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1.
Adv Child Dev Behav ; 58: 163-188, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32169195

RESUMO

The interactive, give and take "dance" that highlights the synchrony between parents and young infants during social interaction occurs at the behavioral as well as the physiological level. These dyadic processes seen across infancy and early childhood appear to contribute to children's development of self-regulation and general socio-emotional outcomes. The focus of this chapter is on dyadic synchrony, the temporal coordination of social behaviors and the associated physiology. Research on behavioral, brain, and cardiac synchrony is reviewed within a bio-behavioral synchrony model. Tutorials for analyzing these types of complex social interaction data are noted.

2.
Dev Sci ; 23(1): e12891, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31359565

RESUMO

Asymmetric patterns of frontal brain electrical activity reflect approach and avoidance tendencies, with stability of relative right activation associated with withdrawal emotions/motivation and left hemisphere activation linked with approach and positive affect. However, considerable shifts in approach/avoidance-related lateralization have been reported for children not targeted because of extreme temperament. In this study, dynamic effects of frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) power within and across hemispheres were examined throughout early childhood. Specifically, EEG indicators at 5, 10, 24, 36, 48, and 72 months-of-age (n = 410) were analyzed via a hybrid of difference score and panel design models, with baseline measures and subsequent time-to-time differences modeled as potentially influencing all subsequent amounts of time-to-time change (i.e., predictively saturated). Infant sex was considered as a moderator of dynamic developmental effects, with temperament attributes measured at 5 months examined as predictors of EEG hemisphere development. Overall, change in left and right frontal EEG power predicted declining subsequent change in the same hemisphere, with effects on the opposing neurobehavioral system enhancing later growth. Infant sex moderated the pattern of within and across-hemisphere effects, wherein for girls more prominent left hemisphere influences on the right hemisphere EEG changes were noted and right hemisphere effects were more salient for boys. Largely similar patterns of temperament prediction were observed for the left and the right EEG power changes, with limited sex differences in links between temperament and growth parameters. Results were interpreted in the context of comparable analyses using parietal power values, which provided evidence for unique frontal effects.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Lobo Frontal/fisiologia , Criança , Feminino , Lobo Frontal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Motivação , Caracteres Sexuais , Temperamento/fisiologia
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31728796

RESUMO

Fearful temperament represents one of the most robust predictors of child and adolescent anxiety; however, not all children with fearful temperament unvaryingly develop anxiety. Diverse processes resulting from the interplay between automatic processing (i.e., attention bias) and controlled processing (i.e., effortful control) drive the trajectories toward more adaptive or maladaptive directions. In this review, we examine the associations between fearful temperament, attention bias, and anxiety, as well as the moderating effect of effortful control. Based on the reviewed literature, we propose a two-mechanism developmental model of attention bias that underlies the association between fearful temperament and anxiety. We propose that the sub-components of effortful control (i.e., attentional control and inhibitory control) play different roles depending on individuals' temperaments, initial automatic biases, and goal priorities. Our model may help resolve some of the mixed findings and conflicts in the current literature. It may also advance our knowledge regarding the cognitive mechanisms linking fearful temperament and anxiety, as well as facilitate the continuing efforts in identifying and intervening with children who are at risk. Finally, we conclude the review with a discussion on the existing limitations and then propose questions for future research.

4.
J Appl Dev Psychol ; 60: 47-55, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31073257

RESUMO

This study examined the association between executive functioning (EF) and effortful control (EC), and tested whether cognitive control as the commonality of EF and EC, predicted competence and internalizing and externalizing symptomatology in children (N = 218, 6-8 years) and adolescents (N = 157, 13-14 years). Confirmatory factor analyses suggested cognitive control-inhibitory control and attentional control-as a significant overlap between EF and EC. Structural equation modeling analyses indicated that the cognitive control latent factor was associated with competence and internalizing and externalizing symptomatology among children and externalizing symptomatology among adolescents. The results provide evidence that inhibitory control and attentional control are the commonality between EF and EC and highlight that they are linked with positive and negative adjustment outcomes.

