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1.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(10): 107012, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31663781

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) in ambient air has been associated with cardiovascular mortality, but few studies have considered incident disease in relation to PM from different sources. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to study associations between long-term exposure to different types of PM and sources, and incident ischemic heart disease (IHD) and stroke in three Swedish cities. METHODS: Based on detailed emission databases, monitoring data, and high-resolution dispersion models, we calculated source contributions to PM with aerodynamic diameter ≤10µm (PM10), PM with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5µm (PM2.5), and black carbon (BC) from road wear, traffic exhaust, residential heating, and other sources in Gothenburg, Stockholm, and Umeå. Registry data for participants from four cohorts were used to obtain incidence of IHD and stroke for first hospitalization or death. We constructed time windows of exposure for same-year, 1- to 5-y, and 6- to 10-y averages preceding incidence from annual averages at residential addresses. Risk estimates were based on random effects meta-analyses of cohort-specific Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS: We observed 5,166 and 3,119 incident IHD and stroke cases, respectively, in 114,758 participants. Overall, few consistent associations were observed between the different air pollution measures and IHD or stroke incidence. However, same-year levels of ambient locally emitted BC (range: 0.01-4.6 µg/m3) were associated with a 4.0% higher risk of incident stroke per interquartile range (IQR), 0.30 µg/m3 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.04, 7.8]. This association was primarily related to BC from traffic exhaust. PM10 (range: 4.4-52 µg/m3) and PM2.5 (range: 2.9-22 µg/m3) were not associated with stroke. Associations with incident IHD were observed only for PM2.5 exposure from residential heating. DISCUSSION: Few consistent associations were observed between different particulate components and IHD or stroke. However, long-term residential exposure to locally emitted BC from traffic exhaust was associated with stroke incidence. The comparatively low exposure levels may have contributed to the paucity of associations. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP4757.

2.
Environ Int ; 130: 104934, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31229871

RESUMO

Empirical spatial air pollution models have been applied extensively to assess exposure in epidemiological studies with increasingly sophisticated and complex statistical algorithms beyond ordinary linear regression. However, different algorithms have rarely been compared in terms of their predictive ability. This study compared 16 algorithms to predict annual average fine particle (PM2.5) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations across Europe. The evaluated algorithms included linear stepwise regression, regularization techniques and machine learning methods. Air pollution models were developed based on the 2010 routine monitoring data from the AIRBASE dataset maintained by the European Environmental Agency (543 sites for PM2.5 and 2399 sites for NO2), using satellite observations, dispersion model estimates and land use variables as predictors. We compared the models by performing five-fold cross-validation (CV) and by external validation (EV) using annual average concentrations measured at 416 (PM2.5) and 1396 sites (NO2) from the ESCAPE study. We further assessed the correlations between predictions by each pair of algorithms at the ESCAPE sites. For PM2.5, the models performed similarly across algorithms with a mean CV R2 of 0.59 and a mean EV R2 of 0.53. Generalized boosted machine, random forest and bagging performed best (CV R2~0.63; EV R2 0.58-0.61), while backward stepwise linear regression, support vector regression and artificial neural network performed less well (CV R2 0.48-0.57; EV R2 0.39-0.46). Most of the PM2.5 model predictions at ESCAPE sites were highly correlated (R2 > 0.85, with the exception of predictions from the artificial neural network). For NO2, the models performed even more similarly across different algorithms, with CV R2s ranging from 0.57 to 0.62, and EV R2s ranging from 0.49 to 0.51. The predicted concentrations from all algorithms at ESCAPE sites were highly correlated (R2 > 0.9). For both pollutants, biases were low for all models except the artificial neural network. Dispersion model estimates and satellite observations were two of the most important predictors for PM2.5 models whilst dispersion model estimates and traffic variables were most important for NO2 models in all algorithms that allow assessment of the importance of variables. Different statistical algorithms performed similarly when modelling spatial variation in annual average air pollution concentrations using a large number of training sites.

