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1.
Anal Chem ; 2021 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34812620

RESUMO

This technical note describes a method for fabricating ion-selective membranes (ISMs) for use in potentiometric sensing by using 3D printing technology. Here, we demonstrate the versatility of this approach by fabricating ISMs and investigating their performance in both liquid-contact and solid-contact ion-selective electrode (ISE) configurations. Using 3D printed ISMs resulted in highly stable (drift of ∼17 µV/h) and highly reproducible (<1 mV deviation) measurements. Furthermore, we show the seamless translation of these membranes into reliable, carbon fiber- and paper-based potentiometric sensors for applications at the point-of-care. To highlight the modifiability of this approach, we fabricated sensors for bilirubin, an important biomarker of liver health; benzalkonium, a common preservative used in the pharmaceutical industry; and potassium, an important blood electrolyte. The ability to mass produce sensors using 3D printing is an attractive advantage over conventional methods, while also decreasing the time and cost associated with sensor fabrication.

2.
Int J Parasitol ; 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371018

RESUMO

The Diplostomidae Poirier, 1886 is a large, globally distributed family of digeneans parasitic in intestines of their definitive hosts. Diplostomum and Tylodelphys spp. are broadly distributed, commonly reported, and the most often sequenced diplostomid genera. The majority of published DNA sequences from these genera originated from larval stages only, which typically cannot be identified to the species level based on morphology alone. We generated partial large ribosomal subunit (28S) rRNA and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) mtDNA gene sequences from 14 species/species-level lineages of Diplostomum, six species/species-level lineages of Tylodelphys, two species/species-level lineages of Austrodiplostomum, one species previously assigned to Paralaria, two species/species-level lineages of Dolichorchis and one unknown diplostomid. Our DNA sequences of 11 species/species-level lineages of Diplostomum (all identified to species), four species/species-level lineages of Tylodelphys (all identified to species), Austrodiplostomum compactum, Paralaria alarioides and Dolichorchis lacombeensis originated from adult specimens. 28S sequences were used for phylogenetic inference to demonstrate the position of Paralaria alarioides and Dolichorchis spp. within the Diplostomoidea and study the interrelationships of Diplostomum, Tylodelphys and Austrodiplostomum. Our results demonstrate that two diplostomids from the North American river otter (P. alarioides and a likely undescribed taxon) belong within Diplostomum. Further, our results demonstrate the non-monophyly of Tylodelphys due to the position of Austrodiplostomum spp., based on our phylogenetic analyses and morphology. Furthermore, the results of phylogenetic analysis of 28S confirmed the status of Dolichorchis as a separate genus. The phylogenies suggest multiple definitive host-switching events (birds to otters and among major avian groups) and a New World origin of Diplostomum and Tylodelphys spp. Our DNA sequences from adult digeneans revealed identities of 10 previously published lineages of Diplostomum and Tylodelphys, which were previously identified to genus only. The novel DNA data from this work provide opportunities for future comparisons of larval diplostomines collected in ecological studies.

3.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(7): e2118801, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34323984

