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1.
World J Gastroenterol ; 26(30): 4428-4441, 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32874055

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vedolizumab (VDZ), a humanised monoclonal antibody that selectively inhibits alpha4-beta7 integrins is approved for use in adult moderate to severe ulcerative colitis (UC) patients. AIM: To assess the efficacy and safety of VDZ in the real-world management of UC in a large multicenter cohort involving two countries and to identify predictors of achieving remission. METHODS: A retrospective review of Australian and Oxford, United Kingdom data for UC patients. Clinical response at 3 mo, endoscopic remission at 6 mo and clinical remission at 3, 6 and 12 mo were assessed. Cox regression models and Kaplan Meier curves were performed to assess the time to remission, time to failure and the covariates influencing them. Safety outcomes were recorded. RESULTS: Three hundred and three UC patients from 14 centres in Australia and United Kingdom, [60% n = 182, anti-TNF naïve] were included. The clinical response was 79% at 3 mo with more Australian patients achieving clinical response compared to Oxford (83% vs 70% P = 0.01). Clinical remission for all patients was 56%, 62% and 60% at 3, 6 and 12 mo respectively. Anti-TNF naive patients were more likely to achieve remission than exposed patients at all the time points (3 mo 66% vs 40% P < 0.001, 6 mo 73% vs 46% P < 0.001, 12 mo 66% vs 51% P = 0.03). More Australian patients achieved endoscopic remission at 6 mo compared to Oxford (69% vs 43% P = 0.01). On multi-variate analysis, anti-TNF naïve patients were 1.8 (95%CI: 1.3-2.3) times more likely to achieve remission than anti-TNF exposed (P < 0.001). 32 patients (11%) had colectomy by 12 mo. CONCLUSION: VDZ was safe and effective with 60% of UC patients achieving clinical remission at 12 mo and prior anti-TNF exposure influenced this outcome.

3.
BMC Cancer ; 20(1): 483, 2020 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32471447

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Repeat transarterial chemoembolisation (rTACE) is often required for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) to achieve disease control, however, current practice guidelines regarding treatment allocation vary significantly. This study aims to identify key factors associated with patient survival following rTACE to facilitate treatment allocation and prognostic discussion. METHOD: Patients with HCC undergoing rTACE at six Australian tertiary centers from 2009 to 2014 were included. Variables encompassing clinical, tumour, treatment type and response factors were analysed against the primary outcome of overall survival. Univariate analysis and multivariate Cox regression modelling were used to identify factors pre- and post-TACE therapy significantly associated with survival. RESULTS: Total of 292 consecutive patients underwent rTACE with mainly Child Pugh A cirrhosis (61%) and BCLC stage A (57%) disease. Median overall survival (OS) was 30 months (IQR 15.2-50.2) from initial TACE. On multivariate analysis greater tumour number (p = 0.02), higher serum bilirubin (p = 0.007) post initial TACE, and hepatic decompensation (p = 0.001) post second TACE were associated with reduced survival. Patients with serum AFP ≥ 200 ng/ml following initial TACE had lower survival (p = 0.001), compared to patients with serum AFP level that remained < 200 ng/ml post-initial TACE, with an overall survival of 19.4 months versus 34.7 months (p = 0.0001) respectively. CONCLUSION: Serum AFP level following initial treatment in patients undergoing repeat TACE for HCC is a simple and useful clinical prognostic marker. Moreover, it has the potential to facilitate appropriate patient selection for rTACE particularly when used in conjunction with baseline tumour burden and severity of hepatic dysfunction post-initial TACE.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359678

RESUMO

Imaging studies are useful in the diagnostic evaluation of inflammatory bowel diseases. However, concern often exists about the safety of imaging for pregnant and lactating women and their infants, leading to unwarranted avoidance of beneficial diagnostic tests or disruption of breastfeeding. Ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are not associated with ionizing radiation and are the imaging techniques of choice for pregnant patients. Safety of MRI contrast agent gadolinium in pregnancy is uncertain, therefore MRI without gadolinium should be performed. Intestinal ultrasound where available and MRI without gadolinium can be used to characterise disease complications such as bowel obstruction or intra-abdominal collections. Ionising radiation exposure through computed tomography (CT) is usually at much lower doses than those associated with foetal harm, however CT should be reserved for the rare clinical situations in which ultrasound and MRI are either unavailable or unable to provide the required diagnostic information.


