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1.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 16(1): 112, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33648541

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adenylosuccinate lyase deficiency (ADSLD) is an ultrarare neurometabolic recessive disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in the ADSL gene. The disease is characterized by wide clinical variability. Here we provide an updated clinical profiling of the disorder and discuss genotype-phenotype correlations. RESULTS: Data were collected through "Our Journey with ADSL deficiency Association" by using a dedicated web survey filled-in by parents. Clinical and molecular data were collected from 18 patients (12 males, median age 10.9 years ± 7.3), from 13 unrelated families. The age at onset ranged from birth to the first three years (median age 0.63 years ± 0.84 SD), and age at diagnosis varied from 2 months to 17 years, (median age 6.4 years ± 6.1 SD). The first sign was a psychomotor delay in 8/18 patients, epilepsy in 3/18, psychomotor delay and epilepsy in 3/18, and apneas, hypotonia, nystagmus in single cases. One patient (sibling of a previously diagnosed child) had a presymptomatic diagnosis. The diagnosis was made by exome sequencing in 7/18 patients. All patients were definitively diagnosed with ADSL deficiency based on pathogenic variants and/or biochemical assessment. One patient had a fatal neonatal form of ADSL deficiency, seven showed features fitting type I, and nine were characterized by a milder condition (type II), with two showing a very mild phenotype. Eighteen different variants were distributed along the entire ADSL coding sequence and were predicted to have a variable structural impact by impairing proper homotetramerization or catalytic activity of the enzyme. Six variants had not previously been reported. All but two variants were missense. CONCLUSIONS: The study adds more details on the spectrum of ADSLD patients' phenotypes and molecular data.

2.
EBioMedicine ; 65: 103249, 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33640795

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The rs17618244 G>A ß-Klotho (KLB) variant has been associated with increased risk of ballooning and inflammation in pediatric patients with metabolic associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD), by reducing KLB expression. In hepatocytes, KLB downregulation induced fat accumulation and the expression of inflammatory and lipotoxic genes. We aimed to examine firstly the impact of the KLB rs17618244 variation on liver damage in adult patients with MAFLD and secondly its effect on hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) activation. METHODS: The impact of the KLB rs17618244 variant on histological liver damage was surveyed in a retrospective cohort of 1111 adult patients with MAFLD. Subgroup analysis was performed according to the presence of obesity (BMI>35; n = 708). Immortalized HSCs (LX-2) were transfected with the KLB wild type (LX-2_KLBwt), or with the mutant one carrying the rs17618244 (LX-2_KLBmut). FINDINGS: At ordinal regression analysis the KLB rs17618244 variant was associated with hepatic fibrosis (OR 1.23, 95% C.I.1.004-1.51; p = 0.04), but not with steatosis, inflammation and ballooning. By stratifying patients according to the presence of obesity, the KLB A allele was further associated with lobular inflammation (OR 1.32, 95% C.I.1.02-1.72; p = 0.03) and cirrhosis (OR 2.51, 95% C.I.1.23-5.05; p = 0.01) Moreover, hepatic KLB expression correlated with that of fibrogenic genes. LX-2_KLBmut cells showed reduced KLB protein levels paralleled by an induction of pro-fibrogenic genes and enhanced proliferative rate. INTERPRETATION: The KLB rs17618244 variant is associated with hepatic fibrosis, inflammation and cirrhosis mainly in obese patients with MAFLD and HSCs which carry this mutation are highly proliferative and acquire a myofibroblast-like phenotype. FUNDING: Ricerca Finalizzata Ministero della Salute GR-2019-12,370,172 (NP), Ricerca Corrente Fondazione IRCCS Cà Granda (PD and ALF), Ricerca Finalizzata Ministero della Salute RF-2013-02,358,319 (ALF), and Ricerca Corrente and 5 × 1000 Ministero della Salute (AA).

