUMO

Viability selection yields adult populations that are more genetically variable than those of juveniles, producing a positive correlation between heterozygosity and survival. Viability selection could be the result of decreased heterozygosity across many loci in inbred individuals and a subsequent decrease in survivorship resulting from the expression of the deleterious alleles. Alternatively, locus-specific differences in genetic variability between adults and juveniles may be driven by forms of balancing selection, including heterozygote advantage, frequency-dependent selection, or selection across temporal and spatial scales. We use a pooled-sequencing approach to compare genome-wide and locus-specific genetic variability between 74 golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), 62 imperial eagle (Aquila heliaca), and 69 prairie falcon (Falco mexicanus) juveniles and adults. Although genome-wide genetic variability is comparable between juvenile and adult golden eagles and prairie falcons, imperial eagle adults are significantly more heterozygous than juveniles. This evidence of viability selection may stem from a relatively smaller imperial eagle effective population size and potentially greater genetic load. We additionally identify ~2000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms across the 3 species with extreme differences in heterozygosity between juveniles and adults. Many of these markers are associated with genes implicated in immune function or olfaction. These loci represent potential targets for studies of how heterozygote advantage, frequency-dependent selection, and selection over spatial and temporal scales influence survivorship in avian species. Overall, our genome-wide data extend previous studies that used allozyme or microsatellite markers and indicate that viability selection may be a more common evolutionary phenomenon than often appreciated.

3.
Clin Epigenetics ; 11(1): 87, 2019 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31182156

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have demonstrated that DNA methylation levels in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor (AHRR) gene measured in cord blood are significantly associated with prenatal tobacco smoke exposure and can be used as a fetal exposure biomarker. The mechanism driving this demethylation has not been determined and it is unclear if all cord blood cell types are impacted. Nucleated red blood cells (nRBCs/CD235a+ cells) are developmentally immature RBCs that display genome-wide hypomethylation and are observed at increased frequency in the cord blood of smoking mothers. We tested if AHRR methylation levels in CD235a+ nRBCs or nRBC counts influenced AHRR methylation in whole cord blood. METHODS: Cord blood was collected from smoking (n = 34) and nonsmoking (n = 19) mothers and DNA was prepared from whole cord blood, isolated CD235a+ nRBCs, and CD14+ monocytes. AHRR methylation in cord blood DNA was measured using Illumina 850K arrays (cg05575921, chr5:373378). Pyrosequencing was used to compare methylation levels among cord blood, CD235a+, and CD14+ cells. We measured nRBC percentages using conventional complete blood counts and estimated percent nRBCs by a deconvolution model. RESULTS: Methylation levels in AHRR were significantly lower in nRBCs relative to whole cord blood and CD14+ monocytes. While AHRR methylation levels in the cell types were significantly correlated across all subjects, methylation values at the chr5:373378 CpG averaged 14.6% lower in nRBCs (range 0.4 to 24.8%; p = 3.8E-13) relative to CD14+, with nonsmokers showing a significantly greater hypomethylation (- 4.1%, p = 1.8E-02). Methylation level at the AHRR chr5:373378 CpG was strongly associated with self-reported smoking in both CD14+ monocytes (t test p = 5.7E-09) and nRBCs (p = 4.8E-08), as well as cotinine levels (regression p = 1.1E-07 and p = 3.6E-04, respectively). For subjects with whole blood 850K data, robust linear regression models adjusting for estimated cell type composition, either including nRBCs counts or estimates, modestly increased the association between smoking and cg05575921 methylation. CONCLUSIONS: Prenatal smoke exposure was highly significantly associated with AHRR methylation in cord blood, CD14+ monocytes, and CD235a+ nRBCs. AHRR methylation levels in nRBCs and nRBC counts had minimal effect on cord blood methylation measurements. However, regression models using estimated nRBCs or actual nRBC counts outperformed those lacking these covariates.