3.
Sci Total Environ ; 674: 279-287, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31004903

RESUMO

The traffic microenvironment has been shown to be a major contributor to the total personal exposure of black carbon (BC), and is key to local actions aiming at reducing health risks associated with such exposure. The main aim of the study was to get a better understanding of the determinants of traffic-related personal exposure to BC in an urban environment. Personal exposure to ambient levels of BC was monitored while walking, cycling and traveling by bus or car along four streets and while cycling alternative routes simultaneously. Monitoring was performed during morning and afternoon peak hours and at midday, with a portable aethalometer recording one-minute mean values. In all, >4000 unique travel passages were performed. Stepwise Linear Regression was used to assess predictors to personal exposure levels of BC. The personal BC concentration ranged 0.03-37 µg/m3. The average concentrations were lowest while walking (1.7 µg/m3) and highest traveling by bus (2.7 µg/m3). However, only 22% of the variability could be explained by travel mode, urban background BC and wind speed. BC concentrations measured inside a car were on average 33% lower than measured simultaneously outside the car. Choosing an alternative bicycle route with less traffic resulted in up to 1.4 µg/m3 lower personal exposure concentrations. In conclusion, traveling by bus rendered the highest personal BC concentrations. But when taking travel time and inhalation rate into account, the travel-related exposure dose was predicted to be highest during walking and cycling. It is however probable that the benefits from physical activity outweigh health risks associated with this higher exposure dose. It is clear that road traffic makes an important contribution to personal exposure to BC regardless of mode of intra-urban transport. Our data suggest that commuting along routes with lower BC levels would substantially decrease commuter's exposure.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Fuligem/análise , Automóveis , Ciclismo , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Suécia , Viagem , Emissões de Veículos/análise , Caminhada
4.
Environ Int ; 124: 170-179, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30654325

RESUMO

Particulate matter (PM) air pollution is one of the major causes of death worldwide, with demonstrated adverse effects from both short-term and long-term exposure. Most of the epidemiological studies have been conducted in cities because of the lack of reliable spatiotemporal estimates of particles exposure in nonurban settings. The objective of this study is to estimate daily PM10 (PM < 10 µm), fine (PM < 2.5 µm, PM2.5) and coarse particles (PM between 2.5 and 10 µm, PM2.5-10) at 1-km2 grid for 2013-2015 using a machine learning approach, the Random Forest (RF). Separate RF models were defined to: predict PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 concentrations in monitors where only PM10 data were available (stage 1); impute missing satellite Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) data using estimates from atmospheric ensemble models (stage 2); establish a relationship between measured PM and satellite, land use and meteorological parameters (stage 3); predict stage 3 model over each 1-km2 grid cell of Italy (stage 4); and improve stage 3 predictions by using small-scale predictors computed at the monitor locations or within a small buffer (stage 5). Our models were able to capture most of PM variability, with mean cross-validation (CV) R2 of 0.75 and 0.80 (stage 3) and 0.84 and 0.86 (stage 5) for PM10 and PM2.5, respectively. Model fitting was less optimal for PM2.5-10, in summer months and in southern Italy. Finally, predictions were equally good in capturing annual and daily PM variability, therefore they can be used as reliable exposure estimates for investigating long-term and short-term health effects.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise , Aerossóis/análise , Florestas , Itália , Aprendizado de Máquina , Modelos de Interação Espacial , Estações do Ano
5.
Environ Int ; 120: 81-92, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30075373

