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1.
Chemosphere ; 239: 124678, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494323

RESUMO

In the developing countries such as China, most well-developed areas have suffered severe haze pollution, which was associated with increased premature morbidity and mortality and attracted widespread public concerns. Since ground-based PM2.5 monitoring has limited temporal and spatial coverage, satellite aerosol remote sensing data has been increasingly applied to map large-scale PM2.5 characteristics through advanced spatial statistical models. Although most existing research has taken advantage of the polar orbiting satellite instruments, a major limitation of the polar orbiting platform is its limited sampling frequency (e.g., 1-2 times/day), which is insufficient for capturing the PM2.5 variability during short but intense heavy haze episodes. As the first attempt, we quantitatively investigated the feasibility of using the aerosol optical depth (AOD) data retrieved by the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) to estimate hourly PM2.5 concentrations during winter haze episodes in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD). We developed a three-stage spatial statistical model, using GOCI AOD and fine mode fraction, as well as corresponding monitoring PM2.5 concentrations, meteorological and land use data on a 6-km modeling grid with complete coverage in time and space. The 10-fold cross-validation R2 was 0.72 with a regression slope of 1.01 between observed and predicted hourly PM2.5 concentrations. After gap filling, the R2 value for the three-stage model was 0.68. We further analyzed two representative large regional episodes, i.e., a "multi-process diffusion episode" during December 21-26, 2015 and a "Chinese New Year episode" during February 7-8, 2016. We concluded that AOD retrieved by geostationary satellites could serve as a new valuable data source for analyzing the heavy air pollution episodes.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Material Particulado/análise , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto/métodos , Aerossóis/análise , China , Meteorologia , Modelos Estatísticos , Rios , Estações do Ano , Astronave
2.
Remote Sens Environ ; 221: 665-674, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31359889

RESUMO

Satellite aerosol optical depth (AOD) has been widely employed to evaluate ground fine particle (PM2.5) levels, whereas snow/cloud covers often lead to a large proportion of non-random missing AOD values. As a result, the fully covered and unbiased PM2.5 estimates will be hard to generate. Among the current approaches to deal with the data gap issue, few have considered the cloud-AOD relationship and none of them have considered the snow-AOD relationship. This study examined the impacts of snow and cloud covers on AOD and PM2.5 and made full- coverage PM2.5 predictions by considering these impacts. To estimate missing AOD values, daily gap-filling models with snow/cloud fractions and meteorological covariates were developed using the random forest algorithm. By using these models in New York State, a daily AOD data set with a 1-km resolution was generated with a complete coverage. The "out-of-bag" R2 of the gap-filling models averaged 0.93 with an interquartile range from 0.90 to 0.95. Subsequently, a random forest-based PM2.5 prediction model with the gap-filled AOD and covariates was built to predict fully covered PM2.5 estimates. A ten-fold cross-validation for the prediction model showed a good performance with an R2 of 0.82. In the gap-filling models, the snow fraction was of higher significance to the snow season compared with the rest of the year. The prediction models fitted with/without the snow fraction also suggested the discernible changes in PM2.5 patterns, further confirming the significance of this parameter. Compared with the methods without considering snow and cloud covers, our PM2.5 prediction surfaces showed more spatial details and reflected small-scale terrain-driven PM2.5 patterns. The proposed methods can be generalized to the areas with extensive snow/cloud covers and large proportions of missing satellite AOD data for predicting PM2.5 levels with high resolutions and complete coverage.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30217060

RESUMO

There has been growing interest in extending the coverage of ground particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 µm (PM2.5) monitoring networks based on satellite remote sensing data. With broad spatial and temporal coverage, a satellite-based monitoring network has a strong potential to complement the ground monitor system in terms of the spatiotemporal availability of the air quality data. However, most existing calibration models focus on a relatively small spatial domain and cannot be generalized to a national study. In this paper, we proposed a statistically reliable and interpretable national modeling framework based on Bayesian downscaling methods to be applied to the calibration of the daily ground PM2.5 concentrations across the conterminous United States using satellite-retrieved aerosol optical depth (AOD) and other ancillary predictors in 2011. Our approach flexibly models the PM2.5 versus AOD and the potential related geographical factors varying across the climate regions and yields spatial- and temporal-specific parameters to enhance model interpretability. Moreover, our model accurately predicted the national PM2.5 with an R² at 70% and generated reliable annual and seasonal PM2.5 concentration maps with its SD. Overall, this modeling framework can be applied to national-scale PM2.5 exposure assessments and can also quantify the prediction errors.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Modelos Teóricos , Material Particulado/análise , Aerossóis , Teorema de Bayes , Calibragem , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Geografia , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto , Estados Unidos
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29057838