3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(2)2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33451138

RESUMO

We report on a patient born to consanguineous parents, presenting with Growth Hormone Deficiency (GHD) and osteoporosis. SNP-array analysis and exome sequencing disclosed long contiguous stretches of homozygosity and two distinct homozygous variants in HESX1 (Q6H) and COL1A1 (E1361K) genes. The HESX1 variant was described as causative in a few subjects with an incompletely penetrant dominant form of combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD). The COL1A1 variant is rare, and so far it has never been found in a homozygous form. Segregation analysis showed that both variants were inherited from heterozygous unaffected parents. Present results further elucidate the inheritance pattern of HESX1 variants and recommend assessing the clinical impact of variants located in C-terminal propeptide of COL1A1 gene for their potential association with rare recessive and early onset forms of osteoporosis.

4.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(1): 115-133, 2021 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308444

RESUMO

Signal peptide-CUB-EGF domain-containing protein 3 (SCUBE3) is a member of a small family of multifunctional cell surface-anchored glycoproteins functioning as co-receptors for a variety of growth factors. Here we report that bi-allelic inactivating variants in SCUBE3 have pleiotropic consequences on development and cause a previously unrecognized syndromic disorder. Eighteen affected individuals from nine unrelated families showed a consistent phenotype characterized by reduced growth, skeletal features, distinctive craniofacial appearance, and dental anomalies. In vitro functional validation studies demonstrated a variable impact of disease-causing variants on transcript processing, protein secretion and function, and their dysregulating effect on bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling. We show that SCUBE3 acts as a BMP2/BMP4 co-receptor, recruits the BMP receptor complexes into raft microdomains, and positively modulates signaling possibly by augmenting the specific interactions between BMPs and BMP type I receptors. Scube3-/- mice showed craniofacial and dental defects, reduced body size, and defective endochondral bone growth due to impaired BMP-mediated chondrogenesis and osteogenesis, recapitulating the human disorder. Our findings identify a human disease caused by defective function of a member of the SCUBE family, and link SCUBE3 to processes controlling growth, morphogenesis, and bone and teeth development through modulation of BMP signaling.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/metabolismo , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/metabolismo , Osteogênese/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Animais , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 2/metabolismo , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 4/metabolismo , Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/fisiologia , Células HEK293 , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/metabolismo , Células MCF-7 , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C3H , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(23)2020 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33260935

RESUMO

Different pathogenic variants in the same protein or even within the same domain of a protein may differ in their patterns of disease inheritance, with some of the variants behaving as negative dominant and others as autosomal recessive mutations. Here is presented a structural analysis and comparison of the molecular characteristics of the sites in fibrinogen γ-module, a fibrinogen component critical in multimerization processes, targeted by pathogenic variants (HGMD database) and by variants found in the healthy population (gnomAD database). The main result of this study is the identification of the molecular pathogenic mechanisms defining which pattern of disease inheritance is selected by mutations at the crossroad of autosomal recessive and negative dominant modalities. The observations in this analysis also warn about the possibility that several variants reported in the non-pathogenic gnomAD database might indeed be a hidden source of diseases with autosomal recessive inheritance or requiring a combination with other disease-causing mutations. Disease presentation might remain mostly unrevealed simply because the very low variant frequency rarely results in biallelic pathogenic mutations or the coupling with mutations in other genes contributing to the same disease. The results here presented provide hints for a deeper search of pathogenic mechanisms and modalities of disease inheritance for protein mutants participating in multimerization phenomena.

6.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(3): 499-513, 2020 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721402

