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1.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(21)2021 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770566

RESUMO

Electronic performance tracking devices are largely employed in team sports to monitor performance and improve training. To date, global positioning system (GPS) based devices are those mainly used in soccer training. The aim of this study was to analyse the validity and reliability of the inertial sensor device (ISD) in monitoring distance and speed in a soccer-specific circuit and how their performance compare to a GPS system. 44 young male soccer players (age: 14.9 ± 1.1, range 9-16, years, height: 1.65 ± 0.10 m, body mass: 56.3 ± 8.9 kg) playing in a non-professional soccer team in Italy, participated in the study. We assessed the players trough a soccer running sport-specific circuit. An ISD and a GPS were used to assess distance and speed. Data was compared to a video reference system, and the difference were quantified by means of the root mean square error (RMSE). Significant differences were found for both GPS and ISD devices for distance and speed. However, lower error for distance (dRMSE 2.23 ± 1.01 m and 5.75 ± 1.50 m, respectively) and speed (sRMSE 0.588 ± 0.152 m·s-1 and 1.30 ± 0.422 m·s-1, respectively) were attained by the ISD compared to the GPS. Overall, our results revealed a statistically significant difference between systems in data monitoring for either distance and speed. However, results of this study showed that a smaller error was obtained with the ISD than the GPS device. Despite caution is warranted within the interpretation of these results, we observed a better practical applicability of the ISD due to its small size, lower cost and the possibility to use the device indoor.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Corrida , Futebol , Adolescente , Criança , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
2.
Front Pediatr ; 9: 738294, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34568243

RESUMO

Although numerous evidences reported a negative correlation between motor coordination (MC) and overweight/obesity in children and adolescents, the interrelationship between age, gender, and weight status is still debatable. Hence, the aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the association between MC and weight status according to age and gender across childhood and early adolescence in a large sample of Italian elementary and middle school students. A number of 1961 Italian school students (1,026 boys, 935 girls) was stratified in three consecutive age groups (6-7, 8-10, and 11-13 years) and four weight status categories (underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese) according to Cole's body mass index (BMI) cut-off points for children. MC performance was assessed measuring motor quotient (MQ) with the Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder (KTK). Results showed significantly lower MQ levels in children in overweight (OW) and with obesity (OB) in both sexes for all age groups than peers in normal weight (NW), except in 6-7-year-old boys. Girls in OW and with OB had similar MQ levels across all age groups, while younger boys in OW and with OB showed higher MQ levels than older ones (p < 0.05). The 6-7-year-old boys showed better MQ levels than girls peers in NW, OW, and with OB, while 8-10-year-old boys in underweight (UW), NW, and OW; and 11-13-year-old boys only in NW (p < 0.05). No interaction effect was found between age, gender, and weight status on MQ levels. These outcomes showed the negative impact of higher weight status on MC performance according to age and gender, pointing out the importance of planning targeted motor programs that consider these variables to improve MC performance.

3.
J Sports Sci Med ; 20(2): 258-267, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34211318

RESUMO

Stretching is commonly used to increase range of motion and flexibility. Therefore, investigations are usually oriented towards the muscle-tendon unit. Limited evidence exists regarding potential effects of stretching on peripheral nerves which lie within muscles. The objective of this investigation will be to elucidate the responses of peripheral nerves to stretching. A literature search was performed using the following databases: Scopus, NLM Pubmed and ScienceDirect. Studies regarding the effects of stretching protocols on responses of peripheral nerves were retrieved for investigation. The NHLBI tool was used for quality assessment. Outcomes included nerve stiffness, nerve displacement, pain pressure thresholds and resistive torque. A total of 10 studies were considered eligible and were included in this investigation. The quality assessment of the studies revealed an overall "fair to good" methodological quality across the included studies. All studies except for one involved healthy participants. High heterogeneity of stretching protocols was retrieved. As a consequence of stretching, nerve stiffness (-15.6%) and pain pressure thresholds (-1.9kg) increased. Nerve displacements on each movement plane for all the considered nerves and nerve deformation were also frequently observed. Peripheral nerve responses to muscle stretching include decreased nerve stiffness and increased pain pressure thresholds. Nerve displacement also frequently occurs. It is still unclear if reduced nerve displacement may lead to clinical outcomes. There is a lack of longitudinal studies regarding peripheral nerve adaptations to stretching.


