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1.
Environ Health Perspect ; 130(11): 117006, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36367781

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have suggested links between ambient air pollution and coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) mortality, yet confirmation by well-designed epidemiological studies with individual data is needed. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to examine whether short-term exposure to air pollution is associated with risk of mortality from COVID-19 for those infected with COVID-19. METHODS: The Cook County Medical Examiner's Office reports individual-level data for deaths from COVID-19 that occur in its jurisdiction, which includes all confirmed COVID-19 deaths in Cook County, Illinois. Case-crossover analysis was conducted to estimate the associations of estimated short-term exposures to particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5µm (PM2.5) and ozone (O3) on the day of death and up to 21 d before death at location of death with COVID-19. A total of 7,462 deaths from COVID-19 that occurred up to 28 February 2021 were included in the final analysis. We adjusted for potential confounders by time-stratified case-crossover design and by covariate adjustments (i.e., time-invariant factors, meteorological factors, viral transmission, seasonality, and time trend). RESULTS: Of the 7,462 case and 25,457 self-control days, almost all were days with exposure levels below the PM2.5 24-h National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) (35 µg/m3); 98.9% had O3 levels below the maximum 8-h NAAQS (35.7 µg/m3 or 70 parts per billion). An interquartile range (IQR) increase (5.2 µg/m3) in cumulative 3-wk PM2.5 exposure was associated with a 69.6% [95% confidence interval (CI): 34.6, 113.8] increase in risk of COVID-19 mortality. An IQR increase (8.2 µg/m3) in 3-d O3 exposure was associated with a 29.0% (95% CI: 9.9, 51.5) increase in risk of COVID-19 mortality. The associations differed by demographics or race/ethnicity. There was indication of modification of the associations by some comorbid conditions. DISCUSSION: Short-term exposure to air pollution below the NAAQS may increase the mortality burden from COVID-19. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP10836.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , COVID-19 , Humanos , Estudos Cross-Over , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Médicos Legistas , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Sistema de Registros
2.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 6329, 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36319637

RESUMO

Persons of color have been exposed to a disproportionate burden of air pollution across the United States for decades. Yet, the inequality in exposure to known toxic elements of air pollution is unclear. Here, we find that populations living in racially segregated communities are exposed to a form of fine particulate matter with over three times higher mass proportions of known toxic and carcinogenic metals. While concentrations of total fine particulate matter are two times higher in racially segregated communities, concentrations of metals from anthropogenic sources are nearly ten times higher. Populations living in racially segregated communities have been disproportionately exposed to these environmental stressors throughout the past decade. We find evidence, however, that these disproportionate exposures may be abated though targeted regulatory action. For example, recent regulations on marine fuel oil not only reduced vanadium concentrations in coastal cities, but also sharply lessened differences in vanadium exposure by segregation.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Estados Unidos , Humanos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Etnicidade , Vanádio , Poluição do Ar/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Exposição Ambiental/análise
3.
Environ Res Lett ; 17(9)2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36340862

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The southern United States (U.S.) sustains a disproportionate burden of incident stroke and associated mortality, compared to other parts of the U.S. A large proportion of this risk remains unexplained. Petroleum production and refining (PPR) is concentrated within this region and emits multiple pollutants implicated in stroke pathogenesis. The relationship between residential PPR exposure and stroke has not been studied. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the census tract-level association between residential PPR exposure and stroke prevalence for adults (≥18 years) in seven southern U.S. states in 2018. METHODS: We conducted spatial distance- and generalized propensity score-matched analysis that adjusts for sociodemographic factors, smoking, and unmeasured spatial confounding. PPR was measured as inverse-distance weighted averages of petroleum production within 2.5km or 5km from refineries, which was strongly correlated with measured levels of sulfur dioxide, a byproduct of PPR. RESULTS: The prevalence of self-reported stroke ranged from 0.4% to 12.7% for all the census tracts of the seven states. People with low socioeconomic status and of Hispanic ethnicity resided closer to petroleum refineries. The non-Hispanic Black population was exposed to higher PPR, while the non-Hispanic White population was exposed to lower PPR. Residential PPR exposure was significantly associated with stroke prevalence. One standard deviation increase in PPR within 5km from refineries was associated with 0.22 (95% confidence interval: 0.09, 0.34) percentage point increase in stroke prevalence. PPR explained 5.6% (2.4, 8.9) of stroke prevalence in the exposed areas. These values differed by states: 1.1% (0.5, 1.7) in Alabama to 11.7% (4.9, 18.6) in Mississippi, and by census tract-level: 0.08% (0.03, 0.13) to 25.3% (10.6, 40.0). CONCLUSIONS: PPR is associated with self-reported stroke prevalence, suggesting possible links between pollutants emitted from refineries and stroke. The increased prevalence due to PPR may differ by sociodemographic factors.