RESUMO

Signal transduction through the RAF-MEK-ERK pathway, the first described mitogen-associated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade, mediates multiple cellular processes and participates in early and late developmental programs. Aberrant signaling through this cascade contributes to oncogenesis and underlies the RASopathies, a family of cancer-prone disorders. Here, we report that de novo missense variants in MAPK1, encoding the mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (i.e., extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 2, ERK2), cause a neurodevelopmental disease within the RASopathy phenotypic spectrum, reminiscent of Noonan syndrome in some subjects. Pathogenic variants promote increased phosphorylation of the kinase, which enhances translocation to the nucleus and boosts MAPK signaling in vitro and in vivo. Two variant classes are identified, one of which directly disrupts binding to MKP3, a dual-specificity protein phosphatase negatively regulating ERK function. Importantly, signal dysregulation driven by pathogenic MAPK1 variants is stimulus reliant and retains dependence on MEK activity. Our data support a model in which the identified pathogenic variants operate with counteracting effects on MAPK1 function by differentially impacting the ability of the kinase to interact with regulators and substrates, which likely explains the minor role of these variants as driver events contributing to oncogenesis. After nearly 20 years from the discovery of the first gene implicated in Noonan syndrome, PTPN11, the last tier of the MAPK cascade joins the group of genes mutated in RASopathies.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/genética , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Síndrome de Noonan/genética , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/genética , Masculino , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/patologia , Síndrome de Noonan/fisiopatologia , Fenótipo , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 11/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Proteínas ras/genética
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(14)2020 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32698516

RESUMO

Particular fibrinogen γ chain mutations occurring in the γ-module induce changes that hamper γ-γ dimerization and provoke intracellular aggregation of the mutant fibrinogen, defective export and plasma deficiency. The hepatic storage predisposes to the development of liver disease. This condition has been termed hereditary hypofibrinogenemia with hepatic storage (HHHS). So far, seven of such mutations in the fibrinogen γ chain have been detected. We are reporting on an additional mutation occurring in a 3.5-year-old Turkish child undergoing a needle liver biopsy because of the concomitance of transaminase elevation of unknown origin and low plasma fibrinogen level. The liver biopsy showed an intra-hepatocytic storage of fibrinogen. The molecular analysis of the three fibrinogen genes revealed a mutation (Fibrinogen Trabzon Thr371Ile) at exon 9 of the γ chain in the child and his father, while the mother and the brother were normal. Fibrinogen Trabzon represents a new fibrinogen γ chain mutation fulfilling the criteria for HHHS. Its occurrence in a Turkish child confirms that HHHS can present in early childhood and provides relevant epidemiological information on the worldwide distribution of the fibrinogen γ chain mutations causing this disease. By analyzing fibrinogen crystal structures and calculating the folding free energy change (ΔΔG) to infer how the variants can affect the conformation and function, we propose a mechanism for the intracellular aggregation of Fibrinogen Trabzon and other γ-module mutations causing HHHS.

8.
Mol Genet Metab Rep ; 23: 100592, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32405461

RESUMO

Adenylosuccinate lyase deficiency is a rare neurometabolic recessive disorder of purine metabolism characterized by a wide range of clinical manifestations. We present a very mild phenotype of two siblings characterized by mild isolated cognitive disability, in absence of brain anomalies, seizures, EEG anomalies and without progression of disease. The two patients had unsuccessfully been investigated until clinical exome was performed. In both siblings, compound heterozygosity for two inherited missense variants in ADSL gene, c.76A>T (p.Met26Leu) and c.1187G>A (p.Arg396His), were detected. Analysis of the catabolic pathway of autophagy on EBV-transformed B lymphoblastoid cell derived from the male patient excluded the presence of any autophagy alterations at the basal level. Further studies are necessary to understand the pathogenesis of the disease and to elucidate the potential role of autophagy in the development of ADSL deficiency.

9.
Clin Genet ; 98(2): 172-178, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32415735

RESUMO

UBE2A deficiency, that is, intellectual disability (ID) Nascimento type (MIM 300860), is an X-linked syndrome characterized by developmental delay, moderate to severe ID, seizures, dysmorphisms, skin anomalies, and urogenital malformations. Forty affected subjects have been reported thus far, with 31 cases having intragenic UBE2A variants. Here, we report on additional eight affected subjects from seven unrelated families who were found to be hemizygous for previously unreported UBE2A missense variants (p.Glu62Lys, p.Arg95Cys, p.Thr99Ala, and p.Arg135Trp) or small in-frame deletions (p.Val81_Ala83del, and p.Asp101del). A wide phenotypic spectrum was documented in these subjects, ranging from moderate ID associated with mild dysmorphisms to severe features including congenital heart defects (CHD), severe cognitive impairment, and pineal gland tumors. Four variants affected residues (Glu62, Arg95, Thr99 and Asp101) that contribute to stabilizing the structure of the E3 binding domain. The three-residue in-frame deletion, p.Val81_Ala83del, resulted from aberrant processing of the transcript. This variant and p.Arg135Trp mapped to regions of the protein located far from the E3 binding region, and caused variably accelerated protein degradation. By reviewing available clinical information, we revise the clinical and molecular profile of the disorder and document genotype-phenotype correlations. Pineal gland cysts/tumors, CHD and hypogammaglobulinemia emerge as recurrent features.