5.
Infant Behav Dev ; 55: 88-99, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30947141

RESUMO

Relatively little work has examined potential interactions between child intrinsic factors and extrinsic environmental factors in the development of negative affect in early life. This work is important because high levels of early negative affectivity have been associated with difficulties in later childhood adjustment. We examined associations between infant frontal electroencephalogram (EEG), maternal parenting behaviors, and children's negative affect across the first two years of life. Infant baseline frontal EEG asymmetry was measured at 5 months; maternal sensitivity and intrusiveness were observed during mother-child interaction at 5 and 24 months; and mothers provided reports of toddler negative affect at 24 months. Results indicated that maternal sensitive behaviors at 5 months were associated with less negative affect at 24 months, but only for infants with left frontal EEG asymmetry. Similarly, maternal sensitive behaviors at 24 months were associated with less toddler negative affect at 24 months, but only for infants with left frontal EEG asymmetry. In contrast, maternal intrusive behaviors at 5- and 24-months were associated with greater toddler negative affect, but only for infants with right frontal EEG asymmetry at 5-months. Findings suggest that levels of negative affect in toddlers may be at least partially a result of interactions between children's own early neurophysiological functioning and maternal behavior during everyday interactions with children in the first two years of life.


Assuntos
Afeto/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Lobo Frontal/fisiologia , Comportamento do Lactente/fisiologia , Comportamento Materno/fisiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Comportamento do Lactente/psicologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Comportamento Materno/psicologia , Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia , Mães/psicologia
6.
Biol Psychol ; 144: 37-45, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30851409

RESUMO

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by difficulty in dynamically adjusting behavior to interact effectively with others, or social reciprocity. Synchronization of physiological responses between interacting partners, or physiological linkage (PL), is thought to provide a foundation for social reciprocity. In previous work we developed a new technique to measure PL using dynamic linear time series modeling to assess cardiac interbeat interval (IBI) linkage in typically developing same-sex unacquainted dyads (Scarpa et al., 2017). The current article describes a proof-of-concept study with three dyads of young adults with ASD interacting with same-sex unacquainted typically developing (TD) partners. This pilot data is applied to propose potential benefits of using this technique to quantify and assess PL in individuals with ASD, both for basic research and for intervention science. Discussion focuses on applications of this measure to potentially advance knowledge of the biology-behavior link in ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/fisiopatologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Periodicidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Estudo de Prova de Conceito , Adulto Jovem
7.
Yale J Biol Med ; 92(1): 3-11, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30923468

RESUMO

Executive function (EF) abilities refer to higher order cognitive processes necessary to consciously and deliberately persist in a task and are associated with a variety of important developmental outcomes. Attention is believed to support the development and deployment of EF. Although preschool EF and attentional abilities are concurrently linked, much less is known about the longitudinal association between infant attentional abilities and preschool EF. The current study investigated the impact of infant attention orienting behavior on preschool EF. Maternal report and laboratory measures of infant attention were gathered on 114 infants who were 5 months old; performance on four different EF tasks was measured when these same children were 3 years old. Infant attention skills were significantly related to preschool EF, even after controlling for age 3 verbal intelligence. These findings indicate that infant attention may indeed serve as an early marker of later EF. Given the significant developmental outcomes associated with EF, understanding the foundational factors associated with EF is necessary for both theoretical and practical purposes.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Adulto , Comunicação , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Inteligência , Masculino
8.
Dev Sci ; 22(6): e12824, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30828908

RESUMO

This study provides the first analyses connecting individual differences in infant attention to reading achievement through the development of executive functioning (EF) in infancy and early childhood. Five-month-old infants observed a video, and peak look duration and shift rate were video coded and assessed. At 10 months, as well as 3, 4, and 6 years, children completed age-appropriate EF tasks (A-not-B task, hand game, forward digit span, backwards digit span, and number Stroop). Children also completed a standardized reading assessment and a measure of verbal intelligence (IQ) at age 6. Path analyses on 157 participants showed that infant attention had a direct statistical predictive effect on EF at 10 months, with EF showing a continuous pattern of development from 10 months to 6 years. EF and verbal IQ at 6 years had a direct effect on reading achievement. Furthermore, EF at all time points mediated the relation between 5-month attention and reading achievement. These findings may inform reading interventions by suggesting earlier intervention time points and specific cognitive processes (i.e. 5-month attention).