4.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(4): 47009, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039056

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal tobacco smoke exposure has been associated with altered DNA methylation. However, previous studies largely used methylation arrays, which cover a small fraction of CpGs, and focused on whole cord blood. OBJECTIVES: The current study examined the impact of in utero exposure to maternal tobacco smoke on the cord blood [Formula: see text] DNA methylome. METHODS: The methylomes of 20 Hispanic white newborns ([Formula: see text] exposed to any maternal tobacco smoke in pregnancy; [Formula: see text] unexposed) from the Maternal and Child Health Study (MACHS) were profiled by whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (median coverage: [Formula: see text]). Statistical analyses were conducted using the Regression Analysis of Differential Methylation (RADMeth) program because it performs well on low-coverage data (minimizes false positives and negatives). RESULTS: We found that 10,381 CpGs were differentially methylated by tobacco smoke exposure [neighbor-adjusted p-values that are additionally corrected for multiple testing based on the Benjamini-Hochberg method for controlling the false discovery rate (FDR) [Formula: see text]]. From these CpGs, RADMeth identified 557 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) that were overrepresented ([Formula: see text]) in important regulatory regions, including enhancers. Of nine DMRs that could be queried in a reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) study of adult [Formula: see text] cells ([Formula: see text] smokers; [Formula: see text] nonsmokers), four replicated ([Formula: see text]). Additionally, a CpG in the promoter of SLC7A8 (percent methylation difference: [Formula: see text] comparing exposed to unexposed) replicated ([Formula: see text]) in an EPIC (Illumina) array study of cord blood [Formula: see text] cells ([Formula: see text] exposed to sustained maternal tobacco smoke; [Formula: see text] unexposed) and in a study of adult [Formula: see text] cells across two platforms (EPIC: [Formula: see text] smokers; [Formula: see text] nonsmokers; 450K: [Formula: see text] smokers; [Formula: see text] nonsmokers). CONCLUSIONS: Maternal tobacco smoke exposure in pregnancy is associated with cord blood [Formula: see text] DNA methylation in key regulatory regions, including enhancers. While we used a method that performs well on low-coverage data, we cannot exclude the possibility that some results may be false positives. However, we identified a differentially methylated CpG in amino acid transporter SLC7A8 that is highly reproducible, which may be sensitive to cigarette smoke in both cord blood and adult [Formula: see text] cells. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP3398.

5.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 143(6): 2062-2074, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30579849

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epigenetic mechanisms, including methylation, can contribute to childhood asthma. Identifying DNA methylation profiles in asthmatic patients can inform disease pathogenesis. OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify differential DNA methylation in newborns and children related to childhood asthma. METHODS: Within the Pregnancy And Childhood Epigenetics consortium, we performed epigenome-wide meta-analyses of school-age asthma in relation to CpG methylation (Illumina450K) in blood measured either in newborns, in prospective analyses, or cross-sectionally in school-aged children. We also identified differentially methylated regions. RESULTS: In newborns (8 cohorts, 668 cases), 9 CpGs (and 35 regions) were differentially methylated (epigenome-wide significance, false discovery rate < 0.05) in relation to asthma development. In a cross-sectional meta-analysis of asthma and methylation in children (9 cohorts, 631 cases), we identified 179 CpGs (false discovery rate < 0.05) and 36 differentially methylated regions. In replication studies of methylation in other tissues, most of the 179 CpGs discovered in blood replicated, despite smaller sample sizes, in studies of nasal respiratory epithelium or eosinophils. Pathway analyses highlighted enrichment for asthma-relevant immune processes and overlap in pathways enriched both in newborns and children. Gene expression correlated with methylation at most loci. Functional annotation supports a regulatory effect on gene expression at many asthma-associated CpGs. Several implicated genes are targets for approved or experimental drugs, including IL5RA and KCNH2. CONCLUSION: Novel loci differentially methylated in newborns represent potential biomarkers of risk of asthma by school age. Cross-sectional associations in children can reflect both risk for and effects of disease. Asthma-related differential methylation in blood in children was substantially replicated in eosinophils and respiratory epithelium.