10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(4)2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32085672

RESUMO

Tubulinopathies are rare neurological disorders caused by alterations in tubulin structure and function, giving rise to a wide range of brain abnormalities involving neuronal proliferation, migration, differentiation and axon guidance. TUBB is one of the ten ß-tubulin encoding genes present in the human genome and is broadly expressed in the developing central nervous system and the skin. Mutations in TUBB are responsible for two distinct pathological conditions: the first is characterized by microcephaly and complex structural brain malformations and the second, also known as "circumferential skin creases Kunze type" (CSC-KT), is associated to neurological features, excess skin folding and growth retardation. We used a combination of immunocytochemical and cellular approaches to explore, on patients' derived fibroblasts, the functional consequences of two TUBB variants: the novel mutation (p.N52S), associated with basal ganglia and cerebellar dysgenesis, and the previously reported variant (p.M73T), linked to microcephaly, corpus callosum agenesis and CSC-KT skin phenotype. Our results demonstrate that these variants impair microtubule (MT) function and dynamics. Most importantly, our studies show an altered epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transferrin (Tf) intracellular vesicle trafficking in both patients' fibroblasts, suggesting a specific role of TUBB in MT-dependent vesicular transport.


Assuntos
Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Mutação/genética , Vesículas Transportadoras/metabolismo , Tubulina (Proteína)/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Criança , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Fator de Crescimento Epidérmico/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Modelos Moleculares , Nocodazol/farmacologia , Fenótipo , Transporte Proteico , Transferrina/metabolismo , Tubulina (Proteína)/química
11.
Clin Genet ; 97(3): 521-526, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705535

RESUMO

Dominant mutations in ATP1A1, encoding the alpha-1 isoform of the Na+ /K+ -ATPase, have been recently reported to cause an axonal to intermediate type of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (ie, CMT2DD) and a syndrome with hypomagnesemia, intractable seizures and severe intellectual disability. Here, we describe the first case of hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) caused by a novel de novo (p.L337P) variant in ATP1A1. We provide evidence for the causative role of this variant with functional and homology modeling studies. This finding expands the phenotypic spectrum of the ATP1A1-related disorders, adds a piece to the larger genetic puzzle of HSP, and increases knowledge on the molecular mechanisms underlying inherited axonopathies (ie, CMT and HSP).

12.
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol ; 129: 109790, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31786483

RESUMO

In this report, we describe a novel, probably pathogenic hemizygous variant c.870G > T (p.Lys290Asn) in the POU3F4 gene in two deaf brothers from one Italian family with identical inner ear abnormalities specific to X-linked deafness-2 (DFNX2). In addition, we performed homology modeling to predict the effect of the missense variant on the protein structure showing a possible disruption of the normal folding. The identification of pathogenic variants causing X-linked recessive deafness will improve molecular diagnosis, genetic counseling, and knowledge of the molecular epidemiology of hearing loss among Italian individuals. Taken together, we recommend preoperative gene mutation analysis in patients who have DFNX2 diagnosed on the basis of characteristic radiological findings, in order to provide with better prognostic information, the risk of recurrence, and improved rehabilitation options. Finally, the present work strengthens the hypothesis that DFNX-2 could be considered as a syndromic deafness, since mixed hearing loss is associated with other dysfunctions of the neuropsychological profile of the patients.