Assuntos
Abdome/diagnóstico por imagem , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/complicações , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez
5.
J Crohns Colitis ; 2020 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32343768

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) affects women during their childbearing years. Gastrointestinal ultrasonography (GIUS) accurately identifies disease activity in non-pregnant patients with IBD. The utility of GIUS in pregnancy has not been established. We aimed to determine the feasibility and accuracy of GIUS in the assessment of IBD during pregnancy progression. METHODS: A multicentre observational study of women with IBD undergoing GIUS during pregnancy. Clinicians assessed the adequacy of bowel views and disease activity in four colonic segments and the terminal ileum. Location(s) in which views were impeded by the uterus were documented. GIUS disease activity (bowel wall thickness>3mm) was compared to biochemical disease activity (faecal calprotectin>100µg/g). RESULTS: 90 patients and 127 GIUS examinations were included (median gestation 19 weeks, range 4-33). Adequate colonic views were obtained in 116/127 (91%) scans. Adequate ileal views were obtained in 62/67 (93%) scans < 20 weeks and 30/51 (59%) scans at 20-26 weeks. There was a positive correlation between bowel wall thickness and calprotectin (r=0.26, p=0.03). GIUS delivered a specificity of 83%, sensitivity of 74% and negative predictive value of 90% compared to calprotectin. CONCLUSION: GIUS is a feasible and accurate modality for monitoring IBD in pregnancy. Adequate GIUS views of the colon and terminal ileum can be obtained in the majority of patients up to 20 weeks gestation. Beyond 20 weeks, GIUS provides good views of the colon but the terminal ileum becomes difficult to assess.

7.
Inflamm Bowel Dis ; 26(1): 93-102, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31141607

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Active inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) adversely affects pregnancy outcomes. Little is known about the risk of relapse after stopping anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) treatment during pregnancy. We assessed the risk of relapse before delivery in women who discontinued anti-TNF treatment before gestational week (GW) 30, predictors of reduced infant birth weight, a marker associated with long-term adverse outcomes, and rates and satisfaction with counseling. METHODS: Pregnant women with IBD receiving anti-TNF treatment were prospectively invited to participate in an electronic questionnaire carried out in 22 hospitals in Denmark, Australia, and New Zealand from 2011 to 2015. Risk estimates were calculated, and birth weight was investigated using t tests and linear regression. RESULTS: Of 175 women invited, 153 (87%) responded. In women in remission, the relapse rate did not differ significantly between those who discontinued anti-TNF before GW 30 (1/46, 2%) compared with those who continued treatment (8/74, 11%; relative risk, 0.20; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.02 to 1.56; P = 0.08). Relapse (P = 0.001) and continuation of anti-TNF therapy after GW 30 (P = 0.007) were independently associated with reduced mean birth weight by 367 g (95% CI, 145 to 589 g; relapse) and 274 g (95% CI, 77 to 471 g; anti-TNF exposure after GW 30). Of 134 (88%) women who received counseling, 116 (87%) were satisfied with the information provided. CONCLUSIONS: To minimize fetal exposure in women in remission, discontinuation of anti-TNF before GW 30 seems safe. Relapse and continuation of anti-TNF therapy after GW 30 were each independently associated with lower birth weight, although without an increased risk for birth weight <2500 g. Most women received and were satisfied with counseling.


Assuntos
Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Fator de Necrose Tumoral/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Austrália , Dinamarca , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Lineares , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Exposição Materna/prevenção & controle , Nova Zelândia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos Prospectivos , Recidiva , Resultado do Tratamento , Suspensão de Tratamento
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31674069