6.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 364: 29-44, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30529165

RESUMO

Nrf2 is essential to antioxidant response element (ARE)-mediated host defense. Sulforaphane (SFN) is a phytochemical antioxidant known to affect multiple cellular targets including Nrf2-ARE pathway in chemoprevention. However, the role of SFN in non-malignant airway disorders remain unclear. To test if pre-activation of Nrf2-ARE signaling protects lungs from oxidant-induced acute injury, wild-type (Nrf2+/+) and Nrf2-deficient (Nrf2-/-) mice were given SFN orally or as standardized broccoli sprout extract diet (SBE) before hyperoxia or air exposure. Hyperoxia-induced pulmonary injury and oxidation indices were significantly reduced by SFN or SBE in Nrf2+/+ mice but not in Nrf2-/- mice. SFN upregulated a large cluster of basal lung genes that are involved in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, energy metabolism, and cardiovascular protection only in Nrf2+/+ mice. Bioinformatic analysis elucidated ARE-like motifs on these genes. Transcript abundance of the mitochondrial machinery genes remained significantly higher after hyperoxia exposure in SFN-treated Nrf2+/+ mice than in SFN-treated Nrf2-/- mice. Nuclear factor-κB was suggested to be a central molecule in transcriptome networks affected by SFN. Minor improvement of hyperoxia-caused lung histopathology and neutrophilia by SFN in Nrf2-/- mice implies Nrf2-independent or alternate effector mechanisms. In conclusion, SFN is suggested to be as a preventive intervention in a preclinical model of acute lung injury by linking mitochondria and Nrf2. Administration of SFN alleviated acute lung injury-like pathogenesis in a Nrf2-dependent manner. Potential AREs in the SFN-inducible transcriptome for mitochondria bioenergetics provided a new insight into the downstream mechanisms of Nrf2-mediated pulmonary protection.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/prevenção & controle , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Isotiocianatos/farmacologia , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/etiologia , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/genética , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/metabolismo , Animais , Elementos de Resposta Antioxidante , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Glutationa Peroxidase/genética , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Hiperóxia/complicações , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Camundongos Knockout , Mitocôndrias/genética , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , NAD(P)H Desidrogenase (Quinona)/genética , NAD(P)H Desidrogenase (Quinona)/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/deficiência , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30335469

RESUMO

Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory gastrointestinal disorder. Genetic association studies have implicated dysregulated autophagy in CD. Among risk loci identified are a promoter single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)(rs13361189) and two intragenic SNPs (rs9637876, rs10065172) in immunity-related GTPase family M ( IRGM), a gene that encodes a protein of the autophagy initiation complex. All three SNPs have been proposed to modify IRGM expression, but reports have been divergent and largely derived from cell lines. Here, analyzing RNA-Sequencing data of human tissues from the Genotype-Tissue Expression Project, we found that rs13361189 minor allele carriers had reduced IRGM expression in whole blood and terminal ileum, and upregulation in ileum of ZNF300P1, a locus adjacent to IRGM on chromosome 5q33.1 that encodes a long noncoding RNA. Whole blood and ileum from minor allele carriers had altered expression of multiple additional genes that have previously been linked to colitis and/or autophagy. Notable among these was an increase in ileum of LTF (lactoferrin), an established fecal inflammatory biomarker of CD, and in whole blood of TNF, a key cytokine in CD pathogenesis. Last, we confirmed that risk alleles at all three loci associated with increased risk for CD but not ulcerative colitis in a case-control study. Taken together, our findings suggest that genetically encoded IRGM deficiency may predispose to CD through dysregulation of inflammatory gene networks. Gene expression profiling of disease target tissues in genetically susceptible populations is a promising strategy for revealing new leads for the study of molecular pathogenesis, and, potentially, for precision medicine.