6.
Humanit Soc Sci Commun ; 9(1): 348, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36212912

RESUMO

Many fields of science are still dominated by men. COVID-19 has dramatically changed the nature of work, including for scientists, such as lack of access to key resources and transition to online teaching. Further, scientists face the pandemic-related stressors common to other professions (e.g., childcare, eldercare). As many of these activities fall more heavily on women, the pandemic may have exacerbated gender disparities in science. We analyzed self-identified gender of corresponding author for 119,592 manuscripts from 151 countries submitted January 2019 to July 2021 to the Institute of Physics (IOP) portfolio of 57 academic journals, with disciplines of astronomy and astrophysics, bioscience, environmental science, materials, mathematics, physics, and interdisciplinary research. We consider differences by country, journal, and pre-pandemic versus pandemic periods. Gender was self-identified by corresponding author for 82.9% of manuscripts (N = 99,114 for subset of submissions with gender). Of these manuscripts, authors were 82.1% male, 17.8% female, and 0.08% non-binary. Most authors were male for all countries (country-specific values: range 0.0-100.0%, median 86.1%) and every journal (journal-specific values range 63.7-91.5%, median 83.7%). The contribution of female authors was slightly higher in the pandemic (18.7%) compared to pre-pandemic (16.5%). However, prior to the pandemic, the percent of submissions from women had been increasing, and this value slowed during the pandemic. Contrary to our hypothesis, we did not find that manuscript submissions from women decreased during the pandemic, although the rate of increased submissions evident prior to the pandemic slowed. In both pre-pandemic and pandemic periods, authorship was overwhelmingly male for all journals, countries, and fields. Further research is needed on impacts of the pandemic on other measures of scientific productivity (e.g., accepted manuscripts, teaching), scientific position (e.g., junior vs. senior scholars), as well as the underlying gender imbalance that persisted before and during the pandemic.

7.
Environ Res ; 216(Pt 1): 114461, 2022 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36181900

RESUMO

California experienced extreme and prolonged drought conditions during the early 2010s. To date, little is known regarding the influence of drought on air quality. Our study quantified site-specific associations between drought (defined by the Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index; SPEI) and daily maximum 8-h ozone (O3) concentrations for California, USA, and then pooled these associations for the years 2009-2015. Overall, ambient O3 concentration was higher during droughts by 1.18 ppb (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.00-1.36). The sensitivity of O3 to drought was greater during the warm season than during the cool season (1.73 ppb versus 0.79 ppb higher O3 during droughts) with substantial regional variation. In a pooled analysis with meteorological parameters as potential effect modifiers, the spatial heterogeneity of drought-O3 associations was explained strongly by average relative humidity for each season (71.9% (warm season) and 73.4% (cool season) of the drought-O3 associations explained), followed by the drought-related changes in relative humidity (47.6% (warm season)) and temperature (53.6% (cool season)). The pooled regression further identified regions susceptible for drought-related O3 increases as those with relatively low average relative humidity (10-25th percentiles or 44.3-47.3%) and larger drought-related decrease in relative humidity and increase in temperature. As the drought events are projected to occur with increased frequency and intensity in the era of climate change, the excess health burdens from O3 exposures attributed to the projected drought events need to be taken into account when allocating air quality and health resources. The impacts of O3 on health during droughts would confound the health burdens from the drought itself.