Assuntos
Surdez/genética , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/genética , Perda Auditiva Condutiva/genética , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/genética , Fatores do Domínio POU/genética , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Itália , Masculino , Modelos Moleculares , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Fatores do Domínio POU/química , Linhagem , Dobramento de Proteína , Irmãos
13.
Clin Genet ; 97(4): 649-654, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31846058

RESUMO

Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC) is defined as congenital, non-progressive contractures in more than two joints and in multiple body areas, resulting from reduced fetal mobility. So far, more than 400 causative genes for AMC have been identified. Some isolated AMC phenotypes arise as a result of mutations in genes encoding components required for motor neuron structure, function, and myelination, as in the case of ADCY6 encoding the enzyme adenylyl cyclase type 6. ADCY6 inactivation, due to biallelic variants, have been previously associated with the lethal congenital contracture syndrome 8 (LCCS8). So far, only four LCCS8 patients, from two families, have been reported. Here, we describe a new patient affected by a severe form of AMC, harboring two novel compound heterozygous variants in ADCY6. Our findings expand the clinical and mutational spectrum of LCCS8, showing a possible correlation between the impact of the ADCY6 missense variants reported to date, predicted by molecular modeling, and the severity of the phenotype.

14.
Acta Diabetol ; 57(5): 589-596, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31863320

RESUMO

AIMS: Familial partial lipodystrophy (FPLD) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder, mostly due to mutations in lamin A (LMNA) or in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) genes. In the present study, we aimed to identify and functionally characterize the genetic defect underlying FPLD in an Italian family presenting with several affected individuals in three consecutive generations. METHODS: Mutational screening by direct Sanger sequencing has been carried out on both LMNA and PPARG genes. In silico analyses and functional in vitro studies on transfected cell lines have been also performed to evaluate the biological impact of the identified mutation. RESULTS: We identified a novel PPARG missense mutation (i.e., PPARγ2 Ile354Val) segregating with FPLD in the study family. In silico analyses and in vitro experiments showed that probably altering the PPARγ2 ligand binding domain conformation, the Ile354Val aminoacid change leads to a significant reduction (i.e., ~ 30-35%) of transcriptional activity in the mutant receptor, with no evidences of a dominant negative effect on the wild-type receptor. CONCLUSIONS: Our present data extend the spectrum of PPARG mutations responsible for FPLD3 and reinforce the notion that even loss of function mutations affecting transcriptional activity to an extent lower than that observed in the case of haploinsufficiency are able to cause a severe FPLD3 phenotype.


Assuntos
Lipodistrofia Parcial Familiar/genética , Mutação com Perda de Função , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , PPAR gama/genética , Feminino , Genes Dominantes , Humanos , Lamina Tipo A/genética , Lamina Tipo A/metabolismo , Lipodistrofia Parcial Familiar/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Linhagem
15.
Pediatr Neurol ; 104: 40-45, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31836334

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Congenital ataxias associated with cerebellar atrophy are clinically heterogeneous conditions with a variable age of onset and a diverse molecular basis. The hypothesis-free approach of genomic sequencing has led to the discovery of new genes implicated in these disorders and the identification of unexpected genotype-phenotype correlations. Although a recurrent heterozygous mutation (p.Arg1715His) in CACNA1G is known to cause adult-onset spinocerebellar ataxia 42 (SCA42*616795), gain-of-function mutations in this gene have recently been identified by whole exome sequencing (WES) in four children with cerebellar atrophy and ataxia, psychomotor delay, and other variable features. METHODS: We describe four children from unrelated families with cerebellar anomalies on magnetic resonance imaging (atrophy or hypoplasia of the cerebellar vermis), hypertonia, psychomotor and speech delay, severe intellectual disability, ophthalmologic features and peculiar dysmorphic traits. All patients underwent a trio-based WES analysis. Clinical records were used to characterize the clinical profile of this newly recognized disorder. RESULTS: Two previously reported de novo disease-causing mutations in CACNA1G (c.2881G>A, p.Ala961Thr and c.4591A>G, p.Met1531Val) were identified in these patients, providing further evidence of the specific impact of these variants. All four patients exhibit distinctive dysmorphic and ectodermal features which overlap those of the previously reported patients, allowing us to define the major features characterizing this homogeneous neurodevelopmental syndromic disorder associated with upregulated CACNA1G function. CONCLUSION: Our findings confirm the specific association between a narrow spectrum of missense mutations in CACNA1G and a novel syndrome with infantile-onset cerebellar ataxiaand provide a dysmorphologic delineation of this novel neurodevelopmental trait.

