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2.
Lancet Planet Health ; 5(4): e191-e199, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838734

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological evidence on short-term association between ambient carbon monoxide (CO) and mortality is inconclusive and limited to single cities, regions, or countries. Generalisation of results from previous studies is hindered by potential publication bias and different modelling approaches. We therefore assessed the association between short-term exposure to ambient CO and daily mortality in a multicity, multicountry setting. METHODS: We collected daily data on air pollution, meteorology, and total mortality from 337 cities in 18 countries or regions, covering various periods from 1979 to 2016. All included cities had at least 2 years of both CO and mortality data. We estimated city-specific associations using confounder-adjusted generalised additive models with a quasi-Poisson distribution, and then pooled the estimates, accounting for their statistical uncertainty, using a random-effects multilevel meta-analytical model. We also assessed the overall shape of the exposure-response curve and evaluated the possibility of a threshold below which health is not affected. FINDINGS: Overall, a 1 mg/m3 increase in the average CO concentration of the previous day was associated with a 0·91% (95% CI 0·32-1·50) increase in daily total mortality. The pooled exposure-response curve showed a continuously elevated mortality risk with increasing CO concentrations, suggesting no threshold. The exposure-response curve was steeper at daily CO levels lower than 1 mg/m3, indicating greater risk of mortality per increment in CO exposure, and persisted at daily concentrations as low as 0·6 mg/m3 or less. The association remained similar after adjustment for ozone but was attenuated after adjustment for particulate matter or sulphur dioxide, or even reduced to null after adjustment for nitrogen dioxide. INTERPRETATION: This international study is by far the largest epidemiological investigation on short-term CO-related mortality. We found significant associations between ambient CO and daily mortality, even at levels well below current air quality guidelines. Further studies are warranted to disentangle its independent effect from other traffic-related pollutants. FUNDING: EU Horizon 2020, UK Medical Research Council, and Natural Environment Research Council.

3.
Environ Res ; 197: 111112, 2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838131

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Climate change exacerbates temperature-related mortality, but effects may vary by geographic characteristics. We hypothesize that higher greenness may mitigate temperature-related mortality, and that the effect may vary in different areas. OBJECTIVE: We examined how mortality among older adults in China was associated with temperature for 2000-2014, and how geolocation and residential greenness may modulate this association. METHODS: We used health data from the China Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS), and meteorological data from the Global Surface Summary of Day (GSOD) product by National Climate Data Center. We used a case-crossover study design with distributed nonlinear modeling to estimate mortality risks in relation to temperature, and stratified analysis by quartile of greenness. Greenness was estimated by Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from remote-sensed imagery. In addition to the national analysis, we also assessed three provinces (Jiangsu, Guangdong, and Liaoning) to examine differences by climatic regions. RESULTS: Extreme temperatures had a significant association with higher mortality, with regional differences. Findings from the national analysis suggest that individuals in the lowest quartile of greenness exposure had a ratio of relative risks (RRR) of 1.38 (0.79, 2.42) for mortality risk on extreme hot days at the 95th percentile compared to those at the 50th percentile, compared to those in the highest quartile, which means those residing in the lowest quartile of greenness had a 38% higher RR than those residing in the highest quartile of greenness, where RR refers to the risk of mortality on days at the 95th percentile of temperature compared to days at the 50th percentile. The RRR for the highest to lowest quartiles of greenness for mortality risk on extreme cold days at the 5th percentile compared to the 50th percentile was 2.08 (0.12, 36.2). In Jiangsu and Guangdong provinces, both the heat effects and cold effects were the lowest in the highest greenness quartile, and the results in Liaoning province were not statistically significant, indicating different regional effects of greenness on modulating the temperature-mortality relationship. DISCUSSION: We elucidated one pathway through which greenness benefits health by decreasing impact from extreme high temperatures. The effects of greenness differed by climatic regions. Policymakers should consider vegetation in the context of climate change and health.