Assuntos
Exercícios de Alongamento Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/inervação , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Nervos Periféricos/fisiologia , Humanos , Neuralgia/fisiopatologia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular
4.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 18(1): 43, 2021 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098980

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate if the supplementation with Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) juice may affect plasma redox balance and heart rate variability (HRV) parameters following a maximal effort test, in young physically active women. METHODS: A randomized, double blind, placebo controlled and crossover study comprising eight women (23.25 ± 2.95 years, 54.13 ± 9.05 kg, 157.75 ± 0.66 cm and BMI of 21.69 ± 0.66 kg/m2) was carried out. A juice containing OFI diluted in water and a Placebo solution were supplied (170 ml; OFI = 50 ml of OFI juice + 120 ml of water; Placebo = 170 ml beverage without Vitamin C and indicaxanthin). Participants consumed the OFI juice or Placebo beverage every day for 3 days, before performing a maximal cycle ergometer test, and for 2 consecutive days after the test. Plasma hydroperoxides and total antioxidant capacity (PAT), Skin Carotenoid Score (SCS) and HRV variables (LF, HF, LF/HF and rMSSD) were recorded at different time points. RESULTS: The OFI group showed significantly lower levels of hydroperoxides compared to the Placebo group in pre-test, post-test and 48-h post-test. PAT values of the OFI group significantly increased compared to those of the Placebo group in pre-test and 48-h post-test. SCS did not differ between groups. LF was significantly lower in the OFI group 24-h after the end of the test, whereas rMSSD was significantly higher in the OFI group 48-h post-test. CONCLUSION: OFI supplementation decreased the oxidative stress induced by intense exercise and improved autonomic balance in physically active women.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Frequência Cardíaca , Opuntia , Estresse Oxidativo , Adulto , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/sangue , Oxirredução , Consumo de Oxigênio , Adulto Jovem
5.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 33(11): 2941-2952, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33880736

RESUMO

Aging and menopause are associated with morphological and functional changes which may lead to loss of muscle mass and therefore quality of life. Resistance training (RT) is an effective training mode to increase muscle mass. We reviewed the existing literature to identify studies implementing RT protocols and evaluating muscle hypertrophy exclusively in healthy, postmenopausal and elderly women. Participants' age range was comprised between 50 and 80 years. The primary outcome observed was muscle hypertrophy. Fat mass was also evaluated, if available. PubMed and Web of Science were the screened database, and original articles written in English and published from 2000 up to 2020 were included. 26 articles were considered eligible and included. Quality assessment revealed a "moderate quality" of the included studies, however the majority of studies was able to reach level 4 of evidence and on overall grade of recommendation C. In total, data from 745 female participants subjected to different forms of resistance training were considered. Heterogeneity across studies was present regarding study design, intervention length (mean 16 weeks), training frequency (3 d/w), no. of exercises (n = 7.4) and participants' age (65.8 ± 4.9 years). Small-to-moderate significant increases (k = 43; SMD = 0.44; 95% CI 0.28; 0.60; p < 0.0001) of lean body mass were observed in post-menopausal and elderly women, regardless of age, intervention period, weekly training frequency and no. of exercises. No effects were noted for fat mass (k = 17; SMD = 0.27; 95% CI - 0.02; 0.55; p = 0.07). Studies need to concentrate on providing information regarding training parameters to more effectively counteract the effects of aging and menopause on skeletal muscle mass.


Assuntos
Treinamento de Força , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Força Muscular , Músculo Esquelético , Pós-Menopausa , Qualidade de Vida
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799751