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Strictures are the most common Crohn's disease complication, but their natural history is unknown. This study aimed to characterize inflammation, predict prognosis, and understand the impact of drug therapy using magnetic resonance enterography (MRE). METHODS: Patients with a stricture diagnosed on MRE over a 5-year period were reviewed for MRE disease extent and inflammation, clinical course, C-reactive protein, response to anti-TNF therapy, endoscopic dilatation, hospitalization, and surgery. RESULTS: 136 patients had 235 strictures (77, one and 59, ≥ 2 strictures). TREATMENT: 46% of patients underwent surgery after a median 6 months; median follow-up for those not requiring surgery was 41 months. Predictors of surgery: Hospitalization because of obstruction predicted subsequent surgery (OR 2.50; 95% CI 1.06-5.90) while anti-TNF therapy commenced at stricture diagnosis was associated with a reduced risk (OR 0.23; 95% CI 0.05-0.99). MRE characteristics associated with surgery were proximal bowel dilatation ≥ 30-mm diameter (OR 2.98; 95% CI 1.36-6.55), stricture bowel wall thickness ≥ 10-mm (OR 2.42; 95% CI 1.11-5.27), and stricture length > 5-cm (OR 2.56; 95% CI 1.21-5.43). 81% of patients with these three adverse MRE features required surgery versus 17% if none were present (P < 0.001). Accuracy for these three MRE variables predicting surgery was high (AUC 0.76). CONCLUSION: Magnetic resonance enterography findings in Crohn's disease strictures are highly predictive of the disease course and the need for future surgery. MRE may also identify who would benefit from treatment intensification. Anti-TNF therapy is associated with reduced risk of surgery and appears to alter the natural history of this complication.

9.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1355, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647001

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The low diagnosis rate and poor access to clinical care among people with CHB is a major barrier to reducing HBV-related morbidity and mortality in Australia. One explanation for this is a lack of disease-specific knowledge among people living with CHB. Health literacy has been shown to be important for maximising engagement with medical care and adherence to recommended management. The 'teach-back' communication strategy has been shown to improve patient understanding in other clinical areas. This study aims to assess disease-specific knowledge; and evaluate the efficacy of the teach-back strategy for improving HBV knowledge, compared to a standard medical consultation. METHOD: A randomized pilot study was conducted between February and June 2017. Participants were recruited from the liver clinic at an inner-city tertiary hospital. English-speaking patients aged ≥18 years and diagnosed with CHB were eligible for the study. Participants were randomised to a control group (medical specialist appointment) and intervention group (teach-back). Knowledge was assessed at baseline, immediately post-intervention and at one month using a validated questionnaire. Participants in the intervention group received a one-on-one teach-back session about CHB. The main outcome measure was a combined knowledge score of the domains assessed - transmission, natural history, epidemiology and prevention and clinical management. RESULTS: Seventy participants were recruited (control n = 32, teach-back n = 38). Mean baseline knowledge score was 19.1 out of 23 with 55 (79%) participants scoring ≥17.3 (defined as high knowledge) (7). Sub-analysis of CHB knowledge domains identified focal deficits concerning transmission and whether HBV is curable. Knowledge scores were found to be positively associated with English proficiency and antiviral treatment experience (p < 0.05). Teach-back was associated with a significant increase in CHB knowledge at early recall (22.5 vs 18.7, p < 0.001) and at 1-month follow-up (21.9 vs 18.7, p < 0.001); there was no improvement in CHB knowledge associated with standard clinical consultant (early recall: 19.6 vs 19.4, p = 0.49, one-month follow-up: 19.5 vs 19.4, p = 0.94). CONCLUSION: In a tertiary hospital liver clinic population, baseline knowledge about CHB was good, but there were focal deficits concerning transmission and potential for cure. Teach-back was associated with improvement in CHB knowledge and it is a simple communication tool suitable for incorporation into a standard medical consultation.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Hepatite B Crônica/epidemiologia , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Adulto , Austrália/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
J Crohns Colitis ; 13(12): 1527-1536, 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31094417