4.
Epidemiology ; 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33788795

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although many studies demonstrated reduced mortality risk with higher greenness, few studies examined the modifying effect of greenness on air pollution-health associations. We evaluated residential greenness as an effect modifier of the association between long-term exposure to fine particles (PM2.5) and mortality. METHODS: We used data from all Medicare beneficiaries in North Carolina (NC) and Michigan (MI) (2001-2016). We estimated annual PM2.5 averages using ensemble prediction models. We estimated mortality risk per 1 µg/m3 increase using Cox proportional hazards modeling, controlling for demographics, Medicaid eligibility, and area-level covariates. We investigated health disparities by greenness using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) with measures of urbanicity and socioeconomic status. RESULTS: PM2.5 was positively associated with mortality risk. Hazard ratios (HRs) were 1.12 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.12, 1.13) for NC and 1.01 (95% CI 1.00, 1.01 ) for MI. HRs were higher for rural than urban areas. Within each category of urbanicity, HRs were generally higher in less green areas. For combined disparities, HRs were higher in low greenness or low SES areas, regardless of the other factor. HRs were lowest in high-greenness and high-SES areas for both states. CONCLUSIONS: In our study, those in low SES and high greenness areas had lower associations between PM2.5 and mortality than those in low SES and low greenness areas. Multiple aspects of disparity factors and their interactions may affect health disparities from air pollution exposures. Findings should be considered in light of uncertainties, such as our use of modeled PM2.5 data, and warrant further investigation.

5.
BMJ ; 372: n534, 2021 03 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33762259

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the short term associations between nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and total, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality across multiple countries/regions worldwide, using a uniform analytical protocol. DESIGN: Two stage, time series approach, with overdispersed generalised linear models and multilevel meta-analysis. SETTING: 398 cities in 22 low to high income countries/regions. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Daily deaths from total (62.8 million), cardiovascular (19.7 million), and respiratory (5.5 million) causes between 1973 and 2018. RESULTS: On average, a 10 µg/m3 increase in NO2 concentration on lag 1 day (previous day) was associated with 0.46% (95% confidence interval 0.36% to 0.57%), 0.37% (0.22% to 0.51%), and 0.47% (0.21% to 0.72%) increases in total, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality, respectively. These associations remained robust after adjusting for co-pollutants (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤10 µm or ≤2.5 µm (PM10 and PM2.5, respectively), ozone, sulfur dioxide, and carbon monoxide). The pooled concentration-response curves for all three causes were almost linear without discernible thresholds. The proportion of deaths attributable to NO2 concentration above the counterfactual zero level was 1.23% (95% confidence interval 0.96% to 1.51%) across the 398 cities. CONCLUSIONS: This multilocation study provides key evidence on the independent and linear associations between short term exposure to NO2 and increased risk of total, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality, suggesting that health benefits would be achieved by tightening the guidelines and regulatory limits of NO2.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Doenças Respiratórias/mortalidade , Saúde da População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/induzido quimicamente , Cidades , Países Desenvolvidos/estatística & dados numéricos , Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Doenças Respiratórias/induzido quimicamente
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 779: 146334, 2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33744577

RESUMO

The United States has the highest numbers of confirmed cases and deaths during the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Previous studies reported that urban residents are more vulnerable to the spread and mortality of COVID-19 than rural residents. However, the pathways through which urban environments affect COVID-19 spread and mortality are unclear. We collected daily data on the number of confirmed cases and deaths of COVID-19 from Mar. 01 to Nov. 16, 2020 for all 91 counties in New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut in the United States. We calculated the COVID-19 incidence %, daily reproduction number, and mortality %, then estimated the associations with urban environment indicators using regression models. COVID-19 outcomes were generally highest in areas with high population density, and this pattern was evident in the early period of epidemic. Among the area-level demographic variables, the percentage of Black or Hispanic residents showed the strongest positive association with COVID-19 outcomes. Higher risk of COVID-19 outcomes was also associated with higher percentage of overcrowded households, uninsured people, and income inequality. The percent elderly, sex ratio (the ratio of males to females), and greenness were negatively associated with risk of COVID-19 outcomes. The results of this study could indicate where resources are most needed.