RESUMO

Importance: Although racial disparities in acute pain control are well established, the role of patient analgesic preference and the factors associated with these disparities remain unclear. Objective: To characterize racial disparities in opioid prescribing for acute pain after accounting for patient preference and to test the hypothesis that racial disparities may be mitigated by giving clinicians additional information about their patients' treatment preferences and risk of opioid misuse. Design, Setting, and Participants: This study is a secondary analysis of data collected from Life STORRIED (Life Stories for Opioid Risk Reduction in the ED), a multicenter randomized clinical trial conducted between June 2017 and August 2019 in the emergency departments (EDs) of 4 academic medical centers. Participants included 1302 patients aged 18 to 70 years who presented to the ED with ureter colic or musculoskeletal back and/or neck pain. Interventions: The treatment arm was randomized to receive a patient-facing intervention (not examined in this secondary analysis) and a clinician-facing intervention that consisted of a form containing information about each patient's analgesic treatment preference and risk of opioid misuse. Main Outcomes and Measures: Concordance between patient preference for opioid-containing treatment (assessed before ED discharge) and receipt of an opioid prescription at ED discharge. Results: Among 1302 participants in the Life STORRIED clinical trial, 1012 patients had complete demographic and treatment preference data available and were included in this secondary analysis. Of those, 563 patients (55.6%) self-identified as female, with a mean (SD) age of 40.8 (14.1) years. A total of 455 patients (45.0%) identified as White, 384 patients (37.9%) identified as Black, and 173 patients (17.1%) identified as other races. After controlling for demographic characteristics and clinical features, Black patients had lower odds than White patients of receiving a prescription for opioid medication at ED discharge (odds ratio [OR], 0.42; 95% CI, 0.27-0.65). When patients who did and did not prefer opioids were considered separately, Black patients continued to have lower odds of being discharged with a prescription for opioids compared with White patients (among those who preferred opioids: OR, 0.43 [95% CI, 0.24-0.77]; among those who did not prefer opioids: OR, 0.45 [95% CI, 0.23-0.89]). These disparities were not eliminated in the treatment arm, in which clinicians were given additional data about their patients' treatment preferences and risk of opioid misuse. Conclusions and Relevance: In this secondary analysis of data from a randomized clinical trial, Black patients received different acute pain management than White patients after patient preference was accounted for. These disparities remained after clinicians were given additional patient-level data, suggesting that a lack of patient information may not be associated with opioid prescribing disparities. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03134092.

4.
J Sports Sci Med ; 20(3): 492-499, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34267589

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine whether the first sensation of stretching (ROMFSS) may predict the maximum range of motion (ROMMAX) in male (N = 37) and female (N = 32) volunteer subjects, and to assess the reliability of the ROM perceived by subjects in relation to a pre-determined ROM (ROM50%). Subjects attempted three experimental sessions with 48 hours between sessions 1 and 2 and 28 days between sessions 1 and 3. Within each session, five trials were performed with isokinetic equipment to assess posterior thigh muscle flexibility. The results revealed a strong and significant correlation between ROMMAX and ROMFSS for both sexes, females (r = 0.96, p < 0.001, R 2 = 0.92) and males (r = 0.91, p < 0.001; R 2 = 0.82). The accuracy of the model verified by the standard error of estimate (SEE) was high in the equations proposed for both female (SEE = 4.53%) and male (SEE = 5.45%). Our results revealed that ROMFSS may predict the ROMMAX for both male and female subjects. The ROMFSS may contribute to the development of evaluation methods that do not subject the individuals to conditions that may include unnecessary risk of injury and is well suited to monitor the training process of stretching exercises with submaximal loads.


Assuntos
Exercícios de Alongamento Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Sensação/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/lesões , Percepção/fisiologia , Fatores de Risco , Coxa da Perna
5.
6.
Int J Parasitol ; 51(9): 719-728, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33722680

RESUMO

Host phylogenetic relatedness and ecological similarity are thought to contribute to parasite community assembly and infection rates. However, recent landscape level anthropogenic changes may disrupt host-parasite systems by impacting functional and phylogenetic diversity of host communities. We examined whether changes in host functional and phylogenetic diversity, forest cover, and minimum temperature influence the prevalence, diversity, and distributions of avian haemosporidian parasites (genera Haemoproteus and Plasmodium) across 18 avian communities in the Atlantic Forest. To explore spatial patterns in avian haemosporidian prevalence and taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity, we surveyed 2241 individuals belonging to 233 avian species across a deforestation gradient. Mean prevalence and parasite diversity varied considerably across avian communities and parasites responded differently to host attributes and anthropogenic changes. Avian malaria prevalence (termed herein as an infection caused by Plasmodium parasites) was higher in deforested sites, and both Plasmodium prevalence and taxonomic diversity were negatively related to host functional diversity. Increased diversity of avian hosts increased local taxonomic diversity of Plasmodium lineages but decreased phylogenetic diversity of this parasite genus. Temperature and host phylogenetic diversity did not influence prevalence and diversity of haemosporidian parasites. Variation in the diversity of avian host traits that promote parasite encounter and vector exposure (host functional diversity) partially explained the variation in avian malaria prevalence and diversity. Recent anthropogenic landscape transformation (reduced proportion of native forest cover) had a major influence on avian malaria occurrence across the Atlantic Forest. This suggests that, for Plasmodium, host phylogenetic diversity was not a biotic filter to parasite transmission as prevalence was largely explained by host ecological attributes and recent anthropogenic factors. Our results demonstrate that, similar to human malaria and other vector-transmitted pathogens, prevalence of avian malaria parasites will likely increase with deforestation.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves , Haemosporida , Malária Aviária , Parasitos , Plasmodium , Animais , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Florestas , Haemosporida/genética , Humanos , Malária Aviária/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Plasmodium/genética , Prevalência
7.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e28, 2021 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33455588