16.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(3): 640-657, 2019 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402090

RESUMO

The identification of genetic variants implicated in human developmental disorders has been revolutionized by second-generation sequencing combined with international pooling of cases. Here, we describe seven individuals who have diverse yet overlapping developmental anomalies, and who all have de novo missense FBXW11 variants identified by whole exome or whole genome sequencing and not reported in the gnomAD database. Their phenotypes include striking neurodevelopmental, digital, jaw, and eye anomalies, and in one individual, features resembling Noonan syndrome, a condition caused by dysregulated RAS signaling. FBXW11 encodes an F-box protein, part of the Skp1-cullin-F-box (SCF) ubiquitin ligase complex, involved in ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation and thus fundamental to many protein regulatory processes. FBXW11 targets include ß-catenin and GLI transcription factors, key mediators of Wnt and Hh signaling, respectively, critical to digital, neurological, and eye development. Structural analyses indicate affected residues cluster at the surface of the loops of the substrate-binding domain of FBXW11, and the variants are predicted to destabilize the protein and/or its interactions. In situ hybridization studies on human and zebrafish embryonic tissues demonstrate FBXW11 is expressed in the developing eye, brain, mandibular processes, and limb buds or pectoral fins. Knockdown of the zebrafish FBXW11 orthologs fbxw11a and fbxw11b resulted in embryos with smaller, misshapen, and underdeveloped eyes and abnormal jaw and pectoral fin development. Our findings support the role of FBXW11 in multiple developmental processes, including those involving the brain, eye, digits, and jaw.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/anormalidades , Anormalidades do Olho/genética , Dedos/anormalidades , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Fenótipo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Proteínas Contendo Repetições de beta-Transducina/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
17.
Pain ; 160(12): 2766-2775, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408049

RESUMO

Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSANs) are a group of clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorders of the peripheral nervous system mainly characterized by impaired nociception and autonomic dysfunction. We previously identified heme metabolism as a novel pathway contributing to sensory neurons maintenance and nociception. Indeed, we reported mutations in the feline leukemia virus subgroup C receptor 1 (FLVCR1) gene in individuals affected by HSAN. FLVCR1 gene encodes for 2 heme export proteins, FLVCR1a (plasma membrane) and FLVCR1b (mitochondria), crucially involved in the regulation of cellular heme homeostasis. Here, we report on 2 additional patients carrying novel biallelic mutations in FLVCR1 translation initiation codon (c.2T>C; p.(Met1Thr) and c.3G>T; p.(Met1Ile)). We overexpressed the c.2T>C; p.(Met1Thr) mutant in human cell lines and we describe its impact on protein structure and function in comparison with other HSAN-related mutations. We found that the mutation interferes with translation in 2 different ways: by lowering levels of translation of wild-type protein and by inducing translation initiation from a downstream in-frame ATG, leading to the production of an N-terminal truncated protein that is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum. The impact of different kinds of mutations on FLVCR1a localization and structure was also described. The identification of novel FLVCR1 mutations in HSAN reinforces the crucial role of heme in sensory neuron maintenance and pain perception. Moreover, our in vitro findings demonstrate that heme export is not completely lost in HSAN patients, thus suggesting the possibility to improve FLVCR1 expression/activity for therapeutic purposes.