7.
Environ Res ; 196: 110989, 2021 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33689820

RESUMO

Concentration-response function for exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) and mortality (i.e., relative risk, RR) may be inequal across communities by socioeconomic conditions. Investigation on specific mechanisms of this inequality regarding susceptibility to PM, beyond non-specific "socioeconomic conditions", would provide policy-relevant implications for tackling this inequality. However, such investigation via epidemiological studies is challenged by residual confounding by correlated mechanisms and different loss of life expectancy by PM exposures between communities. Here, we aimed to assess community characteristics including different aspects of socioeconomic deprivation, medical resources, health behaviors, air quality, and greenness in their relation to inequal RR for PM10 and cause-specific mortality in 72 municipalities in South Korea, 2006-2013, considering these challenges. We found that a 10 µg/m3 increase in PM10 on average across 46 days was associated with a 1.05% (95% CI: 0.24, 1.88) increase in all-cause mortality (ALL), 1.32% (95% CI: -0.29, 2.95) increase in cardiovascular mortality (CVD), and 6.47% (95% CI: 3.06, 10.00) increase in respiratory mortality (RES). The association between PM10 and mortality was higher in communities with higher ratio of SO2 to PM10 (ALL and RES), higher material deprivation (ALL, CVD, and RES), lower medical resources (CVD), higher prevalence of drinking (ALL and CVD), and lower prevalence of smoking (CVD and RES). Lag-structures showed smaller loss of life expectancy by PM exposures in communities with higher prevalence of smoking. Our findings suggest that PM-related health inequalities are shaped by a variety of mechanisms relating to susceptibility to PM exposures and different loss of life expectancy. Health policies controlling community characteristics may contribute to minimizing PM10-related health inequalities in those perspectives.

8.
Environ Res ; 195: 110862, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33581087

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several studies have reported environmental disparities regarding exposure to concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs). Public health implications of environmental justice from the intensive livestock industry are of great concern in North Carolina (NC), USA, a state with a large number and extensive history of CAFOs. OBJECTIVES: We examined disparities by exposure to CAFOs using several environmental justice metrics and considering potentially vulnerable subpopulations. METHODS: We obtained data on permitted animal facilities from NC Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ). Using ZIP code level variables from the 2010 Census, we evaluated environmental disparities by eight environmental justice metrics (i.e., percentage of Non-Hispanic White, Non-Hispanic Black, or Hispanic; percentage living below the poverty level; median household income; percentage with education less than high school diploma; racial residential isolation (RI) for Non-Hispanic Black; and educational residential isolation (ERI) for population without college degree). We applied two approaches to assign CAFOs exposure for each ZIP code: (1) a count method based on the number of CAFOs within ZIP code; and (2) a buffer method based on the area-weighted number of CAFOs using a 15 km buffer. RESULTS: Spatial distributions of CAFOs exposure generally showed similar patterns between the two exposure methods. However, some ZIP codes had different estimated CAFOs exposure for the different approaches, with higher exposure when using the buffer method. Our findings indicate that CAFOs are located disproportionately in communities with higher percentage of minorities and in low-income communities. Distributions of environmental justice metrics generally showed similar patterns for both exposure methods, however starker disparities were observed using a buffer method. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings of the disproportionate location of CAFOs provide evidence of environmental disparities with respect to race and socioeconomic status in NC and have implications for future studies of environmental and health impacts of CAFOs.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Benchmarking , Afro-Americanos , Animais , Exposição Ambiental , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , North Carolina
9.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 21(1): 2, 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397295