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adalimumab is administered via a pre-filled syringe or spring-loaded pen. In a previous study in Crohn's disease, higher drug levels were observed in syringe users. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of delivery device on adalimumab drug levels in patients with Crohn's disease. METHODS: Consecutive Crohn's disease patients treated with maintenance adalimumab [40 mg fortnightly] were recruited from five centres. The first recorded drug level with matched clinical and biochemical markers of disease activity was compared between pen and syringe users. RESULTS: Of 218 patients, 64% used pen, with a median faecal calprotectin 110 µg/g and serum C-reactive protein 4 mg/L. In comparison to pen, syringe users had higher albumin [39 vs 42 g/L; p = 0.016], lower Harvey-Bradshaw Index [2 vs 1; p = 0.017], and higher rates of concomitant immunomodulation [54% vs 71%; p = 0.014]. Drug levels were equivalent between pen and syringe users [median 5.3 vs 5.2 µg/ml; p = 0.584], even after controlling for disease activity and immunomodulation. Syringe users at Alfred Health had higher drug levels than pen [6.1 vs 4.5 µg/ml; p = 0.039]; a greater proportion achieved therapeutic levels [75% vs 44%; p = 0.045]. A higher proportion of pen users from Saint-Étienne had therapeutic levels [79% vs 42%; p = 0.027], yet no significant difference in drug levels [7.9 vs 4.5 µg/ml; p = 0.119]. CONCLUSIONS: Delivery device does not appear to significantly affect adalimumab drug levels. Given differences between study sites, studies evaluating administration education and technique are warranted.

11.
Med J Aust ; 210(6): 276-280, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30905081

RESUMO

The best pregnancy outcomes for women with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) occur when their disease is in remission at conception and remains in remission throughout pregnancy. Active IBD can lead to adverse pregnancy outcomes, including spontaneous abortion, pre-term birth and low birthweight. The majority of women with IBD who are taking maintenance medication will require medication throughout the pregnancy to prevent disease relapse. Most IBD medications are considered safe in pregnancy and breastfeeding, except for methotrexate. Pre-conception counselling should be arranged with the patient's IBD specialist and should include discussions regarding the importance of optimising disease control before and during pregnancy as well as the medication management plan for pregnancy. Patients with IBD should be reassured that their fertility is normal when the disease is quiescent, with the exception of women who have had pelvic surgery. IBD activity should be carefully monitored during pregnancy using non-invasive techniques, and disease flares during pregnancy should be treated promptly with escalation of therapy in consultation with the patient's IBD specialist. Mode of delivery should be determined by obstetric need; however, caesarean delivery is preferred for women with a history of ileal pouch anal anastomosis surgery or active perianal Crohn's disease.


Assuntos
Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/complicações , Complicações na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações na Gravidez/terapia , Aleitamento Materno , Aconselhamento , Parto Obstétrico , Feminino , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Metotrexato/efeitos adversos , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Medição de Risco
12.
Intern Med J ; 49(5): 622-630, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30230160

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) rates have been reported in Australasia, but no state-wide studies have yet been performed. AIM: This study estimates the 1-year incidence and point prevalence of IBD in the state of Tasmania, Australia. It also reports clinical outcomes after 12 months of diagnosis in an incident cohort. METHODS: A prospective, population-based study was performed collecting prevalent and incident state-wide cases from 1 June 2013 to 31 May 2014. Case data were identified from specialist doctors, pathology databases and hospital records. Age-standardised rates (ASR) were calculated based on World Health Organization 2000 standard population characteristics. Incident cases were followed up 12 months after diagnosis. RESULTS: There were 1719 prevalent cases: ASR for IBD, Crohn disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC) and inflammatory bowel disease unclassified (IBDU) prevalence rates were 303.9, 165.5, 131.4 and 6.9 per 100 000 respectively. Prevalent CD cases were younger, with greater immunomodulator/biological use and bowel resections. There were 149 incident cases: ASR for IBD, CD, UC and IBDU incidence were 29.5, 15.4, 12.4 and 1.7 per 100 000 respectively. Incident CD cases were more likely than UC or IBDU to require escalation of medical therapy, hospitalisation and bowel resection, especially among those with penetrating or stricturing disease. They had a longer duration of symptoms prior to diagnosis. CONCLUSION: IBD prevalence and incidence rates are high in Tasmania, comparable to data from other Australasian studies and those from Northern Europe and America. Poorer 12-month clinical outcomes occurred in complicated CD, with greater use of healthcare resources.