RESUMO

As the on-going severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 pandemic, we aimed to understand whether economic reopening (EROP) significantly influenced coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) incidence. COVID-19 data from Texas Health and Human Services between March and August 2020 were analysed. COVID-19 incidence rate (cases per 100 000 population) was compared to statewide for selected urban and rural counties. We used joinpoint regression analysis to identify changes in trends of COVID-19 incidence and interrupted time-series analyses for potential impact of state EROP orders on COVID-19 incidence. We found that the incidence rate increased to 145.1% (95% CI 8.4-454.5%) through 4th April, decreased by 15.5% (95% CI -24.4 -5.9%) between 5th April and 30th May, increased by 93.1% (95% CI 60.9-131.8%) between 31st May and 11th July and decreased by 13.2% (95% CI -22.2 -3.2%) after 12 July 2020. The study demonstrates the EROP policies significantly impacted trends in COVID-19 incidence rates and accounted for increases of 129.9 and 164.6 cases per 100 000 populations for the 24- or 17-week model, respectively, along with other county and state reopening ordinances. The incidence rate decreased sharply after 12th July considering the emphasis on a facemask or covering requirement in business and social settings.


Assuntos
COVID-19/economia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Feminino , Férias e Feriados , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Texas/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Parasitol Res ; 120(2): 605-613, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33415388

RESUMO

Studies contrasting parasite prevalence and host-parasite community structure between pristine and disturbed environments will improve our understanding of how deforestation affects disease transmission and parasite extinction. To determine how infection rates of a common and diverse group of avian blood parasites (Plasmodium and Haemoproteus) respond to changes in avian host composition after mining, we surveyed 25 bird communities from pristine forests (two forest types: plateau and hillside) and reforested sites in Northeast Amazonia. Infection rates and both parasite and avian host community structure exhibited considerable variation across the deforestation gradient. In opposition to the emerging pattern of lower avian haemosporidian prevalence in disturbed tropical forests in Africa, we show that secondary forests had higher haemosporidian prevalence in one of the largest mining areas of Amazonia. The dissimilarity displayed by bird communities may explain, in part, the higher prevalence of Haemoproteus in reforested areas owing to the tolerance of some bird species to open-canopy forest habitat. On the other hand, deforestation may cause local extinction of Plasmodium parasites due to the loss of their avian hosts that depend on closed-canopy primary forest habitats. Our results demonstrate that forest loss induced by anthropogenic changes can affect a host-parasite system and disturb both parasite transmission and diversity.


Assuntos
Apicomplexa/isolamento & purificação , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Animais , Apicomplexa/genética , Biodiversidade , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Doenças das Aves/transmissão , Aves , Brasil/epidemiologia , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico/veterinária , Ecossistema , Florestas , Geografia , Haemosporida/genética , Haemosporida/isolamento & purificação , Mineração , Plasmodium/genética , Plasmodium/isolamento & purificação , Prevalência
9.
Pathogens ; 10(2)2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33494428