RESUMO

Background: The relationship between mothers and their children's lifestyle is still unclear, especially in disadvantaged areas. Consequently, the study aims to identify a path explaining the extent to which maternal eating habits and physical activity (PA) level predict food-related aspects, PA practice and Quotient of Gross Motor Development (QGMD) in preschoolers from disadvantaged urban areas. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 79 dyads of mothers and children were recruited from kindergartens. Information related to family socio-demographic aspects, mothers' and children's dietary intake frequencies and PA/sedentariness, mothers' weight and height, mothers' perception on children's food intake, and children's food literacy (FL) was collected with a questionnaire and the Food Literacy Assessment Tool (preschool-FLAT), while gross-motor skills were measured with the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD); weight and height of children were directly collected. Results: Associations were found between mothers' and children's food habits; mothers' and children's fruit/vegetables consumption, and intake of the other items; mothers' education or PA level and children's FL; mothers' PA or sedentariness and children's QGMD; mothers' BMI and food habits and children's BMI; education and food habits. Conclusions: These findings can be useful to plan effective interventions targeted both to preschoolers and their mothers of disadvantaged urban areas for promoting healthy lifestyles, which have become increasingly difficult to achieve during COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Mães , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Mãe-Filho , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários , Populações Vulneráveis
7.
Int J Sports Med ; 42(6): 481-493, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33440445

RESUMO

The aim of this study will be to review the current body of literature to understand the effects of stretching on the responses of the cardiovascular system. A literature search was performed using the following databases: Scopus, NLM Pubmed and ScienceDirect. Studies regarding the effects of stretching on responses of the cardiovascular system were investigated. Outcomes regarded heart rate(HR), blood pressure, pulse wave velocity (PWV of which baPWV for brachial-ankle and cfPWV for carotid-femoral waveforms), heart rate variability and endothelial vascular function. Subsequently, the effects of each outcome were quantitatively synthetized using meta-analytic synthesis with random-effect models. A total of 16 studies were considered eligible and included in the quantitative synthesis. Groups were also stratified according to cross-sectional or longitudinal stretching interventions. Quality assessment through the NHLBI tools observed a "fair-to-good" quality of the studies. The meta-analytic synthesis showed a significant effect of d=0.38 concerning HR, d=2.04 regarding baPWV and d=0.46 for cfPWV. Stretching significantly reduces arterial stiffness and HR. The qualitative description of the studies was also supported by the meta-analytic synthesis. No adverse effects were reported, after stretching, in patients affected by cardiovascular disease on blood pressure. There is a lack of studies regarding vascular adaptations to stretching.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos Cardiovasculares , Exercícios de Alongamento Muscular/fisiologia , Índice Tornozelo-Braço , Pressão Arterial/fisiologia , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Sistema Cardiovascular , Artérias Carótidas/fisiologia , Velocidade da Onda de Pulso Carótido-Femoral/métodos , Análise de Dados , Endotélio Vascular/fisiologia , Artéria Femoral/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Análise de Onda de Pulso , Rigidez Vascular/fisiologia
8.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 32(3): 437-444, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33202069

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High atopy prevalence has been reported in athletes. Having an age-specific questionnaire for predicting atopy is important for an optimal management of young athletes. The study objectives were as follows: (i) developing a scoring system for the Pediatric Allergy Questionnaire for Athletes (AQUAped); (ii) identifying the optimal age target within the range 7-14 years; (iii) assessing AQUAped validity and repeatability in the identified target population. METHODS: A total of 133 young athletes (age 7-14 years) were recruited. Following a screening visit, the participants filled AQUAped at baseline (T0) and after 7 days (T1), concomitantly undergoing skin prick testing. Using atopy as the gold standard (positivity to ≥1 aeroallergen), the 12 core items were scored based on their likelihood ratios, and a total score was calculated. The optimal cut-off was identified based on the Youden's criterion. The repeatability of AQUAped was assessed through the intra-cluster correlation coefficient (ICC). The optimal age target was identified as the largest age range associated with an acceptable cross-validated area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC ≥ 0.70) and an excellent ICC (≥0.75). RESULTS: Forty (30%) children were atopic; the optimal age target was 10-14 years (cross-validated AUC = 0.70, ICC = 0.81). AQUAped total score ranged from -26 to 75, and only 5% of non-atopic children had AQUAped ≥ 24. AQUAped ≥ 2 had 82% specificity, 60% sensitivity, and 74% overall accuracy. CONCLUSION: Developing and testing a scoring system for AQUAped showed that it is a valid and reliable tool for the screening of atopy in young athletes aged 10-14 years.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade , Adolescente , Atletas , Criança , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/diagnóstico , Hipersensibilidade/epidemiologia , Recém-Nascido , Programas de Rastreamento , Testes Cutâneos , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
J Hum Kinet ; 75: 77-83, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33312296