8.
Sci Total Environ ; : 158636, 2022 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36087670

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: The associations between COVID-19 transmission and meteorological factors are scientifically debated. Several studies have been conducted worldwide, with inconsistent findings. However, often these studies had methodological issues, e.g., did not exclude important confounding factors, or had limited geographic or temporal resolution. Our aim was to quantify associations between temporal variations in COVID-19 incidence and meteorological variables globally. METHODS: We analysed data from 455 cities across 20 countries from 3 February to 31 October 2020. We used a time-series analysis that assumes a quasi-Poisson distribution of the cases and incorporates distributed lag non-linear modelling for the exposure associations at the city-level while considering effects of autocorrelation, long-term trends, and day of the week. The confounding by governmental measures was accounted for by incorporating the Oxford Governmental Stringency Index. The effects of daily mean air temperature, relative and absolute humidity, and UV radiation were estimated by applying a meta-regression of local estimates with multi-level random effects for location, country, and climatic zone. RESULTS: We found that air temperature and absolute humidity influenced the spread of COVID-19 over a lag period of 15 days. Pooling the estimates globally showed that overall low temperatures (7.5 °C compared to 17.0 °C) and low absolute humidity (6.0 g/m3 compared to 11.0 g/m3) were associated with higher COVID-19 incidence (RR temp =1.33 with 95%CI: 1.08; 1.64 and RR AH =1.33 with 95%CI: 1.12; 1.57). RH revealed no significant trend and for UV some evidence of a positive association was found. These results were robust to sensitivity analysis. However, the study results also emphasise the heterogeneity of these associations in different countries. CONCLUSION: Globally, our results suggest that comparatively low temperatures and low absolute humidity were associated with increased risks of COVID-19 incidence. However, this study underlines regional heterogeneity of weather-related effects on COVID-19 transmission.

9.
Environ Health Perspect ; 130(9): 96001, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36053724

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transnational immigration has increased since the 1950s. In countries such as the United States, immigrants now account for >15% of the population. Although differences in health between immigrants and nonimmigrants are well documented, it is unclear how environmental exposures contribute to these disparities. OBJECTIVES: We summarized current knowledge comparing immigrants' and nonimmigrants' exposure to and health effects of environmental exposures. METHODS: We conducted a title and abstract review on articles identified through PubMed and selected those that assessed environmental exposures or health effects separately for immigrants and nonimmigrants. After a full text review, we extracted the main findings from eligible studies and categorized each article as exposure-focused, health-focused, or both. We also noted each study's exposure of interest, study location, exposure and statistical methods, immigrant and comparison groups, and the intersecting socioeconomic characteristics controlled for. RESULTS: We conducted a title and abstract review on 3,705 articles, a full text review on 84, and extracted findings from 50 studies. There were 43 studies that investigated exposure (e.g., metals, organic compounds, fine particulate matter, hazardous air pollutants) disparities, but only 12 studies that assessed health disparities (e.g., mortality, select morbidities). Multiple studies reported higher exposures in immigrants compared with nonimmigrants. Among immigrants, studies sometimes observed exposure disparities by country of origin and time since immigration. Of the 50 studies, 43 were conducted in North America. DISCUSSION: The environmental health of immigrants remains an understudied area, especially outside of North America. Although most identified studies explored potential exposure disparities, few investigated subsequent differences in health effects. Future research should investigate environmental health disparities of immigrants, especially outside North America. Additional research gaps include the role of immigrants' country of origin and time since immigration, as well as the combined effects of immigrant status with intersecting socioeconomic characteristics, such as race/ethnicity, income, and education attainment. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP9855.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Emigração e Imigração , Saúde Ambiental , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Renda , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078354

RESUMO

Ellicott City, MD was devasted by flash flooding in 2016 and 2018. A lack of qualitative research has been conducted on topics related to sense of place and flash flooding, especially in the United States. In this study, we reveal reasons why some who experienced flash flooding continued to stay the flood zone and why some leave. We utilized a phenomenological approach to answer these research questions. Data were generated through in-depth interviews with 19 participants from the Historic District and adjacent neighborhoods in Ellicott City. The most common reasons participants stayed were: (1) Community Impact, (2) Historical Land, and (3) Financial Burden. The most common reasons participants left were: (1) Emotional Exhaustion and Frustration, (2) Fear/Anxiety, and (3) Financial Burden. The results of our study indicate that reasons individuals who experience flash flooding stay, or leave may include community/historical, environmental, emotional, and economic factors. This reveals the complexity of relocation and sense of place after natural/environmental disasters and supports previous literature that suggests tailored response efforts based on these unique set of burdens. This paper aims to identify burdens and understand flood victims' decisions to help policy makers improve flood response efforts.