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In order to investigate associations between air pollution and adverse health effects consistent fine spatial air pollution surfaces are needed across large areas to provide cohorts with comparable exposures. The aim of this paper is to develop and evaluate fine spatial scale land use regression models for four major health relevant air pollutants (PM2.5, NO2, BC, O3) across Europe. METHODS: We developed West-European land use regression models (LUR) for 2010 estimating annual mean PM2.5, NO2, BC and O3 concentrations (including cold and warm season estimates for O3). The models were based on AirBase routine monitoring data (PM2.5, NO2 and O3) and ESCAPE monitoring data (BC), and incorporated satellite observations, dispersion model estimates, land use and traffic data. Kriging was performed on the residual spatial variation from the LUR models and added to the exposure estimates. One model was developed using all sites (100%). Robustness of the models was evaluated by performing a five-fold hold-out validation and for PM2.5 and NO2 additionally with independent comparison at ESCAPE measurements. To evaluate the stability of each model's spatial structure over time, separate models were developed for different years (NO2 and O3: 2000 and 2005; PM2.5: 2013). RESULTS: The PM2.5, BC, NO2, O3 annual, O3 warm season and O3 cold season models explained respectively 72%, 54%, 59%, 65%, 69% and 83% of spatial variation in the measured concentrations. Kriging proved an efficient technique to explain a part of residual spatial variation for the pollutants with a strong regional component explaining respectively 10%, 24% and 16% of the R2 in the PM2.5, O3 warm and O3 cold models. Explained variance at fully independent sites vs the internal hold-out validation was slightly lower for PM2.5 (65% vs 66%) and lower for NO2 (49% vs 57%). Predictions from the 2010 model correlated highly with models developed in other years at the overall European scale. CONCLUSIONS: We developed robust PM2.5, NO2, O3 and BC hybrid LUR models. At the West-European scale models were robust in time, becoming less robust at smaller spatial scales. Models were applied to 100 × 100 m surfaces across Western Europe to allow for exposure assignment for 35 million participants from 18 European cohorts participating in the ELAPSE study.

6.
Respir Med ; 139: 48-54, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29858001

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Little is known about how perinatal and childhood factors influence lung function change between childhood and adolescence. OBJECTIVES: To investigate possible early life predictors of change in FEV1 between age 8 and 16 years. In addition, to investigate possible predictors of having persistently low lung function (FEV1 <25th percentiles both at age 8 and 16) up to adolescence. METHODS: The BAMSE birth cohort study collected data throughout childhood on environmental factors, individual characteristics, and spirometric measures at 8 and 16 years (n = 1425). Associations between early life predictors (n = 31) and FEV1 increase between 8 and 16 years were assessed with linear regression. Predictors of having persistently low lung function were examined. RESULTS: Few factors were consistently associated with altered lung function growth, although low birth weight, asthma heredity (paternal), secondhand smoke in infancy, and season of birth had a significant impact (p-value ≤0.01). The majority of subjects stayed however within the same category of lung function between ages 8 and 16 years (in total 821/1425 = 58%). Predictors associated with having persistently low lung function were gestational age, secondhand smoke (at 2 and 8 years of age), and factors related to lower respiratory tract infections in infancy. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, rather few exposures in childhood were identified to have a significant impact on lung function growth between childhood and adolescence. Our data support previous study findings indicating that lung function development is influenced by factors before birth and in infancy, including second hand tobacco smoke.