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Time-series analysis with case-only data is a prominent method for the effect of environmental determinants on disease events in environmental epidemiology. In this analysis, adjustment for seasonality and long-term time-trend is crucial to obtain valid findings. When applying this analysis for long-term exposure (e.g., months, years) of which effects are usually studied via survival analysis with individual-level longitudinal data, unlike its application for short-term exposure (e.g., days, weeks), a standard adjustment method for seasonality and long-term time-trend can extremely inflate standard error of coefficient estimates of the effects. Given that individual-level longitudinal data are difficult to construct and often available to limited populations, if this inflation of standard error can be solved, rich case-only data over regions and countries would be very useful to test a variety of research hypotheses considering unique local contexts. METHODS: We discuss adjustment methods for seasonality and time-trend used in time-series analysis in environmental epidemiology and explain why standard errors can be inflated. We suggest alternative methods to solve this problem. We conduct simulation analyses based on real data for Seoul, South Korea, 2002-2013, and time-series analysis using real data for seven major South Korean cities, 2006-2013 to identify whether the association between long-term exposure and health outcomes can be estimated via time-series analysis with alternative adjustment methods. RESULTS: Simulation analyses and real-data analysis confirmed that frequently used adjustment methods such as a spline function of a variable representing time extremely inflate standard errors of estimates for associations between long-term exposure and health outcomes. Instead, alternative methods such as a combination of functions of variables representing time can make sufficient adjustment with efficiency. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that time-series analysis with case-only data can be applied for estimating long-term exposure effects. Rich case-only data such as death certificates and hospitalization records combined with repeated measurements of environmental determinants across countries would have high potentials for investigating the effects of long-term exposure on health outcomes allowing for unique contexts of local populations.

10.
Environ Res ; : 110432, 2020 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33166538

RESUMO

Epidemiologic studies have found associations between fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure and adverse health effects using exposure models that incorporate monitoring data and other relevant information. Here, we use nine PM2.5 concentration models (i.e., exposure models) that span a wide range of methods to investigate i) PM2.5 concentrations in 2011, ii) potential changes in PM2.5 concentrations between 2011 and 2028 due to on-the-books regulations, and iii) PM2.5 exposure for the U.S. population and four racial/ethnic groups. The exposure models included two geophysical chemical transport models (CTMs), two interpolation methods, a satellite-derived aerosol optical depth-based method, a Bayesian statistical regression model, and three data-rich machine learning methods. We focused on annual predictions that were regridded to 12-km resolution over the conterminous U.S., but also considered 1-km predictions in sensitivity analyses. The exposure models predicted broadly consistent PM2.5 concentrations, with relatively high concentrations on average over the eastern U.S. and greater variability in the western U.S. However, differences in national concentration distributions (median standard deviation: 1.00 µg m-3) and spatial distributions over urban areas were evident. Further exploration of these differences and their implications for specific applications would be valuable. PM2.5 concentrations were estimated to decrease by about 1 µg m-3 on average due to modeled emission changes between 2011 and 2028, with decreases of more than 3 µg m-3 in areas with relatively high 2011 concentrations that were projected to experience relatively large emission reductions. Agreement among models was closer for population-weighted than uniformly weighted averages across the domain. About 50% of the population was estimated to experience PM2.5 concentrations less than 10 µg m-3 in 2011 and PM2.5 improvements of about 2 µg m-3 due to modeled emission changes between 2011 and 2028. Two inequality metrics were used to characterize differences in exposure among the four racial/ethnic groups. The metrics generally yielded consistent information and suggest that the modeled emission reductions between 2011 and 2028 would reduce absolute exposure inequality on average.