8.
Redox Biol ; 19: 235-249, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30195190

RESUMO

NRF2 is a redox-responsive transcription factor that regulates expression of cytoprotective genes via its interaction with DNA sequences known as antioxidant response elements (AREs). NRF2 activity is induced by oxidative stress, but oxidative stress is not the only context in which NRF2 can be activated. Mutations that disrupt the interaction between NRF2 and KEAP1, an inhibitor of NRF2, lead to NRF2 hyperactivation and promote oncogenesis. The mechanisms underlying NRF2's oncogenic properties remain unclear, but likely involve aberrant expression of select NRF2 target genes. We tested this possibility using an integrative genomics approach to get a precise view of the direct NRF2 target genes dysregulated in tumors with NRF2 hyperactivating mutations. This approach revealed a core set of 32 direct NRF2 targets that are consistently upregulated in NRF2 hyperactivated tumors. This set of NRF2 "cancer target genes" includes canonical redox-related NRF2 targets, as well as target genes that have not been previously linked to NRF2 activation. Importantly, NRF2-driven upregulation of this gene set is largely independent of the organ system where the tumor developed. One key distinguishing feature of these NRF2 cancer target genes is that they are regulated by high affinity AREs that fall within genomic regions possessing a ubiquitously permissive chromatin signature. This implies that these NRF2 cancer target genes are responsive to oncogenic NRF2 in most tissues because they lack the regulatory constraints that restrict expression of most other NRF2 target genes. This NRF2 cancer target gene set also serves as a reliable proxy for NRF2 activity, and high NRF2 activity is associated with significant decreases in survival in multiple cancer types. Overall, the pervasive upregulation of these NRF2 cancer targets across multiple cancers, and their association with negative outcomes, suggests that these will be central to dissecting the functional implications of NRF2 hyperactivation in several cancer contexts.

9.
PLoS One ; 13(8): e0200004, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30114225

RESUMO

The transcription factor Nrf2 (encoded by Nfe2l2) induces expression of numerous detoxifying and antioxidant genes in response to oxidative stress. The cytoplasmic protein Keap1 interacts with and represses Nrf2 function. Computational approaches were developed to identify factors that modulate Nrf2 in a mouse liver gene expression compendium. Forty-eight Nrf2 biomarker genes were identified using profiles from the livers of mice in which Nrf2 was activated genetically in Keap1-null mice or chemically by a potent activator of Nrf2 signaling. The rank-based Running Fisher statistical test was used to determine the correlation between the Nrf2 biomarker genes and a test set of 81 profiles with known Nrf2 activation status demonstrating a balanced accuracy of 96%. For a large number of factors examined in the compendium, we found consistent relationships between activation of Nrf2 and feminization of the liver transcriptome through suppression of the male-specific growth hormone (GH)-regulated transcription factor STAT5b. The livers of female mice exhibited higher Nrf2 activation than male mice in untreated or chemical-treated conditions. In male mice, Nrf2 was activated by treatment with ethinyl estradiol, whereas in female mice, Nrf2 was suppressed by treatment with testosterone. Nrf2 was activated in 5 models of disrupted GH signaling containing mutations in Pit1, Prop1, Ghrh, Ghrhr, and Ghr. Out of 59 chemical treatments that activated Nrf2, 36 exhibited STAT5b suppression in the male liver. The Nrf2-STAT5b coupling was absent in in vitro comparisons of chemical treatments. Treatment of male and female mice with 11 chemicals that induce oxidative stress led to activation of Nrf2 to greater extents in females than males. The enhanced basal and inducible levels of Nrf2 activation in females relative to males provides a molecular explanation for the greater resistance often seen in females vs. males to age-dependent diseases and chemical-induced toxicity.