RESUMO

Determining the prevalence and local transmission dynamics of parasitic organisms are necessary to understand the ability of parasites to persist in host populations and disperse across regions, yet local transmission dynamics, diversity, and distribution of haemosporidian parasites remain poorly understood. We studied the prevalence, diversity, and distributions of avian haemosporidian parasites of the genera Plasmodium, Haemoproteus, and Leucocytozoon among resident and migratory birds in Serra do Mar, Brazil. Using 399 blood samples from 66 Atlantic Forest bird species, we determined the prevalence and molecular diversity of these pathogens across avian host species and described a new species of Haemoproteus. Our molecular and morphological study also revealed that migratory species were infected more than residents. However, vector infective stages (gametocytes) of Leucocytozoon spp., the most prevalent parasites found in the most abundant migrating host species in Serra do Mar (Elaenia albiceps), were not seen in blood films of local birds suggesting that this long-distance Austral migrant can disperse Leucocytozoon parasite lineages from Patagonia to the Atlantic Forest, but lineage sharing among resident species and local transmission cannot occur in this part of Brazil. Our study demonstrates that migratory species may harbor a higher diversity and prevalence of parasites than resident species, but transportation of some parasites by migratory hosts may not always affect local transmission.

10.
Hemodial Int ; 25(1): 12-19, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33047477

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Recently published results of the investigational device exemption (IDE) trial using the Tablo hemodialysis system confirmed its safety and efficacy for home dialysis. This manuscript reports additional data from the Tablo IDE study on the training time required to be competent in self-care, the degree of dependence on health care workers and caregivers after training was complete, and participants' assessment of the ease-of-use of Tablo. METHODS: We collected data on the time required to set up concentrates and the Tablo cartridge prior to treatment initiation. We asked participants to rate system setup, treatment, and takedown on a Likert scale from 1 (very difficult) to 5 (very simple) and if they had required any assistance with any aspect of treatment over the prior 7 days. In a subgroup of 15 participants, we recorded the number of training sessions required to be deemed competent to do self-care dialysis. FINDINGS: Eighteen men and 10 women with a mean age of 52.6 years completed the study. Thirteen had previous self-care experience using a different dialysis system. Mean set up times for the concentrates and cartridge were 1.1 and 10.0 minutes, respectively. Participants with or without previous self-care experience had similar set-up times. The mean ease-of-use score was 4.5 or higher on a scale from 1 to 5 during the in-home phase. Sixty-five percent required no assistance at home and on average required fewer than four training sessions to be competent in managing their treatments. Results were similar for participants with or without previous self-care experience. CONCLUSIONS: Participants in the Tablo IDE trial were able to quickly learn and manage hemodialysis treatments in the home, found Tablo easy to use, and were generally independent in performing hemodialysis.


Assuntos
Diálise Renal , Autocuidado , Adulto , Idoso , Cuidadores , Cognição , Feminino , Hemodiálise no Domicílio , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
11.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 9(9): e19496, 2020 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32969832

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prescription opioid misuse in the United States is a devastating public health crisis; many chronic opioid users were originally prescribed this class of medication for acute pain. Video narrative-enhanced risk communication may improve patient outcomes, such as knowledge of opioid risk and opioid use behaviors after an episode of acute pain. OBJECTIVE: Our objective is to assess the effect of probabilistic and narrative-enhanced opioid risk communication on patient-reported outcomes, including knowledge, opioid use, and patient preferences, for patients who present to emergency departments with back pain and kidney stone pain. METHODS: This is a multisite randomized controlled trial. Patients presenting to the acute care facilities of four geographically and ethnically diverse US hospital centers with acute renal colic pain or musculoskeletal back and/or neck pain are eligible for this randomized controlled trial. A control group of patients receiving general risk information is compared to two intervention groups: one receiving the risk information sheet plus an individualized, visual probabilistic Opioid Risk Tool (ORT) and another receiving the risk information sheet plus a video narrative-enhanced probabilistic ORT. We will study the effect of probabilistic and narrative-enhanced opioid risk communication on the following: risk awareness and recall at 14 days postenrollment, reduced use or preferences for opioids after the emergency department episode, and alignment with patient preference and provider prescription. To assess these outcomes, we administer baseline patient surveys during acute care admission and follow-up surveys at predetermined times during the 3 months after discharge. RESULTS: A total of 1302 patients were enrolled over 24 months. The mean age of the participants was 40 years (SD 14), 692 out of 1302 (53.15%) were female, 556 out of 1302 (42.70%) were White, 498 out of 1302 (38.25%) were Black, 1002 out of 1302 (76.96%) had back pain, and 334 out of 1302 (25.65%) were at medium or high risk. Demographics and ORT scores were equally distributed across arms. CONCLUSIONS: This study seeks to assess the potential clinical role of narrative-enhanced, risk-informed communication for acute pain management in acute care settings. This paper outlines the protocol used to implement the study and highlights crucial methodological, statistical, and stakeholder involvement as well as dissemination considerations. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03134092; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03134092. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/19496.