Assuntos
Desastres , Inundações , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa
11.
EBioMedicine ; 84: 104251, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36088684

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identifying how greenspace impacts the temperature-mortality relationship in urban environments is crucial, especially given climate change and rapid urbanization. However, the effect modification of greenspace on heat-related mortality has been typically focused on a localized area or single country. This study examined the heat-mortality relationship among different greenspace levels in a global setting. METHODS: We collected daily ambient temperature and mortality data for 452 locations in 24 countries and used Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) as the greenspace measurement. We used distributed lag non-linear model to estimate the heat-mortality relationship in each city and the estimates were pooled adjusting for city-specific average temperature, city-specific temperature range, city-specific population density, and gross domestic product (GDP). The effect modification of greenspace was evaluated by comparing the heat-related mortality risk for different greenspace groups (low, medium, and high), which were divided into terciles among 452 locations. FINDINGS: Cities with high greenspace value had the lowest heat-mortality relative risk of 1·19 (95% CI: 1·13, 1·25), while the heat-related relative risk was 1·46 (95% CI: 1·31, 1·62) for cities with low greenspace when comparing the 99th temperature and the minimum mortality temperature. A 20% increase of greenspace is associated with a 9·02% (95% CI: 8·88, 9·16) decrease in the heat-related attributable fraction, and if this association is causal (which is not within the scope of this study to assess), such a reduction could save approximately 933 excess deaths per year in 24 countries. INTERPRETATION: Our findings can inform communities on the potential health benefits of greenspaces in the urban environment and mitigation measures regarding the impacts of climate change. FUNDING: This publication was developed under Assistance Agreement No. RD83587101 awarded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to Yale University. It has not been formally reviewed by EPA. The views expressed in this document are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the Agency. EPA does not endorse any products or commercial services mentioned in this publication. Research reported in this publication was also supported by the National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities of the National Institutes of Health under Award Number R01MD012769. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health. Also, this work has been supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (2021R1A6A3A03038675), Medical Research Council-UK (MR/V034162/1 and MR/R013349/1), Natural Environment Research Council UK (Grant ID: NE/R009384/1), Academy of Finland (Grant ID: 310372), European Union's Horizon 2020 Project Exhaustion (Grant ID: 820655 and 874990), Czech Science Foundation (22-24920S), Emory University's NIEHS-funded HERCULES Center (Grant ID: P30ES019776), and Grant CEX2018-000794-S funded by MCIN/AEI/ 10.13039/501100011033 The funders had no role in the design, data collection, analysis, interpretation of results, manuscript writing, or decision to publication.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Temperatura Alta , Cidades , Meio Ambiente , Finlândia , Humanos , Mortalidade
12.
Lancet Reg Health West Pac ; 28: 100562, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35991537

RESUMO

Background: Acute aortic dissection (AAD) is a life-threatening cardiovascular emergency with high mortality, so identifying modifiable risk factors of AAD is of great public health significance. The associations of non-optimal temperature and temperature variability with AAD onset and the disease burden have not been fully understood. Methods: We conducted a time-stratified case-crossover study using a nationwide registry dataset from 1,868 hospitals in 313 Chinese cities. Conditional logistic regression and distributed lag models were used to investigate associations of temperature and temperature changes between neighboring days (TCN) with the hourly AAD onset and calculate the attributable fractions. We also evaluated the heterogeneity of the associations. Findings: A total of 40,270 eligible AAD cases were included. The exposure-response curves for temperature and TCN with AAD onset risk were both inverse and approximately linear. The risks were present on the concurrent hour (for temperature) or day (for TCN) and lasted for almost 1 day. The cumulative relative risks of AAD were 1.027 and 1.026 per 1°C lower temperature and temperature decline between neighboring days, respectively. The associations were significant during the non-heating period, but were not present during the heating period in cities with central heating. 23.13% of AAD cases nationwide were attributable to low temperature and 1.58% were attributable to temperature decline from the previous day. Interpretation: This is the largest nationwide study demonstrating robust associations of low temperature and temperature decline with AAD onset. We, for the first time, calculated the corresponding disease burden and further showed that central heating may be a modifier for temperature-related AAD risk and burden. Funding: This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (92043301 and 92143301), Shanghai International Science and Technology Partnership Project (No. 21230780200), the Medical Research Council-UK (MR/R013349/1), and the Natural Environment Research Council UK (NE/R009384/1).