RESUMO

Many studies reported various relationships between 2000-m rowing performance and anthropometric as well as metabolic variables, however, little is known about 60-s mean power in elite youth athletes. The aim of this study was to develop different regression models to predict 2000-m rowing indoor performance time (t2000) using anthropometric variables, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and mean power established during a 60-s all-out test (W60) in national elite youth rowers. Fifteen youth male Italian rowers (age: 15.7 ± 2.0 years; body height: 176.0 ± 8.0 cm; body mass: 71.2 ± 10.0 kg) performed an incremental maximal test, a 60-s all-out test and a 2000-m race simulation using a Concept2 rowing ergometer to assess VO2max, W60 and t2000, respectively. The relationships of all variables with t2000 were investigated through Pearson's correlation. Multiple regression analyses were used to verify the best prediction model of 2000-m indoor rowing performance. The reliability of these models was expressed by R2 and the standard error of estimate. The results showed that t2000 was significantly correlated with all the examined variables, except for VO2max/body mass and age, and exhibited the significantly highest relationship with W60 (r = -0.943). The combination of anthropometric, VO2max and W60 variables was found to be the most reliable equation to predict t2000 (R2 = 0.94, SEE = 6.4). W60 measure should be considered when monitoring the rower's capability to perform high-intensity phases, important during the race's fast start and end. Not requiring expensive equipment and long duration, a 60-s all-out test could be considered a valuable tool for predicting 2000-m performance of elite youth rowers.

10.
Front Sports Act Living ; 2: 579421, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33367276

RESUMO

Many studies reported a positive relationship between motor skills, cognitive functions, and school performance in school-age children; however, little is known in preschool children. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of a physical education program (PEP) on locomotor, object control skills, and pre-literacy cognitive functions in a wide population of preschoolers and verify whether weight status could influence these abilities. In the context of the Training-to-Health Project, a sample of 1,029 preschoolers was recruited in kindergartens from the urban area of Palermo (Italy). Their gross motor and pre-literacy skills were tested before (PRE) and after (POST) following 16 weeks (2 h/week) of a PEP, which included ludic-motor activities aimed at developing body awareness and fundamental motor and perceptual-sensory skills. Analyses of variance (ANOVA) were performed to assess the skills before and after the intervention and to evaluate the effect of different categories of weight status on the examined variables. Regression analyses were conducted to confirm the hypothesized interrelationship between motor and pre-literacy skills in the considered sample. Both locomotor/object control and pre-literacy skills were significantly higher in children after the PEP (p < 0.05). We found 23% of overweight children and no significant difference between weight status classes in both PRE and POST PEP groups. In the POST group, higher locomotor and object control skills were mostly associated with better pre-literacy skills. This study shows that PEP was effective in improving both motor and pre-literacy skills in preschoolers independently from age and gender, while weight status did not affect these skills suggesting that this program can be administrated indifferently in children with different categories of weight status. Therefore, PEP could be a decisive education strategy to enhance motor and cognitive learning in preschool children and to achieve successful academic outcomes.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32635579

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is an endocrine disease with a precocious significant impairment of growth and neuromotor development. Thyroid hormones are essential for central nervous system development, maturation, and myelination. Furthermore, thyroid hormone deficiency affects the function of several systems, including the musculoskeletal system. The disease has a significant incidence in the general population (1:3000-1:2000 newborns in Italy). The aim of the present study was to evaluate any differences in upper and lower limb strength, body sway, and plantar loading distribution in children with CH compared to healthy children. METHODS: In this study, the case group was composed of children with CH (CHG), while the control group included healthy children (CG). Both groups comprised 19 children (CHG: female = 12; CG: female = 9). The maximum isometric handgrip strength and explosive-elastic lower limb strength were assessed with the handgrip test and the Sargent test, respectively. The stabilometric and baropodometric analyses were used to measure the Center of Pressure displacements and the plantar loading distribution between feet, respectively. The differences between groups were analyzed by a univariate analysis of covariance using as covariates weight and height with the significant level set at < 0.05. RESULTS: We found that CHG children were shorter and thinner than CG ones (p < 0.05). No significant difference in the upper and lower limb strength was found between groups. CHG exhibited a significant greater Sway Path Length (p < 0.01) and Ellipse Surface (p < 0.05) than CG. Moreover, CHG displayed an asymmetric plantar loading distribution with a significant lower percentage in the right than in the left foot (p < 0.05). Moreover, a significant lower plantar loading percentage in the right foot of CHG than in the right foot of CG was observed (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: These findings seem to suggest that CH does not affect muscle strength in early treated children. However, these patients show poor postural control ability and asymmetric plantar loading distribution. Increasing the physical activity in these children could improve their body posture.