Assuntos
Progressão da Doença , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/diagnóstico , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bases de Dados Factuais/tendências , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância da População/métodos , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Tasmânia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
13.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 114(1): 107-115, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30177785

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Living in an urban environment may increase the risk of developing inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). It is unclear if this observation is seen globally. We conducted a population-based study to assess the relationship between urbanization and incidence of IBD in the Asia-Pacific region. METHODS: Newly diagnosed IBD cases between 2011 and 2013 from 13 countries or regions in Asia-Pacific were included. Incidence was calculated with 95% confidence interval (CI) and pooled using random-effects model. Meta-regression analysis was used to assess incidence rates and their association with population density, latitude, and longitude. RESULTS: We identified 1175 ulcerative colitis (UC), 656 Crohn's disease (CD), and 37 IBD undetermined (IBD-U). Mean annual IBD incidence per 100 000 was 1.50 (95% CI: 1.43-1.57). India (9.31; 95% CI: 8.38-10.31) and China (3.64; 95% CI, 2.97-4.42) had the highest IBD incidence in Asia. Incidence of overall IBD (incidence rate ratio [IRR]: 2.19; 95% CI: 1.01-4.76]) and CD (IRR: 3.28; 95% CI: 1.83-9.12) was higher across 19 areas of Asia with a higher population density. In China, incidence of IBD (IRR: 2.37; 95% CI: 1.10-5.16) and UC (IRR: 2.63; 95% CI: 1.2-5.8) was positively associated with gross domestic product. A south-to-north disease gradient (IRR: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.91-0.98) was observed for IBD incidence and a west-to-east gradient (IRR: 1.14; 95% CI: 1.05-1.24) was observed for CD incidence in China. This study received IRB approval. CONCLUSIONS: Regions in Asia with a high population density had a higher CD and UC incidence. Coastal areas within China had higher IBD incidence. With increasing urbanization and a shift from rural areas to cities, disease incidence may continue to climb in Asia.


Assuntos
Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/epidemiologia , Adulto , Ásia/epidemiologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Demografia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ilhas do Pacífico/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
14.
Scand J Gastroenterol ; 53(10-11): 1368-1375, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30394145

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objectives of our study were firstly to characterize the treatment stage migration phenomenon in early (Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer [BCLC]-0/A) stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by comparing the efficacy of curative therapies with trans-arterial chemoembolization [TACE] and secondly, determining baseline and on-treatment predictors of survival. METHODS: All patients within BCLC-0/A stage from six tertiary hospitals who received curative therapy with either resection, transplantation, or ablation or TACE as first-line treatment were included in the analyses. The primary endpoint was overall survival; secondary end-points were transplant-free survival and recurrence-free survival. RESULTS: Between January 2000 and December 2013, we identified 253 BCLC-0/A HCC patients of whom 148 (58.5%) received curative therapy and 105 (41.5%) migrated to TACE. Patients undergoing TACE had lower median survival (2.7 vs. 6.7 years; p < .0001), transplant-free survival (2.6 vs. 4.8 years; p < .0001) and recurrence-free survival (1.3 vs. 2.7 years; p < .001). On multivariate analysis treatment allocation to TACE was an independent prognostic predictor for both lower overall survival (HR 1.70, p = .04) and for HCC recurrence (HR 2.25, p < .001). The main prognostic determinant for each target outcome was Child-Pugh score. CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms that curative treatments should always be preferred when applicable in early-stage HCC, but that in cases where this is not possible, TACE is a reasonable albeit inferior treatment option. In addition, it provides unique prognostic information on a significant proportion of patients with early-stage disease in whom curative therapy is not applicable.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/mortalidade , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/terapia , Quimioembolização Terapêutica/métodos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Hepáticas/terapia , Idoso , Austrália/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Quimioembolização Terapêutica/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Seleção de Pacientes , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Hepatol Med Policy ; 3: 1, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30288324