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35995844

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Study results are inconclusive regarding how access to greenspace differs by sociodemographic status potentially due to lack of consideration of varying dimensions of greenspace. OBJECTIVE: We investigated how provision of greenspace by sociodemographic status varies by greenspace metrics reflecting coverage and accessibility of greenspace. METHODS: We used vegetation levels measured by Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), percent of greenspace, percent tree cover, percent tree cover along walkable roads, and percent of people living ≤500 m of a park entrance (park accessibility). We considered data for 2008-2013 in Census block groups in 3 US regions: New Haven, Connecticut; Baltimore, Maryland; and Durham, North Carolina. We examined geographical distribution of greenspace metrics and their associations with indicators of income, education, linguistic isolation, race/ethnicity, and age. We used logistic regression to examine associations between these greenspace metrics and age-standardized mortality controlling for sociodemographic indicators. RESULTS: Which region had the highest greenspace depended on the greenspace metric used. An interquartile range (33.6%) increase in low-income persons was associated with a 6.2% (95% CI: 3.1, 9.3) increase in park accessibility, whereas it was associated with 0.03 (95% CI: -0.035, -0.025) to 7.3% (95% CI: -8.7, -5.9) decreases in other greenspace metrics. A 15.5% increase in the lower-education population was associated with a 2.1% increase (95% CI: -0.3%, 4.6%) in park accessibility but decreases with other greenspace metrics (0.02 to 5.0%). These results were consistent across the 3 study areas. The odds of mortality rate more than the 75th percentile rate were inversely associated with all greenspace metrics except for annual average EVI (OR 1.27, 95% CI: 0.43, 3.79) and park accessibility (OR 1.40, 95% CI: 0.52, 3.75). SIGNIFICANCE: Environmental justice concerns regarding greenspace differ by the form of natural resources, and pathways of health benefits can differ by form of greenspace and socioeconomic status within communities. IMPACT STATEMENT: Comparisons of exposure to greenspace between different greenspace metrics should be incorporated in decision-making within local contexts.

14.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 14189, 2022 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35986083

RESUMO

Mental health has been a major public health concerns during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study investigated the effects of COVID-19 on mental health and whether individual and regional characteristics are associated with the changes in mental health. We estimated district-specific changes in the prevalence of moderate stress, extreme stress, and depression before and during the COVID-19 pandemic after adjusting for the time trend of mental health outcomes. Then, a meta-regression was conducted to examine the associations between district-level characteristics and changes in mental health due to the pandemic. The prevalence of moderate stress, extreme stress, and depression increased during the pandemic and the increases were more prominent in districts with high population density and in individuals aged 19-59 years, with a high education level, and with high household income. The % with reduced physical activity due to the pandemic were positively associated with increases in stress; while, the % that have mutual trust among neighbors and the number of sports facilities were negatively associated with increases in stress. Local tax per person had a positive association with increase in depression. Our study provides epidemiological evidence into the mental health consequences of the pandemic, which can inform the priority of resource allocation for managing mental health.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , Prevalência , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35897481

RESUMO

While a large body of literature has shown the health problems of illicit drug use, research is needed on how substance abuse impacts DNA damage and contaminants in blood, especially given Pb-contaminated opium. This pilot study aimed to evaluate the levels of lead (Pb), 8-hydroxy di-guanine (8-oxo-Gua), and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the blood serum of opium addicts and non-addict people. The current study is a case-control study with a cross-sectional design. A sample of 50 opium-addicted and non-addict adults were chosen for this study using convenience and random sampling methods. Participants were divided into two groups: addicts and non-addicts. The atomic absorption spectroscopy method was used to measure the quantity of Pb, and the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) method was used to measure the amount of 8-oxo-Gua and MDA. The data were analyzed using an independent t-test. The results show that the amount of Pb in the blood serum of addicted women and men was higher than levels in non-addict men and women, for the study participants (p-value = 0.001). Blood levels were not significantly different between addicts and non-addicts for men or women for 8-oxo-Gua (p-value = 0.647 for women and p-value = 0.785 for men) and MDA (p-value = 0.867 for women and p-value = 0.995 for men). In general, addicts' blood Pb levels were found to be substantially higher than those of normal non-addict persons in this pilot study. As a result, testing for blood Pb levels in addicts may be informative in instances when symptoms are inconclusive.