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Função Executiva , Leitura , Logro , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Inteligência , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino
9.
Dev Neuropsychol ; 44(2): 220-247, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30616391

RESUMO

The use of global, standardized instruments is conventional among clinicians and researchers interested in assessing neurocognitive development. Exclusively relying on these tests for evaluating effects may underestimate or miss specific effects on early cognition. The goal of this review is to identify alternative measures for possible inclusion in future clinical trials and interventions evaluating early neurocognitive development. The domains included for consideration are attention, memory, executive function, language, and socioemotional development. Although domain-based tests are limited, as psychometric properties have not yet been well-established, this review includes tasks and paradigms that have been reliably used across various developmental psychology laboratories.


Assuntos
Crescimento e Desenvolvimento/fisiologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos/normas , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino
10.
Fam Relat ; 67(3): 339-353, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30364561

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the direct and indirect associations of maternal emotion control, executive functioning, and social cognitions maternal with harsh verbal parenting and child behavior and to do so guided by social information processing theory. Background: Studies have demonstrated a relationship between maternal harsh parenting and increased child conduct problems. However, less is known about how maternal emotion and cognitive control capacities and social cognitions intersect with harsh parenting and child behavior. Method: Structural equation modeling was used with a convenience sample of 152 mothers from Appalachia who had a child between 3 and 7 years of age. Results: Maternal emotion control and executive functioning were both inversely associated with child conduct problems. That is, stronger maternal emotion control was associated with less harsh verbal parenting and lower hostile attribution bias, and higher maternal executive functioning was related to less controlling parenting attitudes. Conclusion: The results suggest maternal emotion and cognitive control capacities affect how mothers interact with their children and ultimately child conduct problems. Implications: To more effectively reduce harsh verbal parenting and child conduct problems, interventions should help mothers to improve their emotion and cognitive control capacities.

11.
Cogn Dev ; 47: 63-70, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30364616

RESUMO

Middle childhood is a transitional period for episodic memory (EM) performance, as a result of improvements in strategies that are used to encode and retrieve memories. EM is also a skill continually assessed for testing in the school setting. The purpose of this study was to examine EM performance during middle childhood and its relation to individual differences in attentional abilities and in neurophysiological functioning. We examined self-reports of attention at 6, 7 and 8-years of age as well as parietal EEG recorded during baseline, memory task encoding, and memory task retrieval. Results indicate that child self-reports of attention predicted EM performance. Additionally, the difference from baseline to retrieval-related EEG activation contributed variance to EM performance. Results replicate other middle childhood studies showing a positive association between EM performance and attention while also suggesting that parietal EEG yields critical information regarding memory performance.

12.
Cogn Dev ; 45: 141-151, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29861542

RESUMO

Associations between working memory and academic achievement (math and reading) are well documented. Surprisingly, little is known of the contributions of episodic memory, segmented into temporal memory (recollection proxy) and item recognition (familiarity proxy), to academic achievement. This is the first study to observe these associations in typically developing 6-year old children. Overlap in neural correlates exists between working memory, episodic memory, and math and reading achievement. We attempted to tease apart the neural contributions of working memory, temporal memory, and item recognition to math and reading achievement. Results suggest that working memory and temporal memory, but not item recognition, are important contributors to both math and reading achievement, and that EEG power during a working memory task contributes to performance on tests of academic achievement.