11.
Environ Health Perspect ; 128(11): 115001, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33170741

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Modeling suggests that climate change mitigation actions can have substantial human health benefits that accrue quickly and locally. Documenting the benefits can help drive more ambitious and health-protective climate change mitigation actions; however, documenting the adverse health effects can help to avoid them. Estimating the health effects of mitigation (HEM) actions can help policy makers prioritize investments based not only on mitigation potential but also on expected health benefits. To date, however, the wide range of incompatible approaches taken to developing and reporting HEM estimates has limited their comparability and usefulness to policymakers. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this effort was to generate guidance for modeling studies on scoping, estimating, and reporting population health effects from climate change mitigation actions. METHODS: An expert panel of HEM researchers was recruited to participate in developing guidance for conducting HEM studies. The primary literature and a synthesis of HEM studies were provided to the panel. Panel members then participated in a modified Delphi exercise to identify areas of consensus regarding HEM estimation. Finally, the panel met to review and discuss consensus findings, resolve remaining differences, and generate guidance regarding conducting HEM studies. RESULTS: The panel generated a checklist of recommendations regarding stakeholder engagement: HEM modeling, including model structure, scope and scale, demographics, time horizons, counterfactuals, health response functions, and metrics; parameterization and reporting; approaches to uncertainty and sensitivity analysis; accounting for policy uptake; and discounting. DISCUSSION: This checklist provides guidance for conducting and reporting HEM estimates to make them more comparable and useful for policymakers. Harmonization of HEM estimates has the potential to lead to advances in and improved synthesis of policy-relevant research that can inform evidence-based decision making and practice. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP6745.

12.
Am J Public Health ; : e1-e4, 2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33211581

RESUMO

Objectives. To investigate the rate of manuscript submission to a major peer-reviewed journal (American Journal of Public Health) by gender, comparing periods before and during the pandemic.Methods. We used data from January 1 to May 12, 2020, and defined the start of the pandemic period by country as the first date of 50 or more confirmed cases. We used an algorithm to classify gender based on first name and nation of origin. We included authors whose gender could be estimated with a certainty of at least 95%.Results. Submission rates were higher overall during the pandemic compared with before. Increases were higher for submissions from men compared with women (41.9% vs 10.9% for corresponding author). For the United States, submissions increased 23.8% for men but only 7.9% for women. Women authored 29.4% of COVID-19-related articles.Conclusions. Our findings suggest that the pandemic exacerbated gender imbalances in scientific research. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print November 19, 2020: e1-e4. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2020.305975).

13.
Lancet Planet Health ; 4(11): e512-e521, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33159878

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Various retrospective studies have reported on the increase of mortality risk due to higher diurnal temperature range (DTR). This study projects the effect of DTR on future mortality across 445 communities in 20 countries and regions. METHODS: DTR-related mortality risk was estimated on the basis of the historical daily time-series of mortality and weather factors from Jan 1, 1985, to Dec 31, 2015, with data for 445 communities across 20 countries and regions, from the Multi-Country Multi-City Collaborative Research Network. We obtained daily projected temperature series associated with four climate change scenarios, using the four representative concentration pathways (RCPs) described by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, from the lowest to the highest emission scenarios (RCP 2.6, RCP 4.5, RCP 6.0, and RCP 8.5). Excess deaths attributable to the DTR during the current (1985-2015) and future (2020-99) periods were projected using daily DTR series under the four scenarios. Future excess deaths were calculated on the basis of assumptions that warmer long-term average temperatures affect or do not affect the DTR-related mortality risk. FINDINGS: The time-series analyses results showed that DTR was associated with excess mortality. Under the unmitigated climate change scenario (RCP 8.5), the future average DTR is projected to increase in most countries and regions (by -0·4 to 1·6°C), particularly in the USA, south-central Europe, Mexico, and South Africa. The excess deaths currently attributable to DTR were estimated to be 0·2-7·4%. Furthermore, the DTR-related mortality risk increased as the long-term average temperature increased; in the linear mixed model with the assumption of an interactive effect with long-term average temperature, we estimated 0·05% additional DTR mortality risk per 1°C increase in average temperature. Based on the interaction with long-term average temperature, the DTR-related excess deaths are projected to increase in all countries or regions by 1·4-10·3% in 2090-99. INTERPRETATION: This study suggests that globally, DTR-related excess mortality might increase under climate change, and this increasing pattern is likely to vary between countries and regions. Considering climatic changes, our findings could contribute to public health interventions aimed at reducing the impact of DTR on human health. FUNDING: Korea Ministry of Environment.