Assuntos
Drogas Ilícitas , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Guanina/análogos & derivados , Humanos , Chumbo , Masculino , Malondialdeído , Ópio , Projetos Piloto , Soro
16.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0269834, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35776710

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused unprecedented challenges for working conditions for scientists, but little is known for how the associations of these challenges with scientists' mental health and productivity differ by sex and status as a parent. This online survey study in six languages collected data from 4,494 scientists in Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics, and Medicine fields across 132 countries during October-December 2021. We compared the type of challenges for work, changes in work hours, and perception in productivity during the pandemic by sex and status as a parent (children <18 years living at home). Regression analyses analyzed the impacts of changed working conditions and work-life factors on productivity and mental health. We found that the percentage of participants with increased work hours was the highest in female participants, especially without children. Disproportionately higher increases in work hours were found for teaching and administration in women than men and for research/fundraising in non-parent participants than parent participants (p-value<0.001). Female participants were more concerned about the negative impacts of the pandemic on publications and long-term career progress, and less satisfied with their career progress than their male counterparts. There were differences in the type of institutional actions for the pandemic across study regions. The identified obstacles for work and home-life factors were associated with higher risks of experiencing depression, anxiety, and stress. Decision makers should consider the gender differences in the pandemic's adverse impacts on productivity in establishing equitable actions for career progress for scientists during pandemics.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Saúde Mental , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Criança , Eficiência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Autoimagem
17.
Environ Res Lett ; 17(5)2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35662857

RESUMO

Particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter no larger than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) has been linked to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) but evidence for vulnerability by sex remains unclear. We performed systematic review and meta-analysis to synthesize the state of scientific evidence on whether cardiovascular risks from PM2.5 differ for men compared to women. The databases Pubmed, Scopus, Embase, and GreenFILE were searched for studies published Jan. 1995 to Feb. 2020. Observational studies conducting subgroup analysis by sex for impacts of short-term or long-term exposure to PM2.5 on target CVDs were included. Data were independently extracted in duplicate and pooled with random-effects meta-regression. Risk ratios (RRs) for long-term exposure and percent changes in outcomes for short-term exposure were calculated per 10 µg/m3 PM2.5 increase. Quality of evidence of risk differences by sex was rated following Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE). A total of 12,502 articles were screened, with 61 meeting inclusion criteria. An additional 32 studies were added from citation chaining. RRs of all CVD mortality for long-term PM2.5 for men and women were the same (1.14; 95% CI: 1.09, 1.22) indicating no statistically different risks. Men and women did not have statistically different risks of daily CVD mortality, hospitalizations from all CVD, ischemic heart disease, cardiac arrest, acute myocardial infarction, and heart failure from short-term PM2.5 exposure (difference in % change in risk per 10 µg/m3 PM2.5: 0.04 (95% CI, -0.42 to 0.51); -0.05 (-0.47 to 0.38); 0.17 (-0.90, 1.24); 1.42 (-1.06, 3.97); 1.33 (-0.05, 2.73); and -0.48 (-1.94, 1.01), respectively). Analysis using GRADE found low or very low quality of evidence for sex differences for PM2.5-CVD risks. In conclusion, this meta-analysis and quality of evidence assessment of current observational studies found very limited evidence of the effect modification by sex for effects of PM2.5 on CVD outcomes in adults, which can inform clinical approaches and policies.

18.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 206(8): 999-1007, 2022 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35671471

