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1.
Stroke ; 51(2): 666-669, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31813360

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- The purpose of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis of CVOTs (cardiovascular outcome trials) to evaluate the effect of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists therapy in reducing the risk of stroke in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods- PubMed and other electronic sources were searched until June 20, 2019, to identify relevant studies. Hazard ratios with 95% CIs were used as a measure of the association between use of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists and risk of stroke after pooling data across trials. Results- Seven CVOTs with 56 004 participants were identified. Use of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus was associated with 15% lower risk of nonfatal stroke (P=0.002), 19% lower risk of fatal stroke (P=0.150), and 16% lower risk of total stroke (P=0.001). There was no association between reductions of hemoglobin A1c levels or body weight and risk of stroke. Conclusions- Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists reduce the risk of nonfatal stroke in patients with T2D.

3.
Andrologia ; : e13480, 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710398

RESUMO

No study has yet been done to evaluate topical alprostadil as a less invasive alternative vasoactive agent for Penile Dynamic Duplex Ultrasonography (PDDU) in the diagnosis of erectile dysfunction. The main aim of our study was to evaluate the usability and reliability of topical alprostadil for PDDU compared with standard intracavernous injection. A further objective was to determine the patients' preference between these two different approaches. During session A, patients received injection while during session B, they received topical alprostadil. Each patient underwent both sessions, 1 week apart from the other. A total of 80 patients were enrolled. After 20 min from drug administration, no significant difference was found between the two procedures in terms of peak systolic velocity and end-diastolic velocity, while Erection Hardness Score was significantly higher with injection. Patients reported less pain/discomfort during the procedure in case of topical alprostadil use and an overall preference towards this examination modality. Topical alprostadil could represent a usable and reliable alternative to intracavernous injection for PDDU, with less discomfort and greater preference by patients.

4.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 21(11): 2576-2580, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31373167

RESUMO

A meta-analysis of cardiovascular outcome trials (CVOTs) comparing glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) and placebo concerning cardiorenal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) is presented. An electronic search without language restrictions up to June 15, 2019 was conducted to determine eligible trials. A meta-analysis of available trial data was undertaken, using a random-effects model to calculate overall hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Data from seven CVOTs, comprising 56 004 patients (68.9% with established cardiovascular disease) were included. GLP-1RA reduced major cardiovascular events (MACE) by 13% (HR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.80-0.96; P = 0.011) with a non-significant heterogeneity between subgroups of patients with and without cardiovascular disease (CVD) (P = 0.220). GLP-1RA also reduced the risk of cardiovascular death by 12%, of non-fatal stroke by 16%, of hospitalization for heart failure by 9%, of all-cause mortality by 11%, and the broad composite kidney outcome by 17%; the latter appeared to be driven only by a reduction in macroalbuminuria (HR, 0.76 [0.68-0.86]; P = 0.003). GLP-1RAs have moderate benefits concerning MACE, and also reduce hospitalization for heart failure and all-cause mortality; they also robustly reduce the incidence of macroalbuminuria, without affecting the progression of diabetic renal disease.

5.
Int J Obes Suppl ; 9(1): 50-64, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31391924

RESUMO

Obesity is considered a worldwide epidemic disease. Many pathological conditions have been associated to obesity but the evidence relating to impaired fertility in males with obesity are contrasting. The aim of this review was to evaluate the interplay between obesity and male fertility, analyzing evidence from in vitro and in vivo studies to clinical trials. Obesity seems to be responsible of secondary hypogonadism. Here, we propose a new classification including central, peripheral and testicular factors that may affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Moreover, some studies demonstrated a direct action of obesity on sperm count and sperm characteristics, mediated by impaired Sertoli cells function, increased scrotal temperature, oxidative stress and accumulation of toxic substances and liposoluble endocrine disruptors in fat tissue. Recent studies have explored obesity-related epigenetic effects in sperm cells which may cause diseases in offspring. Moreover, not only in females but also males, obesity has been linked to reduced outcomes of in vitro fertilization, with a reduction of pregnancy rate and an increase of pregnancy loss. Finally, we reviewed the effects of weight modifications through diet or bariatric surgery on obesity-related reproductive dysfunction. In this regard, several studies have demonstrated that weight loss has been associated with a restoration of gonadal hormones levels.