10.
Environ Health Perspect ; 126(4): 047015, 2018 04 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29706059

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoke is a causal factor in cancers and cardiovascular disease. Smoking-associated differentially methylated regions (SM-DMRs) have been observed in disease studies, but the causal link between altered DNA methylation and transcriptional change is obscure. OBJECTIVE: Our objectives were to finely resolve SM-DMRs and to interrogate the mechanistic link between SM-DMRs and altered transcription of enhancer noncoding RNA (eRNA) and mRNA in human circulating monocytes. METHOD: We integrated SM-DMRs identified by reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) of circulating CD14+ monocyte DNA collected from two independent human studies [n=38 from Clinical Research Unit (CRU) and n=55 from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), about half of whom were active smokers] with gene expression for protein-coding genes and noncoding RNAs measured by RT-PCR or RNA sequencing. Candidate SM-DMRs were compared with RRBS of purified CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, CD15+ granulocytes, CD19+ B cells, and CD56+ NK cells (n=19 females, CRU). DMRs were validated using pyrosequencing or bisulfite amplicon sequencing in up to 85 CRU volunteers, who also provided saliva DNA. RESULTS: RRBS identified monocyte SM-DMRs frequently located in putative gene regulatory regions. The most significant monocyte DMR occurred at a poised enhancer in the aryl-hydrocarbon receptor repressor gene (AHRR) and it was also detected in both granulocytes and saliva DNA. To our knowledge, we identify for the first time that SM-DMRs in or near AHRR, C5orf55-EXOC-AS, and SASH1 were associated with increased noncoding eRNA as well as mRNA in monocytes. Functionally, the AHRR SM-DMR appeared to up-regulate AHRR mRNA through activating the AHRR enhancer, as suggested by increased eRNA in the monocytes, but not granulocytes, from smokers compared with nonsmokers. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that AHRR SM-DMR up-regulates AHRR mRNA in a monocyte-specific manner by activating the AHRR enhancer. Cell type-specific activation of enhancers at SM-DMRs may represent a mechanism driving smoking-related disease. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP2395.

11.
BMC Genomics ; 19(1): 233, 2018 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29618317

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Management requires a robust understanding of between- and within-species genetic variability, however such data are still lacking in many species. For example, although multiple population genetics studies of the peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) have been conducted, no similar studies have been done of the closely-related prairie falcon (F. mexicanus) and it is unclear how much genetic variation and population structure exists across the species' range. Furthermore, the phylogenetic relationship of F. mexicanus relative to other falcon species is contested. We utilized a genomics approach (i.e., genome sequencing and assembly followed by single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping) to rapidly address these gaps in knowledge. RESULTS: We sequenced the genome of a single female prairie falcon and generated a 1.17 Gb (gigabases) draft genome assembly. We generated maximum likelihood phylogenetic trees using complete mitochondrial genomes as well as nuclear protein-coding genes. This process provided evidence that F. mexicanus is an outgroup to the clade that includes the peregrine falcon and members of the subgenus Hierofalco. We annotated > 16,000 genes and almost 600,000 high-quality single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the nuclear genome, providing the raw material for a SNP assay design featuring > 140 gene-associated markers and a molecular-sexing marker. We subsequently genotyped ~ 100 individuals from California (including the San Francisco East Bay Area, Pinnacles National Park and the Mojave Desert) and Idaho (Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area). We tested for population structure and found evidence that individuals sampled in California and Idaho represent a single panmictic population. CONCLUSIONS: Our study illustrates how genomic resources can rapidly shed light on genetic variability in understudied species and resolve phylogenetic relationships. Furthermore, we found evidence of a single, randomly mating population of prairie falcons across our sampling locations. Prairie falcons are highly mobile and relatively rare long-distance dispersal events may promote gene flow throughout the range. As such, California's prairie falcons might be managed as a single population, indicating that management actions undertaken to benefit the species at the local level have the potential to influence the species as a whole.