Assuntos
Hipotireoidismo Congênito/epidemiologia , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Equilíbrio Postural , Postura/fisiologia , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32316251

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The importance of assessing "food literacy" since youth has been highlighted and, to this purpose, valid and consistent instruments are needed. This study aimed to assess the validity and internal consistency of the preschool-FLAT (Food Literacy Assessment Tool). METHODS: 505 children from 21 kindergartens, recruited within the Training-to-Health Project in Palermo (Italy), underwent oral sessions and activities on food-related aspects. Their knowledge/skills were recorded in the preschool-FLAT. The following scale measures were assessed: Content validity; internal consistency (Chronbach's alpha coefficients); construct validity (Structural Equation Modeling-SEM); discriminant validity (intervention subgroup of 100 children vs. control group of 27 children). RESULTS: Acceptable content validity of a 16-items scale and overall adequate internal consistency were revealed: Content validity index (CVI) 0.94, content validity ratio (CVR) 0.88, Chronbach's alpha 0.76. The SEM revealed a 4-factor model fitting the data well (comparative fit index 0.939, root mean square error of approximation 0.033). Discriminant validity was good (intervention group scoring higher than control, p < 0.001, unpaired Student's t-test). CONCLUSION: The preschool-FLAT revealed good psychometric properties, adequate validity and internal consistency. This is the only instrument in the literature specifically targeted to 3-6 years old children that could be effectively used to assess food literacy.


Assuntos
Alimentos , Letramento em Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Análise de Classes Latentes , Masculino , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Instituições Acadêmicas
13.
Public Health Nutr ; 23(2): 356-365, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474231

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Food literacy (FL) is a crucial need encompassing basic literacy and fundamental movement skills. The present study aimed to investigate the FL level in pre-schoolers and to evaluate the effect of potential predictors and the associations with gross motor and emergent literacy skills. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study conducted within the Training-to-Health Project. SETTING: Kindergartens (n 21) in the Palermo City Council, Italy. PARTICIPANTS: Pre-school children aged 3-6 years (n 921) followed education sessions on nutritional topics, practical activities and compiled prearranged sheets. FL was assessed by the five-domain toolkit 'preschool-FLAT'; gross motor and emergent literacy skills were assessed by the Italian version of the gross motor development test and the PRCR-2/2009, respectively. Correlation and regression analyses were performed to assess relationships between FL scores and gender, age, weight, height, BMI, gross motor and emergent literacy skills. RESULTS: Independent predictors (ß, se) of higher FL were female gender (1·06, 0·315, P < 0·01), older age (0·08, 0·019, P < 0·001) and greater height (0·13, 0·03, P < 0·001). The adjusted coefficients were significant for quotient of gross motor development and in particular for the locomotor component (0·03, 0·01, P < 0·01 and 0·16, 0·046, P < 0·001, respectively). Almost all associations with the emergent literacy skills were significant (ß = -0·02 to 0·47). CONCLUSIONS: The study suggests that children raised in an environment where both cognitive and motor skills are enhanced can have better chances of increasing FL and success at school. Thus, the need for monitoring FL and its predictors since early age is highlighted.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil , Alimentos , Letramento em Saúde/métodos , Ciências da Nutrição/educação , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Atividade Motora , Destreza Motora , Instituições Acadêmicas
14.
J Sport Health Sci ; 8(6): 561-566, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31720068