7.
Environ Int ; 116: 186-196, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29689465

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although epidemiological studies have reported associations between mortality and both ambient air pollution and air temperature, it remains uncertain whether the mortality effects of air pollution are modified by temperature and vice versa. Moreover, little is known on the interactions between ultrafine particles (diameter ≤ 100 nm, UFP) and temperature. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether the short-term associations of particle number concentration (PNC in the ultrafine range (≤100 nm) or total PNC ≤ 3000 nm, as a proxy for UFP), particulate matter ≤ 2.5 µm (PM2.5) and ≤ 10 µm (PM10), and ozone with daily total natural and cardiovascular mortality were modified by air temperature and whether air pollution levels affected the temperature-mortality associations in eight European urban areas during 1999-2013. METHODS: We first analyzed air temperature-stratified associations between air pollution and total natural (nonaccidental) and cardiovascular mortality as well as air pollution-stratified temperature-mortality associations using city-specific over-dispersed Poisson additive models with a distributed lag nonlinear temperature term in each city. All models were adjusted for long-term and seasonal trend, day of the week, influenza epidemics, and population dynamics due to summer vacation and holidays. City-specific effect estimates were then pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: Pooled associations between air pollutants and total and cardiovascular mortality were overall positive and generally stronger at high relatively compared to low air temperatures. For example, on days with high air temperatures (>75th percentile), an increase of 10,000 particles/cm3 in PNC corresponded to a 2.51% (95% CI: 0.39%, 4.67%) increase in cardiovascular mortality, which was significantly higher than that on days with low air temperatures (<25th percentile) [-0.18% (95% CI: -0.97%, 0.62%)]. On days with high air pollution (>50th percentile), both heat- and cold-related mortality risks increased. CONCLUSION: Our findings showed that high temperature could modify the effects of air pollution on daily mortality and high air pollution might enhance the air temperature effects.

8.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 195(10): 1373-1383, 2017 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27901618

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The evidence supporting an association between traffic-related air pollution exposure and incident childhood asthma is inconsistent and may depend on genetic factors. OBJECTIVES: To identify gene-environment interaction effects on childhood asthma using genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data and air pollution exposure. Identified loci were further analyzed at epigenetic and transcriptomic levels. METHODS: We used land use regression models to estimate individual air pollution exposure (represented by outdoor NO2 levels) at the birth address and performed a genome-wide interaction study for doctors' diagnoses of asthma up to 8 years in three European birth cohorts (n = 1,534) with look-up for interaction in two separate North American cohorts, CHS (Children's Health Study) and CAPPS/SAGE (Canadian Asthma Primary Prevention Study/Study of Asthma, Genetics and Environment) (n = 1,602 and 186 subjects, respectively). We assessed expression quantitative trait locus effects in human lung specimens and blood, as well as associations among air pollution exposure, methylation, and transcriptomic patterns. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: In the European cohorts, 186 SNPs had an interaction P < 1 × 10-4 and a look-up evaluation of these disclosed 8 SNPs in 4 loci, with an interaction P < 0.05 in the large CHS study, but not in CAPPS/SAGE. Three SNPs within adenylate cyclase 2 (ADCY2) showed the same direction of the interaction effect and were found to influence ADCY2 gene expression in peripheral blood (P = 4.50 × 10-4). One other SNP with P < 0.05 for interaction in CHS, rs686237, strongly influenced UDP-Gal:betaGlcNAc ß-1,4-galactosyltransferase, polypeptide 5 (B4GALT5) expression in lung tissue (P = 1.18 × 10-17). Air pollution exposure was associated with differential discs, large homolog 2 (DLG2) methylation and expression. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicated that gene-environment interactions are important for asthma development and provided supportive evidence for interaction with air pollution for ADCY2, B4GALT5, and DLG2.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Asma/epidemiologia , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Emissões de Veículos , Asma/genética , Criança , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
9.
Environ Health Perspect ; 125(1): 104-110, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27448387