6.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 55(7)2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31336995

RESUMO

Background and objectives: XX male syndrome is part of the disorders of sex development (DSD). The patients generally have normal external genitalia and discover their pathology in adulthood because of infertility. There are no guidelines regarding XX male syndrome, so the aim of our study was to evaluate the literature evidence in order to guide the physicians in the management of these type of patients. Materials and Methods: We performed a systematic review of the available literature in September 2018, using MEDLINE, Web of Science, Embase and Google Scholar database to search for all published studies regarding XX male syndrome according to PRISMA guidelines. The following search terms were used: "46 XX male", "DSD", "infertility", "hypogonadism". Results: After appropriate screening we selected 37 papers. Mean (SD) age was 33.14 (11.4) years. Hair distribution was normal in 29/39 patients (74.3%), gynecomastia was absent in 22/39 cases (56.4%), normal testes volume was reported in 0/14, penis size was normal in 26/32 cases (81.2%), pubic hair had a normal development in 6/7 patients (85.7%), normal erectile function was present in 27/30 cases (90%) and libido was preserved in 20/20 patients (100%). The data revealed the common presence of hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. All patients had a 46,XX karyotype. The sex-determining region Y (SRY) gene was detected in 51/57 cases. The position of the SRY was on the Xp in the 97% of the cases. Conclusions: An appropriate physical examination should include the evaluation of genitalia to detect cryptorchidism, hypospadias, penis size, and gynecomastia; it is important to use a validated questionnaire to evaluate erectile dysfunction, such as the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF). Semen analysis is mandatory and so is the karyotype test. Abdominal ultrasound is useful in order to exclude residual Müllerian structures. Genetic and endocrine consultations are necessary to assess a possible hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. Testicular sperm extraction is not recommended, and adoption or in vitro fertilization with a sperm donor are fertility options.


Assuntos
Transtornos Testiculares 46, XX do Desenvolvimento Sexual/genética , Desenvolvimento Sexual/genética , Transtornos Testiculares 46, XX do Desenvolvimento Sexual/complicações , Transtornos Testiculares 46, XX do Desenvolvimento Sexual/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Humanos , Infertilidade/complicações , Infertilidade/genética , Cariotipagem/instrumentação , Cariotipagem/métodos , Masculino , Análise do Sêmen/métodos
7.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 155: 107787, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326454

RESUMO

AIMS: GIOIA is an ongoing prospective multicentre study aiming to assess the vascular and metabolic effects of SGLT-2 inhibitors (gliflozins) and DPP-4 inhibitors (gliptins) in the routine clinical practice of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Herein we describe the preliminary effectiveness data at 6 months. METHODS: SGLT-2i and DPP-4i-naïve adult patients with T2D (N = 301 and 260, respectively), with glycated haemoglobin A1c (A1C) >7%, an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥60 ml/min/1.73 m2, on background therapy with metformin, insulin or both, are being followed to evaluate markers of vascular (carotid intima-media thickness), myocardial (myocardial diastolic function) and renal (urinary albumin/creatinine ratio) damage during treatment with SGLT-2i or DPP-4i for a period of 24 months. RESULT: At baseline, patients initiated on SGLT-2i are younger (about 6 years) and more heavy (about 7.5 kg), have higher A1C level (0.5% more), a longer diabetes duration and more CV events (20% more) than patients initiated on DPP-4i. At 6 months, patients on SGLT-2i (N = 298) and DPP-4i (N = 258) exhibit significant ameliorations in A1C (-1.% and -0.7%, respectively), which were greater (-1.2% and -0.81%) in those on a background metformin treatment only. The composite endpoint (A1C ≤ 7.0% + weight loss ≥ 3 kg) was achieved by 24% and 16% of patients receiving SGLT-2i or DPP-4i, respectively. No unexpected adverse events were reported. CONCLUSIONS: Both SGLT-2i and DPP-4i provide substantial improvements in metabolic parameters in the usual clinical practice of T2D, especially when used as second-line treatment.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , Glicemia/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/uso terapêutico , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Lipídeos/análise , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos
8.
Andrologia ; 51(9): e13361, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264247