RESUMO

Rationale: The associations between ambient coarse particulate matter (PM2.5-10) and daily mortality are not fully understood on a global scale. Objectives: To evaluate the short-term associations between PM2.5-10 and total, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality across multiple countries/regions worldwide. Methods: We collected daily mortality (total, cardiovascular, and respiratory) and air pollution data from 205 cities in 20 countries/regions. Concentrations of PM2.5-10 were computed as the difference between inhalable and fine PM. A two-stage time-series analytic approach was applied, with overdispersed generalized linear models and multilevel meta-analysis. We fitted two-pollutant models to test the independent effect of PM2.5-10 from copollutants (fine PM, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, ozone, and carbon monoxide). Exposure-response relationship curves were pooled, and regional analyses were conducted. Measurements and Main Results: A 10 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5-10 concentration on lag 0-1 day was associated with increments of 0.51% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.18%-0.84%), 0.43% (95% CI, 0.15%-0.71%), and 0.41% (95% CI, 0.06%-0.77%) in total, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality, respectively. The associations varied by country and region. These associations were robust to adjustment by all copollutants in two-pollutant models, especially for PM2.5. The exposure-response curves for total, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality were positive, with steeper slopes at lower exposure ranges and without discernible thresholds. Conclusions: This study provides novel global evidence on the robust and independent associations between short-term exposure to ambient PM2.5-10 and total, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality, suggesting the need to establish a unique guideline or regulatory limit for daily concentrations of PM2.5-10.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Ozônio , Doenças Respiratórias , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Monóxido de Carbono/análise , China , Cidades , Poeira , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Mortalidade , Dióxido de Nitrogênio , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Dióxido de Enxofre
19.
Curr Environ Health Rep ; 9(3): 436-450, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35522388

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Epidemiologic studies have observed elevated health risks in populations living near unconventional oil and gas development (UOGD). In this narrative review, we discuss strengths and limitations of UOG exposure assessment approaches used in or available for epidemiologic studies, emphasizing studies of children's health outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Exposure assessment challenges include (1) numerous potential stressors with distinct spatiotemporal patterns, (2) critical exposure windows that cover long periods and occur in the past, and (3) limited existing monitoring data coupled with the resource-intensiveness of collecting new exposure measurements to capture spatiotemporal variation. All epidemiologic studies used proximity-based models for exposure assessment as opposed to surveys, biomonitoring, or environmental measurements. Nearly all studies used aggregate (rather than pathway-specific) models, which are useful surrogates for the complex mix of potential hazards. Simple and less-specific exposure assessment approaches have benefits in terms of scalability, interpretability, and relevance to specific policy initiatives such as set-back distances. More detailed and specific models and metrics, including dispersion methods and stressor-specific models, could reduce exposure misclassification, illuminate underlying exposure pathways, and inform emission control and exposure mitigation strategies. While less practical in a large population, collection of multi-media environmental and biological exposure measurements would be feasible in cohort subsets. Such assessments are well-suited to provide insights into the presence and magnitude of exposures to UOG-related stressors in relation to spatial surrogates and to better elucidate the plausibility of observed effects in both children and adults.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental , Adulto , Criança , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Humanos
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35388169

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Environmental health disparity research involves the use of metrics to assess exposure to community-level vulnerabilities or inequities. While numerous vulnerability indices have been developed, there is no agreement on standardization or appropriate use, they have largely been applied in urban areas, and their interpretation and utility likely vary across different geographies. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the spatial distribution, variability, and relationships among different metrics of social vulnerability and isolation across urban and rural settings to inform interpretation and selection of metrics for environmental disparity research. METHODS: For all census tracts in North Carolina, we conducted a principal components analysis using 23 socioeconomic/demographic variables from the 2010 United States Census and American Community Survey. We calculated or obtained the neighborhood deprivation index (NDI), residential racial isolation index (RI), educational isolation index (EI), Gini coefficient, and social vulnerability index (SVI). Statistical analyses included Moran's I for spatial clustering, t-tests for urban-rural differences, Pearson correlation coefficients, and changes in ranking of tracts across metrics. RESULTS: Social vulnerability metrics exhibited clear spatial patterning (Moran's I ≥ 0.30, p < 0.01). Greater educational isolation and more intense neighborhood deprivation was observed in rural areas and greater racial isolation in urban areas. Single-domain metrics were not highly correlated with each other (rho ≤ 0.36), while composite metrics (i.e., NDI, SVI, principal components analysis) were highly correlated (rho > 0.80). Composite metrics were more highly correlated with the racial isolation metric in urban (rho: 0.54-0.64) versus rural tracts (rho: 0.36-0.48). Census tract rankings changed considerably based on which metric was being applied. SIGNIFICANCE: High correlations between composite metrics within urban and rural tracts suggests they could be used interchangeably; single domain metrics cannot. Composite metrics capture different facets of vulnerabilities in urban and rural settings, and these complexities should be examined by researchers applying metrics to areas of diverse urban and rural forms.

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