12.
Syst Parasitol ; 97(5): 409-439, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813221

RESUMO

The Proterodiplostomidae Dubois, 1936 is a relatively small family of diplostomoidean digeneans parasitising the intestines of reptilian hosts associated with freshwater environments in tropical and subtropical regions. The greatest diversity of proterodiplostomids is found in crocodilians, although some parasitise snakes and turtles. According to the most recent revision, the Proterodiplostomidae included 17 genera within 5 subfamilies. Despite the complex taxonomic structure of the family, availability of testable morphology-based phylogenetic hypotheses and ancient hosts, molecular phylogenetic analyses of the group were practically lacking. Herein, we use novel DNA sequence data of the nuclear lsrRNA gene and mitochondrial cox1 gene from a broad range of proterodiplostomid taxa obtained from crocodilian, fish, and snake hosts on four continents to test the monophyly of the family and evaluate the present morphology-based classification system of the Proterodiplostomidae in comparison with the molecular phylogeny. This first detailed phylogeny for the Proterodiplostomidae challenges the current systematic framework. Combination of molecular phylogenetic data with examination of freshly collected quality specimens and re-evaluation of morphological criteria resulted in a number of systematic and nomenclatural changes along with a new phylogeny-based classification of the Proterodiplostomidae. As the result of our molecular and morphological analyses: (i) the current subfamily structure of the Proterodiplostomidae is abolished; (ii) three new genera, Paraproterodiplostomum n. g., Neocrocodilicola n. g. and Proteroduboisia n. g., are described and Pseudoneodiplostomoides Yamaguti, 1954 is restored and elevated from subgenus to genus level; (iii) two new species, Paraproterodiplostomum currani n. g., n. sp. and Archaeodiplostomum overstreeti n. sp., are described from the American alligator in Mississippi, USA. Comparison of the structure of terminal ducts of the reproductive system in all proterodiplostomid genera did not support the use of these structures for differentiation among subfamilies (or major clades) within the family, although they proved to be useful for distinguishing among genera and species. Our study includes the first report of proterodiplostomids from Australia and the first evidence of a snake acting as a paratenic host for a proterodiplostomid. A key to proterodiplostomid genera is provided. Questions of proterodiplostomid-host associations parasitic in crocodilians are discussed in connection with their historical biogeography. Our molecular phylogeny of the Proterodiplostomidae closely matches the current molecular phylogeny of crocodilians. Directions for future studies of the Proterodiplostomidae are outlined.


Assuntos
Filogenia , Répteis/parasitologia , Trematódeos/classificação , Animais , DNA de Helmintos/genética , Especificidade da Espécie , Trematódeos/anatomia & histologia , Trematódeos/genética
13.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 82(1): 125-135, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32856170