RESUMO

We aimed to evaluate whether pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could play a role in better assessing chronic pelvic pain syndrome. We evaluated 44 male patients (median 41 aged) with a clinical history of painful pelvic symptoms, lasting for at least three of the previous 6 months, associated with urinary, anorectal and sexual disorders in the absence of bacterial prostate infection. All these patients underwent ultrasound (US) and MRI evaluation of the pelvis. Prostate imaging findings, such as gland morphology evaluated by US and prostatic signal intensity on MRI, appeared normal in the majority of patients (38/44; 82%). Extraparenchymal alterations were found in 28 patients (63.6%); the most frequent was the dilatation of periprostatic vein plexus (20/28; 71.4%), significantly correlated to chronic pelvic pain syndrome (p = 0.0013), regardless of different clinical presentations. This finding was tested in a control group of 90 patients, demonstrating an excellent specificity (97%), good positive predictive value (87%) and diagnostic accuracy (80%). MRI confirmed its high capability in evaluating prostatic and extraprostatic structures. Periprostatic vein dilatation, which identified approximately two-thirds of the patients with chronic pelvic pain syndrome using pelvic MRI, significantly correlated to chronic pelvic pain syndrome, independently of patient age, symptoms and prostatic volume.

9.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(12): e012356, 2019 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31166153

RESUMO

Background The value of glycemic control and preexisting cardiovascular disease in determining the risk of major cardiovascular events (MACE) in type 2 diabetes mellitus is uncertain. Intensive glucose control trials suggest that the 9% lower risk of MACE associated with intensive glycemic control, as compared with conventional glycemic control, is only driven by patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus without cardiovascular disease at baseline. Methods and Results We did a meta-analysis of cardiovascular outcome trials dividing patients with or without preexisting cardiovascular disease; we found that the lower risk of MACE is confined to patients with cardiovascular disease at baseline. Compared with placebo, the use of both glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists and sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors was associated with a significant 14% lower MACE risk in patients with preexisting cardiovascular disease and with a nonsignificant 2% higher MACE risk in those without preexisting cardiovascular disease ( P for interaction=0.021). The meta-regression analysis of all 12 trials demonstrated a significant ( P=0.002) association between reductions of glycated hemoglobin in glycated hemoglobin A1C. Accordingly, the reduction of MACE expected if all cardiovascular outcome trials had achieved a 0.9% glycated hemoglobin reduction would have been 33%. Routine clinical care data complement the results of cardiovascular outcome trials but with some differences: the lower risk of MACE with sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor use is evident in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with or without preexisting cardiovascular disease. Conclusions Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists should be included in the therapeutic plan of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and overt cardiovascular disease, with due attention paid to improvement of glycemic control, which may amplify their benefit on MACE.

10.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 154: 101-115, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31238059

RESUMO

We provided an updated systematic review with meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the metabolic effects of combination therapy of insulin and GLP-1RA (combo) in comparison with other injectable therapy. We searched PubMed, Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials, Scholar, and ClinicalTrials.gov for RCTs evaluating changes in HbA1c (primary outcome), proportion of patients at HbA1c target <7%, hypoglycaemia, and weight change (secondary end-points). We included 36 RCTs involving 14,636 patients. Compared with comparator therapies (overall analysis), the combo led to a significant HbA1c reduction (=-0.49%, 95% CI -0.61 to -0.38%, P < 0.001), more patients at HbA1c target [relative risk, (RR) = 1.77, 95% CI, 1.56, 2.01, P < 0.001], similar hypoglycaemic events (RR = 1.03, 95% CI, 0.88, 1.19, P = 0.728), and reduction in body weight (-2.5 Kg, 95% CI -3.1 to -1.8 kg, P < 0.001), with high heterogeneity in each analysis. The quality of the evidence was low for three of the considered outcomes. Compared with intensified insulin regimens (basal-plus/basal-bolus) the combo produced similar glycemic control with reduction of both hypoglycaemia, and body weight. Combination therapy of GLP-1RA and insulin could represent a valuable treatment strategy to improve glycemic control in the management of type 2 diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/agonistas , Hipoglicemia/prevenção & controle , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Prognóstico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
11.
Endocrine ; 65(1): 15-24, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31028667