RESUMO

Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine systemic responses of oxidant/antioxidant status following 2 training sessions of different intensity in amateur rhythmic gymnasts. Methods: Before the experimental training, 10 female gymnasts performed a gradually increased exercise test to assess maximal heart rate, maximal oxygen consumption, and anaerobic threshold. They executed 2 intermittent training sessions separated by 48 h of recovery (48 h-post R): the first was performed at low-moderate intensity (LMI) and the second at high intensity (HI). Blood samples were collected immediately pre- and post-training and 48 h-post R. Hydroperoxide level (OxL) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were photometrically measured. Results: OxL was significantly higher in post-training and 48 h-post R following HI than the same conditions after an LMI session (HI vs. LMI post-training: 381.10 ± 46.17 (mean ± SD) vs. 344.18 ± 27.94 Units Carratelli (U.CARR); 48 h-post R: 412.21 ± 26.61 vs. 373.80 ± 36.08 U.CARR). There was no change in TAC between the 2 training sessions investigated. In LMI training, OxL significantly decreased in post-training and increased to reach the baseline at 48 h-post R, whereas TAC increased only at 48 h-post R. In HI training, OxL significantly increased to reach a high oxidative stress 48 h-post R, whereas TAC was lower in post-training than pre-training. Conclusion: The pattern of OxL and TAC levels implies different regulation mechanisms by HI and LMI training sessions. High oxidative stress induced by an HI protocol might be associated with both insufficient TAC and recovery time at 48 h necessary to restore redox balance.

15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(27): e16218, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277132

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Due to demographic changes the world's population is progressively ageing. The physiological decay of the elderly adult may lead to a reduction in the ability to balance and an increased risk of falls becoming an important issue among the elderly. In order to counteract the decay in the ability to balance, physical activity has been proven to be effective. The aim of this study is to systematically review the scientific literature in order to identify physical activity programs able to increase balance in the elderly. METHODS: This review is based on the data from Medline-NLM, Pubmed, ScienceDirect, and SPORTDiscuss and includes randomized control trials that have analyzed balance and physical activity in healthy elderly over 65 years of age during the last decade. A final number of 8 manuscripts were included in the qualitative synthesis, which comprised 200 elderly with a mean age of 75.1 ±â€Š4.4 years. The sample size of the studies varied from 9 to 61 and the intervention periods from 8 to 32 weeks. RESULTS: Eight articles were considered eligible and included in the quantitative synthesis. The articles investigated the effects of resistance and aerobic exercise, balance training, T-bow© and wobble board training, aerobic step and stability ball training, adapted physical activity and Wii Fit training on balance outcomes. Balance measures of the studies showed improvements between 16% and 42% compared to baseline assessments. CONCLUSIONS: Balance is a multifactorial quality that can be effectively increased by different exercise training means. It is fundamental to promote physical activity in the aging adult, being that a negative effect on balance performance has been seen in the no-intervention control groups.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/prevenção & controle , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Idoso , Humanos
16.
Front Physiol ; 10: 238, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30984008

RESUMO

Recently, many studies showing the regeneration potential of both cardiac and hematopoietic stem cells in adult heart following injury were definitively retracted by the literature. Therefore, stimulating myocardial angiogenesis becomes to be important for preventing cardiovascular diseases. Regular endurance exercise has been reported to induce capillary growth in healthy and diseased myocardium resulting in cardioprotective phenotype. Previously, we demonstrated a significantly increased capillary proliferation in mouse hearts following 30 and 45 days of endurance training. In the present study, we examined the localization and expression pattern of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFR-1/Flt-1 and VEGFR-2/Flk-1), hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in heart neocapillarization in response to a mild, moderate, and high intensity of endurance training. Sixty-three Swiss male mice were divided into four untrained control groups and three groups trained for 15 (T15), 30 (T30), and 45 (T45) days with a gradually increasing intensity on a treadmill. We observed the localization of studied proteins with immunostaining and their expression level with Western blot analyses. We found that VEGFR-2/Flk-1 expression progressively increased in trained groups compared with controls, while VEGFR-1/Flt-1 and HIF-1α were higher in T15 than in controls, T30, and T45 animals. Differently, iNOS levels enhanced after 15 and 30 days of exercise. The localization of these factors was not altered by exercise. The results showed that the expression of VEGFR-1/Flt-1, VEGFR-2/Flk-1, HIF-1α, and iNOS is differently regulated in cardiac angiogenesis according to the exercise intensity. VEGFR-1/Flt-1 and HIF-1α are upregulated by a mild intensity exercise, while VEGFR-2/Flk-1 progressively enhances with increasing workload. Differently, iNOS protein is modulated by a moderate intensity exercise. VEGF pathway appears to be involved in exercise-related angiogenesis in heart and VEGF might act in a paracrine and endocrine manner. Understanding this relationship is important for developing exercise strategies to protect the heart by insults.