Assuntos
Heme/metabolismo , Neuropatias Hereditárias Sensoriais e Autônomas/genética , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Receptores Virais/genética , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Células HeLa , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mutação
18.
Clin Genet ; 96(2): 169-175, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31066025

RESUMO

Heterozygous missense variants in the SPTBN2 gene, encoding the non-erythrocytic beta spectrin 2 subunit (beta-III spectrin), have been identified in autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxia type 5 (SCA5), a rare adult-onset neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive cerebellar ataxia, whereas homozygous loss of function variants in SPTBN2 have been associated with early onset cerebellar ataxia and global developmental delay (SCAR14). Recently, heterozygous SPTBN2 missense variants have been identified in a few patients with an early-onset ataxic phenotype. We report five patients with non-progressive congenital ataxia and psychomotor delay, 4/5 harboring novel heterozygous missense variants in SPTBN2 and one patient with compound heterozygous SPTBN2 variants. With an overall prevalence of 5% in our cohort of unrelated patients screened by targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) for congenital or early-onset cerebellar ataxia, this study indicates that both dominant and recessive mutations of SPTBN2 together with CACNA1A and ITPR1, are a frequent cause of early-onset/congenital non-progressive ataxia and that their screening should be implemented in this subgroup of disorders.


Assuntos
Ataxia Cerebelar/diagnóstico , Ataxia Cerebelar/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Heterozigoto , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Espectrina/genética , Adolescente , Alelos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Lactente , Modelos Moleculares , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Espectrina/química
19.
Hum Mutat ; 40(5): 601-618, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30801875

RESUMO

Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles, undergoing continuous fission and fusion. The DNM1L (dynamin-1 like) gene encodes for the DRP1 protein, an evolutionary conserved member of the dynamin family, responsible for fission of mitochondria, and having a role in the division of peroxisomes, as well. DRP1 impairment is implicated in several neurological disorders and associated with either de novo dominant or compound heterozygous mutations. In five patients presenting with severe epileptic encephalopathy, we identified five de novo dominant DNM1L variants, the pathogenicity of which was validated in a yeast model. Fluorescence microscopy revealed abnormally elongated mitochondria and aberrant peroxisomes in mutant fibroblasts, indicating impaired fission of these organelles. Moreover, a very peculiar finding in our cohort of patients was the presence, in muscle biopsy, of core like areas with oxidative enzyme alterations, suggesting an abnormal distribution of mitochondria in the muscle tissue.


Assuntos
Dinaminas/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Encefalomiopatias Mitocondriais/diagnóstico , Encefalomiopatias Mitocondriais/genética , Músculos/metabolismo , Músculos/patologia , Biomarcadores , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Dinaminas/química , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Modelos Biológicos , Músculos/ultraestrutura , Mutação , Conformação Proteica , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
20.
Clin Genet ; 95(1): 165-171, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30288735

RESUMO

Biallelic exostosin-2 (EXT2) pathogenic variants have been described as the cause of the Seizures-Scoliosis-Macrocephaly syndrome (OMIM 616682) characterized by intellectual disability, facial dysmorphisms and seizures. More recently, it has been proposed to rename this disorder with the acronym AREXT2 (autosomal recessive EXT2-related syndrome). Here, we report the third family affected by AREXT2 syndrome, harboring compound missense variants in EXT2, p.Asp227Asn, and p.Tyr608Cys. In addition, our patients developed multiple exostoses, which were not observed in the previously described families. AREXT2 syndrome can be considered as a multiorgan Congenital Disorder of Glycosylation caused by a significant, but non-lethal, decrease in EXT2 expression, thereby affecting the synthesis of the heparan sulfate proteoglycans, which is relevant in many physiological processes. Our finding expands the clinical and molecular spectrum of the AREXT2 syndrome and suggests a possible genotype/phenotype correlation in the development of the exostoses.


Assuntos
Exostose Múltipla Hereditária/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , N-Acetilglucosaminiltransferases/genética , Convulsões/genética , Adulto , Ecocardiografia , Exostose Múltipla Hereditária/diagnóstico por imagem , Exostose Múltipla Hereditária/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico por imagem , Deficiência Intelectual/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Linhagem , Convulsões/diagnóstico por imagem , Convulsões/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
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