RESUMO

AIM: We performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated the effect of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4i), glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs), and sodium glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT-2i) on heart failure (HF) risk in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). METHODS AND RESULTS: The electronic search was carried out until 10 November 2018. RCTs were included if they compared add-on therapy with any DPP-4i, GLP-1 RAs, or SGLT-2i with placebo, and included in the outcome hospitalization for HF, and other outcomes required for cardiovascular safety studies. Risk of HF was the primary outcome for this meta-analysis. We used a random-effect model to calculate hazard ratio (HR) and 95% CI. Twelve trials were identified, involving 120,765 patients. Compared with placebo, HF risk showed a non-significant 10% reduction with the newer anti-hyperglycemic drugs (HR = 0.90, 0.80-1.01); use of DPP-4i and GLP-1 RAs was associated with nonsignificant modifications of the HF risk (+5% and -9%, respectively), while the use of SGLT-2i was associated with a significant 31% reduction of the HF risk (HR = 0.69, 0.61-0.79, P < 0.001), with no heterogeneity (I2 = 0%, P = 0.741), suggesting a class effect. The meta-regression analysis of all 12 trials showed no association of reductions of hemoglobin A1C with HF risk. CONCLUSION: In T2D, SGLT-2i can reduce the risk of HF that is unrelated to improved glycemic control; DPP-4i and GLP-1 RAs behave as neutral.

12.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 21(8): 1790-1800, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30969018

RESUMO

Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) still remains a progressive condition that is associated with higher risk of end-stage kidney disease and significant cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Twelve cardiovascular outcome trials in type 2 diabetes (T2D) have been published to date. Most trials with dipeptidyl-peptidase inhibitors (SAVOR-TIMI 53 with saxagliptin, EXAMINE with alogliptin, TECOS with sitagliptin, and CARMELINA with linagliptin) and with glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) (ELIXA with lixisenatide, LEADER with liraglutide, SUSTAIN-6 with semaglutide, EXCSEL with exenatide once-weekly, and HARMONY with albiglutide) pointed towards reduced albuminuria, which is a surrogate endpoint possibly heralding renal function preservation. The three trials with sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT-2is) (empagliflozin, canagliflozin and dapagliflozin) also showed a salutary effect on long-term estimated glomerular filtration rate, suggesting that SGLT-2is are more effective at mitigating loss of kidney function than incretin-based therapies; moreover, SGLT-2is also have the advantage of plausible haemodynamic mechanisms for improved renal outcomes. Despite some residual limitations linked to differences in study populations and patient characteristics, the cardiorenal protective actions of SGLT-2is, and to a lesser extent some GLP-1RAs, make them favourable medications for patients with T2D at increased cardiorenal risk. There is room for optimism that their use may change the paradigm of the ineluctable progression of DKD.

13.
Thyroid ; 29(7): 928-933, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30963820

RESUMO

Background: Therapy of hypothyroidism is based on the administration of appropriate doses of levothyroxine (LT4). A failure to achieve the thyrotropin (TSH) target may be due to poor compliance with the LT4 therapy in about 60% of cases or to malabsorption in about 40% of cases. No tools are available for detecting malabsorption disorders before the choice of the most appropriate therapy. The aim of this study was to validate the Evaluation of Malabsorption in PATients with HYpothyroidism (EMPATHY) questionnaire and to demonstrate its usefulness in indicating the most appropriate therapy. Methods: EMPATHY consists of seven questions that allow the evaluation of several intolerances and allergies. Three hundred (100 males) newly diagnosed hypothyroid patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to complete an EMPATHY questionnaire (150 patients; group 1) or to a control group (150 patients; group 2). The choice of thyroxine formulation and dose for each group was made on the basis of the questionnaire answers or based on the history. Thyroid hormones and TSH were evaluated at enrollment and then every two months for six months; the number of the dose adjustments in the six months for each patient was recorded. Results: Of the 150 patients in each group, 21 (14%) in group 1 and 42 (28%) in group 2 (p = 0.005) needed more than two dose adjustments within six months. After six months of replacement therapy, six (4%) patients in group 1 and 17 (11%) in group 2 (p = 0.03) did not have appropriately controlled hypothyroidism (TSH ≥2.5 mIU/L). A significantly higher LT4 final dose was found in group 2 (148 ± 33 µg/day) than in group 1 (136 ± 28 µg/day; p = 0.003). Conclusions: Validation of EMPATHY provides endocrinologists with a useful tool in clinical practice, permitting a better personalization of LT4 replacement therapy, a more rapid attainment of the target TSH levels, and a decreased need for dose adjustments after initiating therapy.