13.
Infant Child Dev ; 27(2)2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29731695

RESUMO

Executive attention, the attention necessary to reconcile conflict among simultaneous attentional demands, is vital to children's daily lives. This attention develops rapidly as the anterior cingulate cortex and prefrontal areas mature during early and middle childhood. However, the developmental course of executive attention is not uniform amongst children. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to examine the role of individual differences in the development of executive attention by exploring the concurrent and longitudinal contributions to its development at 8 years of age. Executive attention was predicted by concurrent measures of frontal electroencephalography, lab-based performance on a conflict task, and parent report of attention. Longitudinally, 8-year-old executive attention, was significantly predicted by a combination of 4-year old frontal activity, conflict task performance, and parent report of attention focusing, but not with an analogous equation replacing attention focusing with attention shifting. Together, data demonstrate individual differences in executive attention.

14.
Dev Psychobiol ; 60(5): 595-607, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29785749

RESUMO

Parasympathetic nervous system functioning in infancy may serve a foundational role in the development of cognitive and socioemotional skills (Calkins, 2007). In this study (N = 297), we investigated the potential indirect effects of cardiac vagal regulation in infancy on children's executive functioning and social competence in preschool via expressive and receptive language in toddlerhood. Vagal regulation was assessed at 10 months during two attention conditions (social, nonsocial) via task-related changes in respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). A path analysis revealed that decreased RSA from baseline in the nonsocial condition and increased RSA in the social condition were related to larger vocabularies in toddlerhood. Additionally, children's vocabulary sizes were positively related to their executive function and social competence in preschool. Indirect effects from vagal regulation in both contexts to both 4-year outcomes were significant, suggesting that early advances in language may represent a mechanism through which biological functioning in infancy impacts social and cognitive functioning in childhood.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Sistema Nervoso Parassimpático/fisiologia , Arritmia Sinusal Respiratória/fisiologia , Habilidades Sociais , Vocabulário , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
15.
J Abnorm Child Psychol ; 46(8): 1665-1675, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29556860

RESUMO

Many, but not all, young children with high levels of fearful inhibition will develop internalizing problems. Individual studies have examined either child regulatory or environmental factors that might influence the level of risk. We focused on the interaction of regulation and environment by assessing how early fearful inhibition at age 2, along with inhibitory control and maternal negative behaviors at age 3, interactively predicted internalizing problems at age 6. A total of 218 children (105 boys, 113 girls) and their mothers participated in the study. Results indicated a three-way interaction among fearful inhibition, inhibitory control, and maternal negative behaviors. The correlation between fearful inhibition and internalizing was significant only when children had low inhibitory control and experienced high levels of maternal negative behaviors. Either having high inhibitory control or experiencing low maternal negative behaviors buffered against the adverse effect caused by the absence of the other. These findings highlight the importance of considering associations among both within-child factors and environmental factors in studying children's socioemotional outcomes.


Assuntos
Afeto/fisiologia , Sintomas Comportamentais/fisiopatologia , Comportamento Infantil/fisiologia , Medo/fisiologia , Comportamento Materno/fisiologia , Relações Mãe-Filho , Autocontrole , Timidez , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Hostilidade , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino
16.
Child Dev ; 89(3): 711-724, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29341120

RESUMO

This study examined how timing (i.e., relative maturity) and rate (i.e., how quickly infants attain proficiency) of A-not-B performance were related to changes in brain activity from age 6 to 12 months. A-not-B performance and resting EEG (electroencephalography) were measured monthly from age 6 to 12 months in 28 infants and were modeled using logistic and linear growth curve models. Infants with faster performance rates reached performance milestones earlier. Infants with faster rates of increase in A-not-B performance had lower occipital power at 6 months and greater linear increases in occipital power. The results underscore the importance of considering nonlinear change processes for studying infants' cognitive development as well as how these changes are related to trajectories of EEG power.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Comportamento do Lactente/fisiologia , Pensamento/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Córtex Cerebral/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Biomed Signal Process Control ; 39: 204-212, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31186670