RESUMO

Background: The current model of care for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in Australia is through specialist Hepatology or Infectious Diseases clinics, and limited accredited primary care practices. Capacity is limited, and less than 5% of Australians living with CHB currently access therapy. Increasing treatment uptake is an urgent area of clinical need. Nucleos(t)ide analogue therapy is safe and effective treatment for CHB that is suitable for community prescribing. We have evaluated the success of a community-based model for the management of CHB in primary care clinics using a novel web-based clinical tool. Methods: Using guidelines set out by the Gastroenterological Society of Australia, we developed an interactive online clinical management tool for the shared care of patients with CHB in primary care clinics, with remote oversight from tertiary hospital-based hepatologists and a project officer. We call this model of care the "B in IT" program. Suitable patients were referred from the specialist liver clinic back to primary care for ongoing management. Compliance with recommended appointments, pathology tests and ultrasounds of patients enrolled in "B in IT" was assessed and compared to that of the same patients prior to community discharge, as well as a matched control group of CHB outpatients continuing to attend a specialist clinic. Results: Thirty patients with CHB were enrolled in the "B in IT" program. Compliance with attending scheduled appointments within 1 month of the suggested date was 87% across all 115 visits scheduled. Compliance with completing recommended pathology within 1 month of the suggested date was 94% and compliance with completing recommended liver ultrasounds for cancer screening within 1 month of the suggested date was 89%. The compliance rates for visit attendance and ultrasound completion were significantly higher than the control patient group (p < 0.0001) and the "B in IT" patients prior to community discharge (p = 0.002 and p = 0.039, respectively). Conclusions: The "B in IT" program's novel web-based clinical tool supports primary care physicians to treat and monitor patients with CHB. This program promotes community-based care and increases system capacity for the clinical care of people living with CHB.

17.
Med J Aust ; 209(8): 348-354, 2018 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30309301

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the factors associated with survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the effect of HCC surveillance on survival. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Prospective population-based cohort study of patients newly diagnosed with HCC in seven tertiary hospitals in Melbourne, 1 July 2012 - 30 June 2013. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Overall survival (maximum follow-up, 24 months); factors associated with HCC surveillance participation and survival. RESULTS: 272 people were diagnosed with incident HCC during the study period; the most common risk factors were hepatitis C virus infection (41%), alcohol-related liver disease (39%), and hepatitis B virus infection (22%). Only 40% of patients participated in HCC surveillance at the time of diagnosis; participation was significantly higher among patients with smaller median tumour size (participants, 2.8 cm; non-participants, 6.0 cm; P < 0.001) and earlier Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage disease (A/B, 59%; C/D, 25%; P < 0.001). Participation was higher among patients with compensated cirrhosis or hepatitis C infections; it was lower among those with alcohol-related liver disease or decompensated liver disease. Median overall survival time was 20.8 months; mean survival time was 18.1 months (95% CI, 16.6-19.6 months). Participation in HCC surveillance was associated with significantly lower mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 0.60; 95% CI, 0.38-0.93; P = 0.021), as were curative therapies (aHR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.19-0.58). Conversely, higher Child-Pugh class, alpha-fetoprotein levels over 400 kU/L, and later BCLC disease stages were each associated with higher mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Survival for patients with HCC is poor, but may be improved by surveillance, associated with the identification of earlier stage tumours, enabling curative therapies to be initiated.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/mortalidade , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/complicações , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/terapia , Feminino , Hepatite B Crônica/complicações , Hepatite B Crônica/epidemiologia , Hepatite C Crônica/complicações , Hepatite C Crônica/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/complicações , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/complicações , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/complicações , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida , Vitória/epidemiologia
18.
Gastroenterology ; 155(4): 1079-1089.e3, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29958857

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Although the incidence of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) varies with age, few studies have examined variations between the sexes. We therefore used population data from established cohorts to analyze sex differences in IBD incidence according to age at diagnosis. METHODS: We identified population-based cohorts of patients with IBD for which incidence and age data were available (17 distinct cohorts from 16 regions of Europe, North America, Australia, and New Zealand). We collected data through December 2016 on 95,605 incident cases of Crohn's disease (CD) (42,831 male and 52,774 female) and 112,004 incident cases of ulcerative colitis (UC) (61,672 male and 50,332 female). We pooled incidence rate ratios of CD and UC for the combined cohort and compared differences according to sex using random effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: Female patients had a lower risk of CD during childhood, until the age range of 10-14 years (incidence rate ratio, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.53-0.93), but they had a higher risk of CD thereafter, which was statistically significant for the age groups of 25-29 years and older than 35 years. The incidence of UC did not differ significantly for female vs male patients (except for the age group of 5-9 years) until age 45 years; thereafter, men had a significantly higher incidence of ulcerative colitis than women. CONCLUSIONS: In a pooled analysis of population-based studies, we found age at IBD onset to vary with sex. Further studies are needed to investigate mechanisms of sex differences in IBD incidence.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa/epidemiologia , Doença de Crohn/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idade de Início , Idoso , Austrália/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Colite Ulcerativa/diagnóstico , Doença de Crohn/diagnóstico , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
19.
Inflamm Bowel Dis ; 24(12): 2606-2612, 2018 11 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29788244