14.
Environ Res ; : 110387, 2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33129853

RESUMO

In the United States (US), immigrants constitute a considerable and growing proportion of the general population. Compared to the US-born, immigrants have differential health risks, and it is unclear if environmental exposures contribute. In this work, we estimated disparities between immigrants and the US-born in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure and attributable premature mortality, including by region of origin and time since immigration. With PM2.5 estimates from a validated model at ~1 km2 spatial resolution and residential Census tract population data, we calculated the annual area-weighted average PM2.5 exposure for immigrants overall, the US-born, and immigrants separately by geographic region of origin and time since immigration. We then calculated the premature mortality attributed to PM2.5 for each population group, assessing disparities by immigrant status in PM2.5 exposure and attributable premature mortality in the US as a whole and in each US county to evevaluate spatial heterogeneity. Overall, immigrants were exposed to slightly higher PM2.5 (0.36 µg/m3, 3.8%) than the US-born. This exposure difference translates to 2.11 more premature deaths attributable to PM2.5 per 100,000 in population for immigrants compared to the US-born in 2010. Immigrant - US-born disparities in PM2.5 and attributable premature mortality were more severe among immigrants originating from Asia, Africa, and Latin America than those from Europe, Oceania, and North America. Disparities between immigrant groups by time since immigration were comparatively small. Sensitivity analyses using 2000 data and a non-linear set of PM2.5 attributable mortality coefficients identified similar patterns. Our findings suggest that environmental exposure disparities, such as in PM2.5, may contribute to immigrant health disparities in the US.

16.
Int J Epidemiol ; 49(4): 1106-1116, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32754756

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: South Korea experienced the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak in the early period; thus data from this country could provide significant implications for global mitigation strategies. This study reports how COVID-19 has spread in South Korea and examines the effects of rapid widespread diagnostic testing on the spread of the disease in the early epidemic phase. METHODS: We collected daily data on the number of confirmed cases, tests and deaths due to COVID-19 from 20 January to 13 April 2020. We estimated the spread pattern with a logistic growth model, calculated the daily reproduction number (Rt) and examined the fatality pattern of COVID-19. RESULTS: From the start date of the epidemic in Korea (18 February 2020), the time to peak and plateau were 15.2 and 25 days, respectively. The initial Rt was 3.9 [95% credible interval (CI) 3.7 to 4.2] and declined to <1 after 2 weeks. The initial epidemic doubling time was 3.8 days (3.4 to 4.2 days). The aggressive testing in the early days of the epidemic was associated with reduction in transmission speed of COVID-19. In addition, as of 13 April, the case fatality rate of COVID-19 in Korea was 2.1%, suggesting a positive effect of the targeted treatment policy for severe patients and medical resources. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide important information for establishing and revising action plans based on testing strategies and severe patient care systems, needed to address the unprecedented pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade/tendências , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Análise Espaço-Temporal
17.
Environ Int ; 143: 105921, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32623223

RESUMO

Extreme weather events may enhance ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution, causing additional adverse health effects. This work aims to evaluate the health and associated economic impacts of changes in air quality induced by heat wave, stagnation, and compound extremes under the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5 climate scenarios. The Environmental Benefits Mapping and Analysis Program-Community Edition is applied to estimate health and related economic impacts of changes in surface O3 and PM2.5 levels due to heat wave, stagnation, and compound extremes over the continental U.S. during past (i.e., 2001-2010) and future (i.e., 2046-2055) decades under the two RCP scenarios. Under the past and future decades, the weather extremes-induced concentration increases may lead to several tens to hundreds O3-related deaths and several hundreds to over ten thousands PM2.5-related deaths annually. High mortalities and morbidities are estimated for populated urban areas with strong spatial heterogeneities. The estimated annual costs for these O3 and PM2.5 related health outcomes are $5.5-12.5 and $48.6-140.7 billion U.S. dollar for mortalities, and $8.9-97.8 and $19.5-112.5 million for morbidities, respectively. Of the extreme events, the estimated O3- and PM2.5-related mortality and morbidity attributed to stagnation are the highest, followed by heat wave or compound extremes. Large increases in heat wave and compound extreme events in the future decade dominate changes in mortality during these two extreme events, whereas population growth dominates changes in mortality during stagnation that is projected to occur less frequently. Projected reductions of anthropogenic emissions under bothRCP scenarios compensate for the increased mortality due to increasedoccurrence for heat wave and compound extremes in the future. These results suggest a need to further reduce air pollutant emissions during weather extremes to minimize the adverse impacts of weather extremes on air quality and human health.