RESUMO

ADHD affects a major portion of our children, predominantly boys. Upon diagnosis treatment can be offered that is usually quite effective. Diagnosis is generally based on subjective observation and interview. As a result, an objective test for the detection or presence of ADHD is considered very desirable. Based on EEG, across multiple channels, using autoregressive model parameters as features, ADHD detection is approached here in analogy with the imposter problem known from speaker verification. Gaussian mixture models are used to define ADHD and universal background models so that a likelihood ratio detector can be designed. The efficacy of this approach is reflected in the traditional detector performance measures of the area-under-the-curve and equal-error-probability. The results - based on a limited database of males, approximately 6 years of age - indicate that high probability of detection and low equal error rate can be achieved simultaneously with the proposed approach, when using EEG collected during an attention network task. The effect of using contaminated data is investigated as well.

18.
Early Educ Dev ; 29(5): 641-654, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30745790

RESUMO

Research Findings: We examined the nature of association between toddler negative affectivity (NA) and later academic achievement by testing early childhood executive function (EF) as a mediator that links children's temperament and their performance on standardized math and reading assessments. One hundred eighty-four children (93 boys, 91 girls) participated in our longitudinal study. Children's NA was measured at age 2 and EF at age 4. At age 6, academic achievement in reading and mathematics were assessed using the Woodcock Johnson III Tests of Achievement (Woodcock, McGrew, & Mather, 2001). Results indicated that NA at age 2 negatively predicted EF at age 4, which positively predicted mathematics achievement and reading achievement at age 6. Age 4 EF mediated the relation between age 2 NA and age 6 academic achievement on both reading and math. These findings highlight the significance of considering both NA and EF in conversations about children's academic achievement. Practice or Policy: For children with temperamentally high NA, focusing on efforts to enhance emotion regulation and EF during the preschool years may benefit their later mathematics and reading achievement.

19.
Emotion ; 18(5): 615-624, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28604036

RESUMO

Physiological linkage (PL) refers to coordinated physiological responses among interacting partners (Feldman, 2012a), thought to offer mammals evolutionary advantages by promoting survival through social groups. Although PL has been observed in dyads who are familiar or have close relationships (e.g., parent-infant interactions, romantic couples), less is known with regard to PL in stranger dyads. The current study used dynamic linear time series modeling to assess cardiac interbeat interval linkage in 26 same-gender stranger dyads (17 female and 9 male dyads; 18-22 years old) while they spoke or wrote about emotional or neutral life events. The estimated coefficients in bivariate regression models indicated small but statistically significant PL effects for both male and female dyads. The PL effect was stronger for female dyads, extending to a lag of 4 seconds. For male dyads, the effect was statistically significant but weaker than for female dyads, extending only to a lag of 1 second. No statistically significant differences in PL were noted for type of task (i.e., baseline, writing, speaking, listening) or with differing task emotional content. Frequency domain analysis based on the estimated dynamic models yielded similar results. Our results suggest that PL can be detected among strangers in this setting and appears to be stronger and longer-lasting in women. Our findings are discussed in terms of the importance of biological synchrony in humans, gender differences, and possible implications for objective measurement of social reciprocity at a physiological level. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Emoções/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
20.
Child Dev ; 89(5): 1735-1751, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28548307

RESUMO

An empirical model of temperament that assessed transactional and cascade associations between respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), negative affectivity, and the caregiving environment (i.e., maternal intrusiveness) across three time points during infancy (N = 388) was examined. Negative affectivity at 5 months was associated positively with maternal intrusiveness at 10 months, which in turn predicted increased negative affectivity at 24 months. RSA at 5 months was associated positively with negative affectivity at 10 months, which subsequently predicted greater RSA at 24 months. Finally, greater RSA at 5 months predicted greater negative affectivity at 10 months, which in turn predicted greater maternal intrusiveness at 24 months. Results are discussed from a biopsychosocial perspective of development.


Assuntos
Afeto/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Comportamento do Lactente/psicologia , Comportamento Materno , Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia , Arritmia Sinusal Respiratória/fisiologia , Temperamento , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Pesquisa Empírica , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Comportamento do Lactente/fisiologia , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Poder Familiar
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