18.
J Strength Cond Res ; 32(7): 2055-2060, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29939950

RESUMO

Cerasola, D, Cataldo, A, Bellafiore, M, Traina, M, Palma, A, Bianco, A, and Capranica, L. Race profiles of rowers during the 2014 Youth Olympic Games. J Strength Cond Res 32(7): 2055-2060, 2018-Among the different factors affecting the outcome of elite rowing competitions, pacing strategy plays a relevant role. The purpose of this study was to analyze the race profiles of youth athletes competing at the 2014 Youth Olympic Games over a distance of 1,000 m. According to the competition outcome of sculling and sweep events, 96 youth (17-18 years) rowers (48 male and 48 female) were divided into winner (W), not winner (NW), qualified (Q), and not-qualified (NQ) athletes. The time during the 1,000-m race distance was considered at 0-500 m (T1) and 500-1000 m (T2). The average speed of T1 and T2 were normalized in relation to the average speed of the whole race. In both sexes, W rowers showed higher (p > 0.05) T2 values (100.8 ± 0.9%) with respect to T1 (99.2 ± 0.9%) ones. Female athletes showed a higher (p ≤ 0.05) T1 with respect to T2 in NW, Q, and NQ, whereas male athletes exhibited a higher T1 (p ≤ 0.05) than T2 speed only in NQ. While to be admitted to the final phase of the competition, the rowers tended to favor a positive race strategy (88%); during the final phase, a difference (p = 0.43) emerged for outcome, with the majority of medalists (67%) adopting a negative race strategy. These results suggest that winners have applied a different race strategy compared with the other groups in consequence to a higher efficiency of anaerobic metabolism.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Desempenho Atlético/psicologia , Esportes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
19.
Biol Sport ; 35(4): 329-334, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30765917

RESUMO

In table tennis, motor skills are crucial for discriminating player level. However, there is a dearth of studies exploring the impact of a vibrational stimulus on performance. Thirty-four male players (age 25±2 years; body mass index, BMI 23.4±1.2 kg·m -2 ) participated in the study. Seventeen played at international level (IL), while the remaining 17 played at national level (NL). The participants underwent a ball-handling test, the ball score, before (PRE) and after (POST) a vibrational stimulus. Intra-class correlation (ICC) for the ball score result showed good reliability (ICC 0.87 for IL and 0.80 for NL). Repeated measures ANOVA showed differences between groups for ball score (p=0.000) and a significant group×time interaction (p=0.004). Better performances were observed for the IL group than for the NL group, significantly only for POST. Vibration produced positive and negative effects in IL and NL groups, respectively.

20.
Front Psychol ; 9: 2694, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30687164

RESUMO

It is known in the literature that fundamental motor skill acquisition is strongly associated with the development of neuromotor, cognitive, social, and emotional aspects in childhood. Unfortunately, in Italy, the physical education teacher is not included in the school's core personnel, and it is very hard to find a specific physical education program (PEP) that could improve preschool children's motor and cognitive status. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the quotient of gross motor development (QGMD) and pre-literacy skills concerning visual analysis and spatial orientation abilities changed after 16 weeks of PEP (2 h/week) in preschool children. We conducted a school-based non-randomized pilot trial. It involved 119 preschool children, clustered in a control group [CG, n = 29, body mass index (BMI): 16.90 ± 3.16 Kg/m2] and an intervention group (IG, n = 90, BMI: 16.00 ± 1.75 kg/m2). Participants were assessed for literacy readiness, locomotor and object control skills before and after the experimental period. IG increased the locomotor, object-control skills and QGMD in response to PEP. As concerns the pre-literacy domain, no significant difference was found in visual analysis and spatial orientation skills between IG and CG groups. However, we detected improvements from baseline to post-test in IG children. In conclusion, this study contributes additional evidence suggesting how a PEP could affect not only motor skills, but also cognitive ones. Consistently with the growing research, interventions based on structured ludic-motor activities ensure health benefits for preschool children. Clinical Trial Registration: www.ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier NCT01274117.

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