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to air pollution is considered to be associated with adverse effects on child health. This may partly be mediated by mechanisms related to DNA methylation. OBJECTIVES: We investigated associations between exposure to air pollution, using nitrogen dioxide (NO2) as marker, and epigenome-wide cord blood DNA methylation. METHODS: We meta-analyzed the associations between NO2 exposure at residential addresses during pregnancy and cord blood DNA methylation (Illumina 450K) in four European and North American studies (n = 1,508) with subsequent look-up analyses in children ages 4 (n = 733) and 8 (n = 786) years. Additionally, we applied a literature-based candidate approach for antioxidant and anti-inflammatory genes. To assess influence of exposure at the transcriptomics level, we related mRNA expression in blood cells to NO2 exposure in 4- (n = 111) and 16-year-olds (n = 239). RESULTS: We found epigenome-wide significant associations [false discovery rate (FDR) p < 0.05] between maternal NO2 exposure during pregnancy and DNA methylation in newborns for 3 CpG sites in mitochondria-related genes: cg12283362 (LONP1), cg24172570 (3.8 kbp upstream of HIBADH), and cg08973675 (SLC25A28). The associations with cg08973675 methylation were also significant in the older children. Further analysis of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory genes revealed differentially methylated CpGs in CAT and TPO in newborns (FDR p < 0.05). NO2 exposure at the time of biosampling in childhood had a significant impact on CAT and TPO expression. CONCLUSIONS: NO2 exposure during pregnancy was associated with differential offspring DNA methylation in mitochondria-related genes. Exposure to NO2 was also linked to differential methylation as well as expression of genes involved in antioxidant defense pathways. Citation: Gruzieva O, Xu CJ, Breton CV, Annesi-Maesano I, Antó JM, Auffray C, Ballereau S, Bellander T, Bousquet J, Bustamante M, Charles MA, de Kluizenaar Y, den Dekker HT, Duijts L, Felix JF, Gehring U, Guxens M, Jaddoe VV, Jankipersadsing SA, Merid SK, Kere J, Kumar A, Lemonnier N, Lepeule J, Nystad W, Page CM, Panasevich S, Postma D, Slama R, Sunyer J, Söderhäll C, Yao J, London SJ, Pershagen G, Koppelman GH, Melén E. 2017. Epigenome-wide meta-analysis of methylation in children related to prenatal NO2 air pollution exposure. Environ Health Perspect 125:104-110; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP36.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Metilação de DNA , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Londres , Gravidez
10.
Environ Int ; 99: 234-244, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28017360

RESUMO

Health effects of air pollution, especially particulate matter (PM), have been widely investigated. However, most of the studies rely on few monitors located in urban areas for short-term assessments, or land use/dispersion modelling for long-term evaluations, again mostly in cities. Recently, the availability of finely resolved satellite data provides an opportunity to estimate daily concentrations of air pollutants over wide spatio-temporal domains. Italy lacks a robust and validated high resolution spatio-temporally resolved model of particulate matter. The complex topography and the air mixture from both natural and anthropogenic sources are great challenges difficult to be addressed. We combined finely resolved data on Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) from the Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) algorithm, ground-level PM10 measurements, land-use variables and meteorological parameters into a four-stage mixed model framework to derive estimates of daily PM10 concentrations at 1-km2 grid over Italy, for the years 2006-2012. We checked performance of our models by applying 10-fold cross-validation (CV) for each year. Our models displayed good fitting, with mean CV-R2=0.65 and little bias (average slope of predicted VS observed PM10=0.99). Out-of-sample predictions were more accurate in Northern Italy (Po valley) and large conurbations (e.g. Rome), for background monitoring stations, and in the winter season. Resulting concentration maps showed highest average PM10 levels in specific areas (Po river valley, main industrial and metropolitan areas) with decreasing trends over time. Our daily predictions of PM10 concentrations across the whole Italy will allow, for the first time, estimation of long-term and short-term effects of air pollution nationwide, even in areas lacking monitoring data.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Exposição Ambiental , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Material Particulado/análise , Humanos , Itália , Conceitos Meteorológicos , População Rural , Estações do Ano , Astronave , População Urbana
11.
J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol ; 27(6): 575-581, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27485990