RESUMO

Ticks are among the best studied parasitic groups as they spread important pathogens of medical and veterinary importance worldwide. Migratory birds can play an important role in transporting ticks infected with pathogens across wide geographic regions. It is therefore important to understand which factors promote tick parasitism rates across their avian hosts and the associated potential for disease spread. Here, we identified the host attributes of infestation probability of ticks from the genus Amblyomma in 955 birds from Pantanal, Brazil. Infestation rates exhibited considerable variation across the 129 avian species surveyed and were explained by both host ecological traits and evolutionary history. The probability of an individual bird being infested with immature ticks (larvae and/or nymphs) was higher across resident bird species that forage at ground level and during the wet season. Bird species that feed on vertebrates were less likely to be infested by ticks. Other ecological traits known to promote tick exposure (age, body mass, social behavior, and sex) did not predict infestation probability. Our findings demonstrate that tick occurrence in Pantanal birds is determined by avian host attributes, but tick occurrence throughout the year constrains exposure to host-seeking ticks. Moreover, the ecology of the avian host might prevent the potential spread of tick-borne diseases outside Pantanal as migratory hosts are likely less infested by ticks.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves , Aves/parasitologia , Estações do Ano , Infestações por Carrapato , Migração Animal , Animais , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Brasil , Infestações por Carrapato/epidemiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Carrapatos
14.
Int J Sports Physiol Perform ; : 1-7, 2020 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32534447

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the effect of in-season differential training on volleyball spike-jump technique and performance in elite-level female players. METHODS: During the season, spike jumps of 12 elite female players (Austrian Volleyball League Women) were recorded by 13 Qualisys Oqus cameras (250 Hz) and an AMTI force plate (1000 Hz). First measurement was made at the beginning of the investigation. Two identical measurements were repeated after a first and a second interval. The first interval served as control phase. The second interval was comparable in length and regular program but included differential training (6 wk, 8 sessions of 15-20 min) as a modified warm-up. It addressed specific performance determinants. Analyses of variances were calculated for the 3 measurements and for the development during control and intervention phase. RESULTS: Initial jump height (0.44 [0.09] m) changed by -4.5% during the control phase and +11.9% during the intervention (P < .001, ηp2=.70). All approach variables, arm backswing, and velocity-conversion strategy improved compared with the control phase (Δ%: 6.1-51.2%, P < .05, ηp2=.40-.80). Joint angles, countermovement depth, maximal angular velocities, and torso incline were not affected (Δ%: -2.9-9.1%, P = .066-.969, ηp2=.00-.27). CONCLUSIONS: In-season differential training led to technical adaptations and increased spike-jump height in elite female players. The differential training program allowed players to experience a range of adaptability and to adjust toward an individual optimum in technical components of performance determinants. Coaches are encouraged to apply technical differential training to elite athletes and to target biomechanical performance factors specifically.

15.
Parasitol Res ; 119(7): 2039-2045, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32377908

RESUMO

Ticks are ectoparasites that feed on blood of a broad taxonomic range of terrestrial and flying vertebrates and are distributed across a wide range of environmental conditions. Here, we explore the biotic and abiotic factors on infestation probability of ticks of the genus Amblyomma and assess the degree of host specificity based on analysis of 1028 birds surveyed across Brazil. We show that tick infestation rates exhibited considerable variation across the 235 avian species analyzed and that the probability of an individual bird being parasitized by immature ticks (larvae and nymphs) increased with annual precipitation. Host phylogeny and two host ecological traits known to promote tick exposure (body mass and foraging behavior) did not predict infestation probability. Moreover, immature ticks displayed a low degree of host specificity at the family level. Lastly, tick occurrence in birds carrying infection with avian malaria and related parasites did not differ from those free of these haemosporidian parasites, indicating a lack of parasite avoidance by immature ticks. Our findings demonstrate that tick occurrence in birds across Brazilian biomes responds to environmental factors rather than ecological and evolutionary host attributes.


Assuntos
Aves/parasitologia , Meio Ambiente , Especificidade de Hospedeiro/fisiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/fisiologia , Ixodidae/fisiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Animais , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Larva , Malária Aviária/epidemiologia , Ninfa , Filogenia
16.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(24): 27555-27561, 2020 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32441499

RESUMO

Fiber-reinforced composites have become the material of choice for aerospace structures because of their favorable strength-to-weight ratio. Given the increasing amounts of counterfeit composite parts showing up in the complex aerospace supply chain, it is absolutely vital to track a composite part throughout its lifecycle-from production to usage and to disposal. Existing barcoding methods are invasive, affect the structural properties of composites, and/or are vulnerable to tampering. We describe a universal method to store information in fiber-reinforced composites based on solid-state in situ reduction leading to embedded nanoparticles with controlled morphologies. This simple, cost-effective, mild, surfactant-free, and one-step protocol for the fabrication of embedded platinum nanostructures leads to morphology-based barcodes for polymeric composites. We also describe a coding methodology wherein a 1 × 1 cm code can represent 3.4 billion parts to 95 trillion parts, depending on the resolution required along with access to morphology-based chemical encryption systems.