12.
Redox Biol ; 14: 686-693, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29179108

RESUMO

Late onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a multifactorial disorder, with AD risk influenced by both environmental and genetic factors. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified genetic loci associated with increased risk of developing AD. The MS4A (membrane-spanning 4-domains subfamily A) gene cluster is one of the most significant loci associated with AD risk, and MS4A6A expression is correlated with AD pathology. We identified a single nucleotide polymorphism, rs667897, at the MS4A locus that creates an antioxidant response element and links MS4A6A expression to the stress responsive Cap-n-Collar (CNC) transcription factors NRF1 (encoded by NFE2L1) and NRF2 (encoded by NFE2L2). The risk allele of rs667897 generates a strong CNC binding sequence that is activated by proteostatic stress in an NRF1-dependent manner, and is associated with increased expression of the gene MS4A6A. Together, these findings suggest that the cytoprotective CNC regulatory network aberrantly activates MS4A6A expression and increases AD risk in a subset of the population.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Elementos de Resposta Antioxidante , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Regulação para Cima , Alelos , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Fator 1 Nuclear Respiratório/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Ativação Transcricional
13.
Epigenetics ; 12(12): 1092-1100, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29166816

RESUMO

Alterations in DNA methylation and gene expression in blood leukocytes are potential biomarkers of harm and mediators of the deleterious effects of tobacco exposure. However, methodological issues, including the use of self-reported smoking status and mixed cell types have made previously identified alterations in DNA methylation and gene expression difficult to interpret. In this study, we examined associations of tobacco exposure with DNA methylation and gene expression, utilizing a biomarker of tobacco exposure (urine cotinine) and CD14+ purified monocyte samples from 934 participants of the community-based Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Urine cotinine levels were measured using an immunoassay. DNA methylation and gene expression were measured with microarrays. Multivariate linear regression was used to test for associations adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, and study site. Urine cotinine levels were associated with methylation of 176 CpGs [false discovery rate (FDR)<0.01]. Four CpGs not previously identified by studies of non-purified blood samples nominally replicated (P value<0.05) with plasma cotinine-associated methylation in 128 independent monocyte samples. Urine cotinine levels associated with expression of 12 genes (FDR<0.01), including increased expression of P2RY6 (Beta ± standard error = 0.078 ± 0.008, P = 1.99 × 10-22), a gene previously identified to be involved in the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. No cotinine-associated (FDR<0.01) methylation profiles significantly (FDR<0.01) correlated with cotinine-associated (FDR<0.01) gene expression profiles. In conclusion, our findings i) identify potential monocyte-specific smoking-associated methylation patterns and ii) suggest that alterations in methylation may not be a main mechanism regulating gene expression in monocytes in response to cigarette smoking.

14.
Nat Commun ; 8(1): 393, 2017 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28855511

RESUMO

Little is known regarding the epigenetic basis of atherosclerosis. Here we present the CD14+ blood monocyte transcriptome and epigenome signatures associated with human atherosclerosis. The transcriptome signature includes transcription coactivator, ARID5B, which is known to form a chromatin derepressor complex with a histone H3K9Me2-specific demethylase and promote adipogenesis and smooth muscle development. ARID5B CpG (cg25953130) methylation is inversely associated with both ARID5B expression and atherosclerosis, consistent with this CpG residing in an ARID5B enhancer region, based on chromatin capture and histone marks data. Mediation analysis supports assumptions that ARID5B expression mediates effects of cg25953130 methylation and several cardiovascular disease risk factors on atherosclerotic burden. In lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human THP1 monocytes, ARID5B knockdown reduced expression of genes involved in atherosclerosis-related inflammatory and lipid metabolism pathways, and inhibited cell migration and phagocytosis. These data suggest that ARID5B expression, possibly regulated by an epigenetically controlled enhancer, promotes atherosclerosis by dysregulating immunometabolism towards a chronic inflammatory phenotype.The molecular mechanisms mediating the impact of environmental factors in atherosclerosis are unclear. Here, the authors examine CD14+ blood monocyte's transcriptome and epigenome signatures to find differential methylation and expression of ARID5B to be associated with human atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Monócitos/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Transcriptoma , Idoso , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Histonas/genética , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monócitos/química , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
16.
PLoS One ; 11(12): e0166486, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27935972