RESUMO

Both dispersion modeling (DM) and land-use regression modeling (LUR) are often used for assessment of long-term air pollution exposure in epidemiological studies, but seldom in combination. We developed a hybrid DM-LUR model using 93 biweekly observations of NOx at 31 sites in greater Stockholm (Sweden). The DM was based on spatially resolved topographic, physiographic and emission data, and hourly meteorological data from a diagnostic wind model. Other data were from land use, meteorology and routine monitoring of NOx. We built a linear regression model for NOx, using a stepwise forward selection of covariates. The resulting model predicted observed NOx (R2=0.89) better than the DM without covariates (R2=0.68, P-interaction <0.001) and with minimal apparent bias. The model included (in descending order of importance) DM, traffic intensity on the nearest street, population (number of inhabitants) within 100 m radius, global radiation (direct sunlight plus diffuse or scattered light) and urban contribution to NOx levels (routine urban NOx, less routine rural NOx). Our results indicate that there is a potential for improving estimates of air pollutant concentrations based on DM, by incorporating further spatial characteristics of the immediate surroundings, possibly accounting for imperfections in the emission data.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Emissões de Veículos/análise , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos , Suécia
12.
Epidemiology ; 28(2): 172-180, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27922535

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic evidence on the association between short-term exposure to ultrafine particles and mortality is weak, due to the lack of routine measurements of these particles and standardized multicenter studies. We investigated the relationship between ultrafine particles and particulate matter (PM) and daily mortality in eight European urban areas. METHODS: We collected daily data on nonaccidental and cardiorespiratory mortality, particle number concentrations (as proxy for ultrafine particle number concentration), fine and coarse PM, gases and meteorologic parameters in eight urban areas of Finland, Sweden, Denmark, Germany, Italy, Spain, and Greece, between 1999 and 2013. We applied city-specific time-series Poisson regression models and pooled them with random-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: We estimated a weak, delayed association between particle number concentration and nonaccidental mortality, with mortality increasing by approximately 0.35% per 10,000 particles/cm increases in particle number concentration occurring 5 to 7 days before death. A similar pattern was found for cause-specific mortality. Estimates decreased after adjustment for fine particles (PM2.5) or nitrogen dioxide (NO2). The stronger association found between particle number concentration and mortality in the warmer season (1.14% increase) became null after adjustment for other pollutants. CONCLUSIONS: We found weak evidence of an association between daily ultrafine particles and mortality. Further studies are required with standardized protocols for ultrafine particle data collection in multiple European cities over extended study periods.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Cidades , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade , Dióxido de Nitrogênio , Material Particulado , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dinamarca , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Finlândia , Alemanha , Grécia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distribuição de Poisson , Análise de Regressão , Espanha , Suécia , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
13.
PLoS One ; 11(11): e0166887, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27898718

RESUMO

In the present study, the phenological and quantitative changes in the pollen seasons between 1973 and 2013 in the Stockholm region of Sweden were studied for nine types of pollen (hazel, alder, elm, birch, oak, grass, mugwort, willow and pine). Linear regression models were used to estimate the long term trends in duration, start- and end-dates, peak-values and the yearly accumulated pollen sums of the pollen seasons. The pollen seasons of several arboreal plant species (e.g. birch, oak and pine) were found to start significantly earlier today compared to 41 years earlier, and have an earlier peak-date, while the season of other species seemed largely unaffected. However, the long term trends in the end-dates of pollen seasons differed between arboreal and herbaceous species. For herbaceous species (grass and mugwort), a significant change towards later end-dates was observed and the duration of season was found to have increased. A significant trend towards an earlier end-date was found in the majority of the arboreal plant species (i.e. elm, oak, pine and birch), but the length of the season seemed unaffected. A trend towards an increase in yearly concentrations of pollen was observed for several species; however the reasons for this phenomenon cannot be explained unambiguously by the present study design. The trend of increasing yearly mean air temperatures in the Stockholm area may be the reason to changed phenological patterns of pollen seasons.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Alérgenos/análise , Pólen , Estações do Ano , Mudança Climática , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Suécia , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Eur Respir J ; 48(3): 674-82, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27338189