14.
Pituitary ; 22(3): 236-248, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30847776

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the most common causes of mortality and long-term disability and it is associated with an increased prevalence of neuroendocrine dysfunctions. Post-traumatic hypopituitarism (PTHP) results in major physical, psychological and social consequences leading to impaired quality of life. PTHP can occur at any time after traumatic event, evolving through various ways and degrees of deficit, requiring appropriate screening for early detection and treatment. Although the PTHP pathophysiology remains to be elucitated, on the basis of proposed hypotheses it seems to be the result of combined pathological processes, with a possible role played by hypothalamic-pituitary autoimmunity (HPA). This review is aimed at focusing on this possible role in the development of PTHP and its potential clinical consequences, on the basis of the data so far appeared in the literature and of some results of personal studies on this issue. METHODS: Scrutinizing the data so far appeared in literature on this topic, we have found only few studies evaluating the autoimmune pattern in affected patients, searching in particular for antipituitary and antihypothalamus autoantibodies (APA and AHA, respectively) by simple indirect immunofluorescence. RESULTS: The presence of APA and/or AHA at high titers was associated with an increased risk of onset/persistence of PTHP. CONCLUSIONS: HPA seems to contribute to TBI-induced pituitary damage and related PTHP. However, further prospective studies in a larger cohort of patients are needed to define etiopathogenic and diagnostic role of APA/AHA in development of post-traumatic hypothalamic/pituitary dysfunctions after a TBI.


Assuntos
Autoimunidade/fisiologia , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/patologia , Hipopituitarismo/patologia , Hipófise/patologia , Animais , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/imunologia , Humanos , Hipopituitarismo/imunologia , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Hipotálamo/patologia , Hipófise/imunologia
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30833929

RESUMO

Diabetes is becoming one of the most widespread health burning problems in the elderly. Worldwide prevalence of diabetes among subjects over 65 years was 123 million in 2017, a number that is expected to double in 2045. Old patients with diabetes have a higher risk of common geriatric syndromes, including frailty, cognitive impairment and dementia, urinary incontinence, traumatic falls and fractures, disability, side effects of polypharmacy, which have an important impact on quality of life and may interfere with anti-diabetic treatment. Because of all these factors, clinical management of type 2 diabetes in elderly patients currently represents a real challenge for the physician. Actually, the optimal glycemic target to achieve for elderly diabetic patients is still a matter of debate. The American Diabetes Association suggests a HbA1c goal <7.5% for older adults with intact cognitive and functional status, whereas, the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) recommends HbA1c levels of 6.5% or lower as long as it can be achieved safely, with a less stringent target (>6.5%) for patients with concurrent serious illness and at high risk of hypoglycemia. By contrast, the American College of Physicians (ACP) suggests more conservative goals (HbA1c levels between 7 and 8%) for most older patients, and a less intense pharmacotherapy, when HbA1C levels are ≤6.5%. Management of glycemic goals and antihyperglycemic treatment has to be individualized in accordance to medical history and comorbidities, giving preference to drugs that are associated with low risk of hypoglycemia. Antihyperglycemic agents considered safe and effective for type 2 diabetic older patients include: metformin (the first-line agent), pioglitazone, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists. Insulin secretagogue agents have to be used with caution because of their significant hypoglycemic risk; if used, short-acting sulfonylureas, as gliclazide, or glinides as repaglinide, should be preferred. When using complex insulin regimen in old people with diabetes, attention should be paid for the risk of hypoglycemia. In this paper we aim to review and discuss the best glycemic targets as well as the best treatment choices for older people with type 2 diabetes based on current international guidelines.