RESUMO

Tobacco smoke exposure dramatically alters DNA methylation in blood cells and may mediate smoking-associated complex diseases through effects on immune cell function. However, knowledge of smoking effects in specific leukocyte subtypes is limited. To better characterize smoking-associated methylation changes in whole blood and leukocyte subtypes, we used Illumina 450K arrays and Reduced Representation Bisulfite Sequencing (RRBS) to assess genome-wide DNA methylation. Differential methylation analysis in whole blood DNA from 172 smokers and 81 nonsmokers revealed 738 CpGs, including 616 previously unreported CpGs, genome-wide significantly associated with current smoking (p <1.2x10-7, Bonferroni correction). Several CpGs (MTSS1, NKX6-2, BTG2) were associated with smoking duration among heavy smokers (>22 cigarettes/day, n = 86) which might relate to long-term heavy-smoking pathology. In purified leukocyte subtypes from an independent group of 20 smokers and 14 nonsmokers we further examined methylation and gene expression for selected genes among CD14+ monocytes, CD15+ granulocytes, CD19+ B cells, and CD2+ T cells. In 10 smokers and 10 nonsmokers we used RRBS to fine map differential methylation in CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, CD14+, CD15+, CD19+, and CD56+ natural killer cells. Distinct cell-type differences in smoking-associated methylation and gene expression were identified. AHRR (cg05575921), ALPPL2 (cg21566642), GFI1 (cg09935388), IER3 (cg06126421) and F2RL3 (cg03636183) showed a distinct pattern of significant smoking-associated methylation differences across cell types: granulocytes> monocytes>> B cells. In contrast GPR15 (cg19859270) was highly significant in T and B cells and ITGAL (cg09099830) significant only in T cells. Numerous other CpGs displayed distinctive cell-type responses to tobacco smoke exposure that were not apparent in whole blood DNA. Assessing the overlap between these CpG sites and differential methylated regions (DMRs) with RRBS in 6 cell types, we confirmed cell-type specificity in the context of DMRs. We identified new CpGs associated with current smoking, pack-years, duration, and revealed unique profiles of smoking-associated DNA methylation and gene expression among immune cell types, providing potential clues to hematopoietic lineage-specific effects in disease etiology.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Epigenômica/métodos , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Fumar , Adulto , Fosfatase Alcalina/genética , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/genética , Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Granulócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Leucócitos/classificação , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monócitos/metabolismo , Receptores de Trombina/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Adulto Jovem
17.
EBioMedicine ; 11: 73-84, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27554839

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the global leading cause of lower respiratory tract infection in infants. Nearly 30% of all infected infants develop severe disease including bronchiolitis, but susceptibility mechanisms remain unclear. METHODS: We infected a panel of 30 inbred strains of mice with RSV and measured changes in lung disease parameters 1 and 5days post-infection and they were used in genome-wide association (GWA) studies to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) and susceptibility gene candidates. FINDINGS: GWA identified QTLs for RSV disease phenotypes, and the innate immunity scavenger receptor Marco was a candidate susceptibility gene; targeted deletion of Marco worsened murine RSV disease. We characterized a human MARCO promoter SNP that caused loss of gene expression, increased in vitro cellular response to RSV infection, and associated with increased risk of disease severity in two independent populations of children infected with RSV. INTERPRETATION: Translational integration of a genetic animal model and in vitro human studies identified a role for MARCO in human RSV disease severity. Because no RSV vaccines are approved for clinical use, genetic studies have implications for diagnosing individuals who are at risk for severe RSV disease, and disease prevention strategies (e.g. RSV antibodies).