17.
J Strength Cond Res ; 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32149873

RESUMO

Hajek, F, Keller, M, Taube, W, von Duvillard, SP, Bell, JW, and Wagner, H. Testing-specific skating performance in ice hockey. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2020-Skating performance generally determines overall performance in ice hockey but has not been measured adequately in the past. Consequently, the aim of the study was to develop and validate a specific overall skating performance test for ice hockey (SOSPT) that includes similar movements and intensities as in competition. Ten male elite under-14-year and under-18-year old ice hockey players performed the SOSPT (2 heats only) and a 40-m on-ice sprinting test twice within 8 days. Additionally, 14 under-15, 18 under-17, and 20 under-20 male elite ice hockey players performed only the SOSPT (4 heats). Time was measured from the first subject's movement during a V-start until crossing the line (40-m on-ice sprinting test), first touch of the shoulder on the mat (heat #1 in the SOSPT) or first touch of the puck with the stick (heat #2 in the SOSPT) using a hand stopwatch. We found a high test-retest reliability of the SOSPT and 40-m on-ice sprinting test (interclass correlation coefficient, >0.7; coefficient of variation, <5%) with highly significant differences (p < 0.001) between the under-15, under-17, and under-20 players, a high correlation (r > 0.70) between an expert rating and the SOSPT, and a low correlation between the 40-m on-ice sprinting test and the SOSPT in the under-14 and under-18 players. The results of the study reveal that the SOSPT is a reliable and valid test to determine the specific overall skating performance in ice hockey players and is more suitable compared with straight skating tests of the 40-m on-ice sprinting test.

18.
J Parasitol ; 106(2): 211-220, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32164026

RESUMO

Biogeography is known to have shaped the diversity and evolutionary history of avian haemosporidian parasites across the Neotropics. However, a paucity of information exists for the temperate Neotropics and especially from nonpasserine hosts. To understand the effect of biogeography in the temperate Neotropics on haemosporidians of nonpasserine hosts we screened ducks (Anseriformes) from central Chile for the presence of these parasites. Forty-two individuals of 4 duck species (Anas flavirostris, Anas georgica, Mareca sibilatrix, Spatula cyanoptera cyanoptera) were collected and assessed for haemosporidian parasite infections by real-time polymerase chain reaction screening and subsequent sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Haemoproteus (subgenus Haemoproteus) and Plasmodium were detected in 2 host species, A. georgica and S. c. cyanoptera, with no Leucocytozoon found. Overall haemosporidian prevalence was low (14.2%), with the prevalence of Plasmodium (11.9%) being substantially greater than that of Haemoproteus (4.8%). Six haemosporidian cytochrome b lineages were recovered, 2 Haemoproteus and 4 Plasmodium, with all 6 lineages identified for the first time. In phylogenetic reconstruction, the Chilean Plasmodium lineages were more closely related to South American lineages from passerine birds than to known lineages from anseriforms. The subgenus Haemoproteus known from nonpasseriformes has never been identified from any anseriform host; however, we recovered 2 lineages from this subgenus, one from each A. georgica and S. c. cyanoptera. Further work is needed to determine if this presents true parasitism in ducks or only a spillover infection. The results of phylogenetic reconstruction demonstrate a unique evolutionary history of these Chilean parasites, differing from what is known for this host group. The unique geography of Chile, with a large part of the country being relatively isolated by the Atacama Desert in the north and the Andes in the east and south, would present opportunities for parasite diversification. Further work is needed to investigate how strongly the biogeographical isolation has shaped the haemosporidian parasites of this area. Our results add to the growing body of evidence that nonpasserine hosts support unique lineages of haemosporidian parasites, while also demonstrating the role of biogeography in haemosporidian parasite diversity in the temperate Neotropics.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Patos/parasitologia , Haemosporida/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Evolução Biológica , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Chile/epidemiologia , DNA de Protozoário/análise , DNA de Protozoário/sangue , DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , Haemosporida/classificação , Haemosporida/genética , Funções Verossimilhança , Fígado/parasitologia , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia
19.
Acta Trop ; 204: 105364, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007445