16.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 20(9): 2309-2313, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29732679

RESUMO

A meta-analysis is presented of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing free or fixed combinations of a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist plus basal insulin versus insulin intensification on metabolic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Electronic databases were searched for RCTs assessing changes in HbA1c, proportion of patients at HbA1c target of <7% (53 mmol/mol), hypoglycaemia and body weight. A random-effect model was used to calculate the weighted mean difference (WMD) or relative risk (RR) with 95% CI. Eleven RCTs were identified, lasting 24-30 weeks and involving 6176 patients. In the overall analysis, the combination therapy led to a mean HbA1c decrease significantly greater than insulin up-titration (WMD -0.53%, 95% CI, -0.66, -0.40%, P < 0.001), more patients at HbA1c target (RR 1.69, 95% CI, 1.42, 2.00, P < 0.001), similar hypoglycaemic events (RR 0.97, 95% CI, 0.84, 1.12, P = 0.114), and reduction in body weight (WMD -1.9, 95% CI -2.3, -1.4, P < 0.001), with heterogeneity (I2 > 71%, P < 0.001). Results did not differ in either the free or fixed combination subgroups. Combination strategies, either free or fixed, represent a good option for intensifying basal insulin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes who need amelioration of glycaemic control.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/agonistas , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Insulina de Ação Prolongada/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Endocr Pract ; 24(5): 419-428, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29847168

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The adherence by endocrinologists to guideline regarding levothyroxine (LT4) therapy and the compliance of patients may impact the management of hypothyroidism. The aim of this study was to compare the adherence of Italian endocrinologists to the ATA/AACE and ETA guidelines on the management of newly diagnosed primary hypothyroidism and to validate the Italian version of the Morisky-Green Medical Adherence Scale-8 (MMAS-8) questionnaire as applied to the evaluation of the adherence of patients with hypothyroidism to LT4 treatment. METHODS: This was an observational, longitudinal, multicenter, cohort study, involving 12 Italian Units of Endocrinology. RESULTS: The study enrolled 1,039 consecutive outpatients (mean age 48 years; 855 women, 184 men). The concordance of Italian endocrinologists with American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists/American Thyroid Association (AACE/ATA) and European Thyroid Association (ETA) recommendations was comparable (77.1% and 71.7%) and increased (86.7 and 88.6%) after the recommendations on LT4 dose were excluded, considering only the remaining recommendations on diagnosis, therapy, and follow-up. The MMAS-8 was filled out by 293 patients. The mean score was 6.71 with 23.9% low (score <6), 38.6% medium (6 to <8), 37.5% highly (= 8) adherers; the internal validation coefficient was 0.613. Highly adherent patients were not more likely to have good control of hypothyroidism compared with either medium (69% versus 72%, P = .878) or low (69% versus 43%, P = .861) adherers. CONCLUSION: Clinical management of hypothyroidism in Italy demonstrated an observance of international guidelines by Italian endocrinologists. Validation of the Italian version of the MMAS-8 questionnaire provides clinicians with a reliable and simple tool for assessing the adherence of patients to LT4 treatment. ABBREVIATIONS: AACE = American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists; ATA = American Thyroid Association; EDIPO = Endotrial SIE: DIagnosis and clinical management of Primitive hypothyrOidism in Italy; eCRF = electronic case report form; ETA = European Thyroid Association; fT3 = free triiodothyronine; fT4 = free thyroxine; LT4 = levothyroxine; MMAS-8 = Morisky-Green Medical Adherence Scale-8; PH = primary hypothyroidism; T3 = triiodothyronine; T4 = thyroxine; TSH = thyroid-stimulating hormone; US = ultrasonography.