Assuntos
Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Imunidade Inata/genética , Receptores Imunológicos/genética , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/genética , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/imunologia , Vírus Sinciciais Respiratórios/imunologia , Alelos , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Haplótipos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/patologia , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/virologia , Deleção de Sequência , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
18.
J Wildl Dis ; 52(3): 699-704, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27258407

RESUMO

We characterized past avian cholera outbreaks in waterbirds at Hayward Marsh, California, US. In 2013, we surveyed populations and determined the presence of disease using several diagnostic methods, including behavioral and physical observations, field necropsy, and bacterial culture. We compiled this information with data from previous outbreaks from 1990-2012 to compare waterbird abundance to various measures of mortality, including percentage of mortality and percentage of difference between abundance and mortality by species. We suggest that Ruddy Duck ( Oxyura jamaicensis ) have consistently suffered greater mortality from this disease than have other species at this site.


Assuntos
Anseriformes/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves/microbiologia , Infecções por Pasteurella/veterinária , Pasteurella multocida , Áreas Alagadas , Animais , Anseriformes/classificação , Anseriformes/genética , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , California/epidemiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Infecções por Pasteurella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Pasteurella/microbiologia , Vigilância da População , Estudos Retrospectivos
19.
Cell Rep ; 15(4): 830-842, 2016 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27149848

RESUMO

The NRF2/sMAF protein complex regulates the oxidative stress response by occupying cis-acting enhancers containing an antioxidant response element (ARE). Integrating genome-wide maps of NRF2/sMAF occupancy with disease-susceptibility loci, we discovered eight polymorphic AREs linked to 14 highly ranked disease-risk SNPs in individuals of European ancestry. Among these SNPs was rs242561, located within a regulatory region of the MAPT gene (encoding microtubule-associated protein Tau). It was consistently occupied by NRF2/sMAF in multiple experiments and its strong-binding allele associated with higher mRNA levels in cell lines and human brain tissue. Induction of MAPT transcription by NRF2 was confirmed using a human neuroblastoma cell line and a Nrf2-deficient mouse model. Most importantly, rs242561 displayed complete linkage disequilibrium with a highly protective allele identified in multiple GWASs of progressive supranuclear palsy, Parkinson's disease, and corticobasal degeneration. These observations suggest a potential role for NRF2/sMAF in tauopathies and a possible role for NRF2 pathway activators in disease prevention.

20.
Genes Dev ; 30(8): 918-30, 2016 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27034505

RESUMO

A nonsynonymous single-nucleotide polymorphism at codon 47 in TP53 exists in African-descent populations (P47S, rs1800371; referred to here as S47). Here we report that, in human cell lines and a mouse model, the S47 variant exhibits a modest decrease in apoptosis in response to most genotoxic stresses compared with wild-type p53 but exhibits a significant defect in cell death induced by cisplatin. We show that, compared with wild-type p53, S47 has nearly indistinguishable transcriptional function but shows impaired ability to transactivate a subset of p53 target genes, including two involved in metabolism:Gls2(glutaminase 2) and Sco2 We also show that human and mouse cells expressing the S47 variant are markedly resistant to cell death by agents that induce ferroptosis (iron-mediated nonapoptotic cell death). We show that mice expressing S47 in homozygous or heterozygous form are susceptible to spontaneous cancers of diverse histological types. Our data suggest that the S47 variant may contribute to increased cancer risk in individuals of African descent, and our findings highlight the need to assess the contribution of this variant to cancer risk in these populations. These data also confirm the potential relevance of metabolism and ferroptosis to tumor suppression by p53.


Assuntos
Genes p53/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Animais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Morte Celular/genética , Linhagem Celular , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Códon/química , Códon/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neoplasias/genética , Ligação Proteica/genética , Fatores de Risco , Ativação Transcricional/efeitos dos fármacos , Ativação Transcricional/genética
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