RESUMO

Satellite-retrieved aerosol optical properties have been extensively used to estimate ground-level fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations in support of air pollution health effects research and air quality assessment at the urban to global scales. However, a large proportion, ~70%, of satellite observations of aerosols are missing as a result of cloud-cover, surface brightness, and snow-cover. The resulting PM2.5 estimates could therefore be biased due to this non-random data missingness. Cloud-cover in particular has the potential to impact ground-level PM2.5 concentrations through complex chemical and physical processes. We developed a series of statistical models using the Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) aerosol product at 1 km resolution with information from the MODIS cloud product and meteorological information to investigate the extent to which cloud parameters and associated meteorological conditions impact ground-level aerosols at two urban sites in the US: Atlanta and San Francisco. We find that changes in temperature, wind speed, relative humidity, planetary boundary layer height, convective available potential energy, precipitation, cloud effective radius, cloud optical depth, and cloud emissivity are associated with changes in PM2.5 concentration and composition, and the changes differ by overpass time and cloud phase as well as between the San Francisco and Atlanta sites. A case-study at the San Francisco site confirmed that accounting for cloud-cover and associated meteorological conditions could substantially alter the spatial distribution of monthly ground-level PM2.5 concentrations.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Conceitos Meteorológicos , Material Particulado/análise , Aerossóis , Poluição do Ar/análise , California , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Georgia , Modelos Estatísticos , Comunicações Via Satélite
5.
Environ Sci Technol ; 51(12): 6936-6944, 2017 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28534414

RESUMO

To estimate PM2.5 concentrations, many parametric regression models have been developed, while nonparametric machine learning algorithms are used less often and national-scale models are rare. In this paper, we develop a random forest model incorporating aerosol optical depth (AOD) data, meteorological fields, and land use variables to estimate daily 24 h averaged ground-level PM2.5 concentrations over the conterminous United States in 2011. Random forests are an ensemble learning method that provides predictions with high accuracy and interpretability. Our results achieve an overall cross-validation (CV) R2 value of 0.80. Mean prediction error (MPE) and root mean squared prediction error (RMSPE) for daily predictions are 1.78 and 2.83 µg/m3, respectively, indicating a good agreement between CV predictions and observations. The prediction accuracy of our model is similar to those reported in previous studies using neural networks or regression models on both national and regional scales. In addition, the incorporation of convolutional layers for land use terms and nearby PM2.5 measurements increase CV R2 by ∼0.02 and ∼0.06, respectively, indicating their significant contributions to prediction accuracy. A pair of different variable importance measures both indicate that the convolutional layer for nearby PM2.5 measurements and AOD values are among the most-important predictor variables for the training process.


Assuntos
Aerossóis , Algoritmos , Material Particulado , Estados Unidos
6.
J Air Waste Manag Assoc ; 67(1): 3-16, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27027572

RESUMO

Relative to the rest of the United States, the region of southwestern Pennsylvania, including metropolitan Pittsburgh, experiences high ambient concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), which is known to be associated with adverse respiratory and cardiovascular health impacts. This study evaluates whether the closing of three coal-fired power plants within the southwestern Pennsylvania region resulted in a significant decrease in PM2.5 concentration. Both PM2.5 data obtained from EPA ground stations in the study region and aerosol optical depth (AOD) data retrieved from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments onboard the Terra and Aqua satellites were used to investigate regional air quality from January 2011 through December 2014. The impact of the plant closings on PM2.5 concentration and AOD was evaluated using a series of generalized additive models. The model results show that monthly fuel consumption of the Elrama plant, which closed in October of 2012, and monthly fuel consumption of both the Mitchell and Hatfield's Ferry plants, which closed in October of 2013, were significant predictors of both PM2.5 concentration and AOD at EPA ground stations in the study region, after controlling for multiple meteorological factors and long-term, region-wide air quality improvements. The model's power to predict PM2.5 concentration increased from an adjusted R2 of 0.61 to 0.68 after excluding data from ground stations with higher uncertainty due to recent increases in unconventional natural gas extraction activities. After preliminary analyses of mean PM2.5 concentration and AOD showed a downward trend following each power plant shutdown, results from a series of generalized additive models confirmed that the activity of the three plants that closed, measured by monthly fuel consumption, was highly significant in predicting both AOD and PM2.5 at 12 EPA ground stations; further research on PM2.5 emissions from unconventional natural gas extraction is needed. IMPLICATIONS: With many coal-fired power plants scheduled to close across the United States in the coming years, there is interest in the potential impact on regional PM2.5 concentrations. In southwestern Pennsylvania, recent coal-fired power plant closings were coupled with a boom in unconventional natural gas extraction. Natural gas is currently seen as an economically viable bridge fuel between coal and renewable energy. This study provides policymakers with more information on the potential ambient concentration changes associated with coal-fired power plant closings as the nation's energy reliance shifts toward natural gas.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/química , Poluição do Ar/análise , Carvão Mineral/análise , Material Particulado/química , Centrais Elétricas , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Gás Natural/análise , Pennsylvania
7.
Nat Clim Chang ; 4: 1109-1115, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25530812

RESUMO

Despite China's rapid progress improving water, sanitation and hygiene (WSH) access, in 2011, 471 million people lacked access to improved sanitation and 401 million to household piped water. Because certain infectious diseases are sensitive to changes in both climate and WSH conditions, we projected impacts of climate change on WSH-attributable diseases in China in 2020 and 2030 by coupling estimates of the temperature sensitivity of diarrheal diseases and three vector-borne diseases, temperature projections from global climate models, WSH-infrastructure development scenarios, and projected demographic changes. By 2030, climate change is projected to delay China's rapid progress toward reducing WSH-attributable infectious disease burden by 8-85 months. This development delay summarizes the adverse impact of climate change on WSH-attributable infectious diseases in China, and can be used in other settings where a significant health burden may accompany future changes in climate even as the total burden of disease falls due to non-climate reasons.

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