Assuntos
Endocrinologistas/normas , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Hipotireoidismo/tratamento farmacológico , Padrões de Prática Médica/normas , Tiroxina/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto
18.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 143: 389-397, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29807099

RESUMO

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cancer share many modifiable risk factors including age, genetic factors, obesity, physical inactivity, unhealthy diet, alcohol, smoking, endocrine disruptors exposure, circadian clock disturbances, and air pollution. MetS is closely linked to cancer, as it increases cancer risk and cancer-related mortality; moreover, cancer survivors have an increased risk of MetS. Elucidating the mechanisms linking MetS to cancer is important to prevent or delay these two conditions. Possible mechanisms explaining the relationship between MetS and cancer include hyperinsulinemia and alterations of insulin-like growth factor system, chronic subclinical inflammation, abnormalities in sex hormones metabolism and adipokines, hyperglicemia, alterations in both gene expression and hormonal profile by endocrine disruptors and air pollution, desynchronization of circadian clock. The common soil hypothesis claims that MetS may be considered a surrogate marker for dietary risk factors of cancer, and a warning sign for susceptible individuals exposed to an unhealthy diet. The common soil hypothesis and the clepsydra of foods represent a theoretical substrate to preventive intervention strategies against the pandemics of MetS and cancer: adherence to healthy dietary patterns is associated with a reduced risk of MetS, and improvement of the quality of diet is consistently associated with a reduction in cancer-related mortality.


Assuntos
Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Humanos
19.
Endocrine ; 61(3): 383-387, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29556949

RESUMO

In the past decades, dietary guidelines focused on reducing saturated fat as the primary strategy for cardiovascular disease prevention, neglecting the many other potential effects of diet on health, in particular the harmful effects of sugar. A greater intake of soft drinks (sugar-sweetened beverages), for example, is associated with a 44% increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome, a higher risk of obesity, and a 26% increased risk of developing diabetes mellitus. Carbohydrates comprise around 55% of the typical western diet, ranging from 200 to 350 g/day in relation to a person's overall caloric intake. For long-term weight gain, food rich in refined grains, starches, and sugar appear to be major culprits. Low-carbohydrate diets restrict daily carbohydrates between 20 and 50 g, as in clinical ketogenic diets. The results of controlled trials show that people on ketogenic diets (a diet with no more than 50 g carbohydrates/day) tend to lose more weight than people on low-fat diets. Moreover, there is no good evidence for recommending low-fat diets, as low-carbohydrate diets lead to significantly greater weight loss (1.15 kg) than did low-fat interventions. However, the magnitude of such a benefit is small. As the quality of ingested carbohydrates seems more important than the quantity for health outcomes, people with metabolic disorders should avoid or substantially reduce low-fiber, rapidly digested, refined grains, starches, and added sugars. So, the consumption of the right carbohydrates (high-fiber, slowly digested, and whole grains), in a moderately lower amount (between 40 and 50% of daily energy content), is compatible with a state of good health and may represent a scientifically-based and palatable choice for people with metabolic disorders.


Assuntos
Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos , Carboidratos da Dieta , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Perda de Peso , Gorduras na Dieta , Ingestão de Energia , Humanos , Política Nutricional
20.
Endocrine ; 61(2): 240-247, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29455365

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To describe gender differences concerning glycemic control, cardiovascular risk factors, diabetic complications, concomitant pathologies, and circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), in a population of young adults with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: We collected data from 300 consecutively patients (168 males and 132 females), aged 18-30 years, among those admitted at Diabetes Unit of University of Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli" (Naples, Italy) from March 2012 to January 2017. Circulating levels of seven EPCs phenotypes were determined by flow cytometry. RESULTS: As compared to men, women with type 1 diabetes had a significantly higher HbA1c levels (%, 8.4 ± 1.3 vs. 8.1 ± 1.3, P = 0.020), body mass index (Kg/m2, 24.8 ± 4.2 vs. 23.9 ± 3.9, P = 0.034), HDL-cholesterol (mg/dL, 61.7 ± 13.7 vs. 54.7 ± 13.9, P < 0.001), and a lower count of both CD133+KDR+ and CD34+KDR+CD133+ EPCs (P = 0.022, P < 0.001, respectively). A higher proportion of women had overweight/obesity, and thyroiditis; smoking and sexual dysfunctions were more prevalent in men than in women. CONCLUSIONS: Young adults with type 1 diabetes present gender differences with regard to glycemic control, prevalence of some cardiovascular risk factors, sexual dysfunctions and circulating levels of EPCs, most often to the detriment of women.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/patologia , Angiopatias Diabéticas/sangue , Angiopatias Diabéticas/epidemiologia , Angiopatias Diabéticas/patologia , Células Progenitoras Endoteliais/patologia , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
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