RESUMO

Epidemiological evidence on the associations between exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP), with aerodynamic electrical mobility diameters <100 nm, and health is limited. We gathered data on UFP from five European cities within 2001-2011 to investigate associations between short-term changes in concentrations and respiratory hospitalisations.We applied city-specific Poisson regression models and combined city-specific estimates to obtain pooled estimates. We evaluated the sensitivity of our findings to co-pollutant adjustment and investigated effect modification patterns by period of the year, age at admission and specific diagnoses.Our results for the whole time period do not support an association between UFP and respiratory hospitalisations, although we found suggestive associations among those 0-14 years old. We nevertheless report consistent adverse effect estimates during the warm period of the year, statistically significant after lag 2 when an increase by 10 000 particles per cm(3) was associated with a 4.27% (95% CI 1.68-6.92%) increase in hospitalisations. These effect estimates were robust to particles' mass or gaseous pollutants adjustment.Considering that our findings during the warm period may reflect better exposure assessment and that the main source of non-soluble UFP in urban areas is traffic, our results call for improved regulation of traffic emissions.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Monitoramento Ambiental , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tamanho da Partícula , Distribuição de Poisson , Pneumologia , Análise de Regressão , Temperatura Ambiente , Adulto Jovem
15.
Epidemiology ; 27(5): 663-9, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27258325

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to ground level ozone (O3) is a public health problem associated with a range of risks across population subgroups. Our aim was to investigate the role of previous cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in mortality related to short-term O3 exposure. METHODS: Deaths between 1990 and 2010 in Stockholm County were matched with previous hospitalizations in Swedish registries. An urban background monitoring station provided hourly values of air quality data, from which we calculated 8-hour running averages and daily 8-hour maximum. We analyzed associations between daily O3 concentrations and mortality among persons with and without previous CVD hospitalization with a generalized additive model adjusted for time trend, influenza, and weather. We also performed two-pollutant models. RESULTS: There were 302,283 nontrauma-related deaths, out of which 196,916 had previous CVD hospitalization. The mean concentration of daily maximum 8-hour O3 was 62.9 µg/m. An average 10 µg/m increase in the same and preceding day was associated with an increased mortality of 1.72% (95% confidence interval: 0.44%, 3.02%) in those with prior admission for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), which was more than three times higher than for those with no previous AMI (0.50, 95% confidence interval: 0.10%, 0.89%, P value for interaction 0.098). The association between O3 and mortality remained essentially unchanged in two-pollutant models with NO2, NOx, and PM10. CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicates that short-term exposure to O3 is associated with increased mortality in those with a previous hospitalization for AMI.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Ozônio , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Poluição do Ar , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dióxido de Nitrogênio , Material Particulado , Suécia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Pediatrics ; 137(4)2016 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27009034

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Knowledge regarding lung function after moderately preterm birth is limited. We therefore investigated lung function at early school age and adolescence among children born moderately preterm. METHODS: Data were used from the Swedish prospective birth cohort BAMSE (Swedish abbreviation for Children, Allergy, Milieu, Stockholm, Epidemiology study; N = 4089), with a 4.8% prevalence of moderate to late preterm birth defined as a gestational age of 32 to 36 weeks. Participants underwent spirometry at ages 8 and 16 years, and impulse oscillometry additionally at age 16 years. In total, 2621 children (149 preterm and 2472 term) provided lung function data. RESULTS: At age 8 years, adjusted forced expiratory volume in 1 second was lower in preterm female subjects (-64 mL [95% confidence interval (CI): -118 to -10]) compared with term female subjects but not in preterm male subjects. At age 16 years, both genders in the preterm group demonstrated lower forced expiratory volume in 1 second (female subjects: -116 mL [95% CI: -212 to -20]; male subjects: -177 mL [95% CI: -329 to -25]) compared with the term group. For the preterm group, impulse oscillometry demonstrated higher adjusted resistance at 5 Hz (female subjects: 31.3 Pa·L(-1)·s(-1) [95% CI: 6.3 to 56.3]; male subjects: 34.9 Pa·L(-1)·s(-1) [95% CI: 12.0 to 57.7]) and frequency dependence of resistance (resistance at 5 and 20 Hz) for male subjects (20.9 Pa·L(-1)·s(-1) [95% CI: 9.8 to 31.9]) compared with the term group. CONCLUSIONS: Measures of airway function assessed in adolescence were reduced in children born moderate to late preterm, and no catch-up in lung function between ages 8 and 16 years was observed.