18.
Sci Total Environ ; 744: 141012, 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32693269

RESUMO

To control the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak, state and local governments in the United States have implemented several mitigation efforts that resulted in lower emissions of traffic-related air pollutants. This study examined the impacts of COVID-19 mitigation measures on air pollution levels and the subsequent reductions in mortality for urban areas in 10 US states and the District of Columbia. We calculated changes in levels of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter no larger than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) during mitigation period versus the baseline period (pre-mitigation measure) using the difference-in-difference approach and the estimated avoided total and cause-specific mortality attributable to these changes in PM2.5 by state and district. We found that PM2.5 concentration during the mitigation period decreased for most states (except for 3 states) and the capital. Decreases of average PM2.5 concentration ranged from 0.25 µg/m3 (4.3%) in Maryland to 4.20 µg/m3 (45.1%) in California. On average, PM2.5 levels across 7 states and the capital reduced by 12.8%. We estimated that PM2.5 reduction during the mitigation period lowered air pollution-related total and cause-specific deaths. An estimated 483 (95% CI: 307, 665) PM2.5-related deaths was avoided in the urban areas of California. Our findings have implications for the effects of mitigation efforts and provide insight into the mortality reductions can be achieved from reduced air pollution levels.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Infecções por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Maryland , Material Particulado/análise , Estados Unidos
19.
Environ Health Perspect ; 128(6): 66001, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32589456

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Potential adverse health effects of Asian dust exposure have been reported, but systematic reviews and quantitative syntheses are lacking. OBJECTIVE: We reviewed epidemiologic studies that assessed the risk of mortality, hospital admissions, and symptoms/dysfunction associated with exposure to Asian dust. METHODS: We performed a systematic search of PubMed and Web of Science to identify studies that reported the association between Asian dust exposure and human health outcomes. We conducted separate meta-analyses using a random-effects model for mortality and hospital admissions for a specific health outcome and assessed pooled estimates for each lag when at least three studies were available for a specific lag. RESULTS: We identified 89 studies that met our inclusion criteria for the systematic review, and 21 studies were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled estimates (percentage changes) of mortality from circulatory and respiratory causes for Asian dust days vs. non-Asian dust days were 2.33% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.76, 3.93] increase at lag 0 and 3.99% (95% CI: 0.08, 8.06) increase at lag 3, respectively. The increased risk for hospital admissions for respiratory disease, asthma, and pneumonia peaked at lag 3 by 8.85% (95% CI: 0.80, 17.55), 14.55% (95% CI: 6.74, 22.94), and 8.51% (95% CI: 2.89, 14.44), respectively. Seven of 12 studies reported reduced peak expiratory flow, and 16 of 21 studies reported increased respiratory symptoms associated with Asian dust exposure. There were substantial variations between the studies in definitions of Asian dust, study designs, model specifications, and confounder controls. DISCUSSION: We found evidence of increased mortality and hospital admissions for circulatory and respiratory events. However, the number of studies included in the meta-analysis was not large and further evidences are merited to strengthen our conclusions. Standardized protocols for epidemiological studies would facilitate interstudy comparisons. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP5312.

20.
Health Place ; 62: 102287, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479364

RESUMO

Understanding the environmental justice implications of the mortality impacts of air pollution exposure is a public health priority, as some subpopulations may face a disproportionate health burden. We examined which residential environmental and social factors may affect disparities in the air pollution-mortality relationship in North Carolina, US, using a time-stratified case-crossover design. Results indicate that air pollution poses a higher mortality risk for some persons (e.g., elderly) than others. Our findings have implications for environmental justice regarding protection of those who suffer the most from exposure to air pollution and policies to protect their health.

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