RESUMO

Background: Up to 20% of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) who are refractory to thiopurine therapy preferentially produce 6-methylmercaptopurine (6-MMP) at the expense of 6-thioguanine nucleotides (6-TGN), resulting in a high 6-MMP:6-TGN ratio (>20). The objective of this study was to evaluate whether genetic variability in guanine monophosphate synthetase (GMPS) contributes to preferential 6-MMP metabolizer phenotype. Methods: Exome sequencing was performed in a cohort of IBD patients with 6-MMP:6-TGN ratios of >100 to identify nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs). In vitro assays were performed to measure GMPS activity associated with these nsSNPs. Frequency of the nsSNPs was measured in a cohort of 530 Caucasian IBD patients. Results: Two nsSNPs in GMPS (rs747629729, rs61750370) were detected in 11 patients with very high 6-MMP:6-TGN ratios. The 2 nsSNPs were predicted to be damaging by in silico analysis. In vitro assays demonstrated that both nsSNPs resulted in a significant reduction in GMPS activity (P < 0.05). The SNP rs61750370 was significantly associated with 6-MMP:6-TGN ratios ≥100 (odds ratio, 5.64; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-25.12; P < 0.031) in a subset of 264 Caucasian IBD patients. Conclusions: The GMPS SNP rs61750370 may be a reliable risk factor for extreme 6MMP preferential metabolism.


Assuntos
Azatioprina/uso terapêutico , Carbono-Nitrogênio Ligases com Glutamina como Doadora de N-Amida/genética , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/enzimologia , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Nucleotídeos de Guanina/sangue , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/sangue , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Mercaptopurina/análogos & derivados , Mercaptopurina/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , Tionucleotídeos/sangue , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Hepatol ; 69(3): 575-583, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29709676

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: As many as 70% of individuals with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) are managed solely in primary care. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of elevated liver stiffness measurement (LSM) in a cohort of community managed patients with CHC and to evaluate predictors of advanced liver disease and liver-related events. METHODS: A prospective cohort of adult patients with CHC were recruited from 21 primary care practices throughout Victoria, Australia. Inclusion criteria included the presence of CHC for >6 months, no recent (<18 months) specialist input and no history of hepatocellular carcinoma. Clinical assessment, LSM and phlebotomy were carried out in primary care. A hospital cohort was recruited for comparison. Participants were followed longitudinally and monitored for liver-related events. RESULTS: Over 26 months, 780 community patients were recruited and included in the analysis. The median LSM was 6.9 kPa in the community, with 16.5% of patients at risk of advanced fibrosis (LSM ≥12.5 kPa); of these 8.5% had no laboratory features of advanced liver disease. The proportion at risk of cirrhosis was no different between the community and hospital cohorts (p = 0.169). At-risk alcohol consumption, advancing age, elevated body mass index and alanine aminotransferase were independent predictors of elevated LSM. Over a median follow-up of 15.2 months, liver-related events occurred in 9.3% of those with an LSM ≥12.5 kPa. An LSM of 24 kPa had the highest predictive power for liver-related events (hazard ratio152; p <0.001). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of advanced fibrosis, as determined by LSM, in primary care managed CHC is significant and comparable to a hospital cohort. Furthermore, this study supports the use of LSM as a community screening tool in a CHC population and indicates a possible role in predicting liver-related events. LAY SUMMARY: The prevalence of advanced liver disease in primary care managed hepatitis C is unknown. Our data suggests that rates of advanced fibrosis in the community are significant (16.5%), often underdiagnosed and comparable to rates seen in specialist referral centres. Liver stiffness measurement is a feasible community screening tool prior to hepatitis C therapy and can predict liver-related adverse events.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade , Hepatite C Crônica/complicações , Cirrose Hepática , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico , Fígado/patologia , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Adulto , Austrália/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade/métodos , Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hepatite C Crônica/epidemiologia , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Cirrose Hepática/etiologia , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos
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