Assuntos
Recém-Nascido Prematuro/fisiologia , Pneumopatias/diagnóstico , Pneumopatias/epidemiologia , Pulmão/fisiologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado/fisiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Pneumopatias/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Testes de Função Respiratória/métodos , Testes de Função Respiratória/tendências , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suécia/epidemiologia
18.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 193(2): 171-7, 2016 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26397124

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Exposure to air pollution during infancy has been related to lung function decrements in 8-year-old children, but whether the negative effects remain into adolescence is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship between long-term air pollution exposure and lung function up to age 16 years. METHODS: A total of 2,278 children from the Swedish birth cohort BAMSE (Children, Allergy, Milieu, Stockholm, Epidemiological Survey) performed spirometry at age 16 years. Levels of outdoor air pollution from local road traffic were estimated (nitrogen oxides [NOx] and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of <10 µm [PM10]) for residential, daycare, and school addresses during the lifetime using dispersion modeling. Associations between exposure in different time windows and spirometry indexes were analyzed by linear regression and mixed effect models. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Exposure to traffic-related air pollution during the first year of life was associated with FEV1 at age 16 years of -15.8 ml (95% confidence interval [CI], -33.6 to 2.0 for a 10 µg/m(3) difference in NOx), predominately in males (-30.4 ml; 95% CI, -59.1 to -1.7), and in subjects not exposed to maternal smoking during pregnancy or infancy. Later exposures appeared to have had an additional negative effect. High exposure during the first year of life was also associated with odds ratios for FEV1 and FVC less than the lower limit of normal (LLN) (defined as a z-score < -1.64 SD) of 3.8 (95% CI, 1.3-10.9) and of 4.3 (95% CI, 1.2-15.0), respectively. The results for PM10 were similar to those for NOx. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to traffic-related air pollution in infancy is negatively associated with FEV1 at age 16 years, leading to increased risk of clinically important deficits.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Volume Expiratório Forçado/efeitos dos fármacos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Emissões de Veículos/análise , Adolescente , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Distribuição por Sexo , Espirometria , Suécia/epidemiologia , Tempo
19.
J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol ; 25(5): 517-23, 2015 Sep-Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25827311

RESUMO

We investigated the risk of stroke related to long-term ambient air pollution exposure, in particular the role of various exposure time windows, using four cohorts from Stockholm County, Sweden. In total, 22,587 individuals were recruited from 1992 to 2004 and followed until 2011. Yearly air pollution levels resulting from local road traffic emissions were assessed at participant residences using dispersion models for particulate matter (PM10) and nitrogen oxides (NOX). Cohort-specific hazard ratios were estimated for time-weighted air pollution exposure during different time windows and the incidence of stroke, adjusted for common risk factors, and then meta-analysed. Overall, 868 subjects suffered a non-fatal or fatal stroke during 238,731 person-years of follow-up. An increment of 20 µg/m(3) in estimated annual mean of road-traffic related NOX exposure at recruitment was associated with a hazard ratio of 1.16 (95% CI 0.83-1.61), with evidence of heterogeneity between the cohorts. For PM10, an increment of 10 µg/m(3) corresponded to a hazard ratio of 1.14 (95% CI 0.68-1.90). Time-window analyses did not reveal any clear induction-latency pattern. In conclusion, we found suggestive evidence of an association between long-term exposure to NOX and PM10 from local traffic and stroke at comparatively low levels of air pollution.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tamanho da Partícula , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Suécia/epidemiologia , Estudos em Gêmeos como Assunto , Emissões de Veículos
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