RESUMO

Haemosporidian parasites of the genera Plasmodium, Leucocytozoon, and Haemoproteus are one of the most prevalent and widely studied groups of parasites infecting birds. Plasmodium is the most well-known haemosporidian as the avian parasite Plasmodium relictum was the original transmission model for human malaria and was also responsible for catastrophic effects on native avifauna when introduced to Hawaii. The past two decades have seen a dramatic increase in research on avian haemosporidian parasites as a model system to understand evolutionary and ecological parasite-host relationships. Despite haemosporidians being one the best studied groups of avian parasites their specialization among avian hosts and variation in prevalence amongst regions and host taxa are not fully understood. In this review we focus on describing the current phylogenetic and morphological diversity of haemosporidian parasites, their specificity among avian and vector hosts, and identifying the determinants of haemosporidian prevalence among avian species. We also discuss how these parasites might spread across regions due to global climate change and the importance of avian migratory behavior in parasite dispersion and subsequent diversification.


Assuntos
Malária Aviária/epidemiologia , Plasmodium/classificação , Animais , Aves/parasitologia , Mudança Climática , Ecologia , Haemosporida/classificação , Hawaii/epidemiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Malária Aviária/parasitologia , Filogenia , Plasmodium/fisiologia , Prevalência
20.
J Anim Ecol ; 89(2): 423-435, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571223

RESUMO

Geographic variation in environmental conditions as well as host traits that promote parasite transmission may impact infection rates and community assembly of vector-transmitted parasites. Identifying the ecological, environmental and historical determinants of parasite distributions and diversity is therefore necessary to understand disease outbreaks under changing environments. Here, we identified the predictors and contributions of infection probability and phylogenetic diversity of Leucocytozoon (an avian blood parasite) at site and species levels across the New World. To explore spatial patterns in infection probability and lineage diversity for Leucocytozoon parasites, we surveyed 69 bird communities from Alaska to Patagonia. Using phylogenetic Bayesian hierarchical models and high-resolution satellite remote-sensing data, we determined the relative influence of climate, landscape, geography and host phylogeny on regional parasite community assembly. Infection rates and parasite diversity exhibited considerable variation across regions in the Americas. In opposition to the latitudinal gradient hypothesis, both the diversity and prevalence of Leucocytozoon parasites decreased towards the equator. Host relatedness and traits known to promote vector exposure neither predicted infection probability nor parasite diversity. Instead, the probability of a bird being infected with Leucocytozoon increased with increasing vegetation cover (NDVI) and moisture levels (NDWI), whereas the diversity of parasite lineages decreased with increasing NDVI. Infection rates and parasite diversity also tended to be higher in cooler regions and higher latitudes. Whereas temperature partially constrains Leucocytozoon diversity and infection rates, landscape features, such as vegetation cover and water body availability, play a significant role in modulating the probability of a bird being infected. This suggests that, for Leucocytozoon, the barriers to host shifting and parasite host range expansion are jointly determined by environmental filtering and landscape, but not by host phylogeny. Our results show that integrating host traits, host ancestry, bioclimatic data and microhabitat characteristics that are important for vector reproduction are imperative to understand and predict infection prevalence and diversity of vector-transmitted parasites. Unlike other vector-transmitted diseases, our results show that Leucocytozoon diversity and prevalence will likely decrease with warming temperatures.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Haemosporida/genética , Infecções , Parasitos , Alaska , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Aves , Filogenia , Probabilidade
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