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1.
Crit Care Med ; 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31609774

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Previous trials suggest that vasopressin may improve outcomes in patients with vasodilatory shock. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether vasopressin could be superior to norepinephrine to improve outcomes in cancer patients with septic shock. DESIGN: Single-center, randomized, double-blind clinical trial, and meta-analysis of randomized trials. SETTING: ICU of a tertiary care hospital. PATIENTS: Two-hundred fifty patients 18 years old or older with cancer and septic shock. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were assigned to either vasopressin or norepinephrine as first-line vasopressor therapy. An updated meta-analysis was also conducted including randomized trials published until October 2018. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The primary outcome was all-cause mortality at 28 days after randomization. Prespecified secondary outcomes included 90-days all-cause mortality rate; number of days alive and free of advanced organ support at day 28; and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score 24 hours and 96 hours after randomization. We also measure the prevalence of adverse effects in 28 days. A total of 250 patients were randomized. The primary outcome was observed in 71 patients (56.8%) in the vasopressin group and 66 patients (52.8%) in the norepinephrine group (p = 0.52). There were no significant differences in 90-day mortality (90 patients [72.0%] and 94 patients [75.2%], respectively; p = 0.56), number of days alive and free of advanced organ support, adverse events, or Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score. CONCLUSIONS: In cancer patients with septic shock, vasopressin as first-line vasopressor therapy was not superior to norepinephrine in reducing 28-day mortality rate.

2.
Minerva Cardioangiol ; 2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31625706

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Several high quality randomized controlled studies were recently published on non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants (NOACs) in patients with or at risk for coronary artery (CAD) or peripheral artery disease (PAD). While a reduction on cardiovascular event is known and an increase in moderate bleeding is expected, the effect of this strategy on survival is currently unknown. Accordingly, we performed a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to investigate the effect of NOAC on survival. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: We searched Pubmed, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register, and Clinicaltrials.gov (last updated March 31th 2019). The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality at the longest reported follow-up. Co-primary endpoint was major bleeding according to the International Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis (ISTH) criterion. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: We included ten randomized controlled trials comparing NOACs versus control treatment (placebo, single platelet or dual antiplatelet therapy) enrolling 66665 patients with or at risk for CAD or PAD. NOACs were associated with a decreased risk of mortality (825/41655 {4.4%} versus 405/25010 {5.6%} RR 0.93 {95% CI 0.87-1.00}, p=0.04), and an increased risk for major bleeding (RR 1.62 {95% CI 1.23-2.13}, p=0.0005) when compared to control. Findings were robust to trial sequential, subgroup, and sensitivity analyses. Low doses NOACs were associated with a reduced mortality when compared to standard dose NOACs. CONCLUSIONSː NOACs reduced all-cause mortality in patients with or at risk for CAD or PAD, even though they increased the risk of major bleeding. Future studies regarding the best doses of NOACs are warranted.

3.
Ann Card Anaesth ; 22(4): 400-406, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621676

RESUMO

Background: Percutaneous left atrial appendage occlusion (LAAO) is indicated in subjects with atrial fibrillation who cannot receive oral anticoagulants. This procedure requires transesophageal echocardiography guidance and is usually performed under general anesthesia. The Janus Mask is a new device designed to allow upper endoscopic procedures during noninvasive ventilation (NIV). Aims: This study aims to assess the possibility of performing LAAO under sedation and NIV. Setting: Cardiac electrophysiology laboratory. Design: Case-control study. Materials and Methods: Data from 11 subjects undergoing LAAO under sedation and NIV with the Janus Mask were retrospectively collected. Procedure duration, outcomes, and physicians' satisfaction were compared with those of 11 subjects who underwent LAAO under general anesthesia in the same period. Statistical Analysis: Univariate analysis and analysis of variance for between-groups comparison. Results: The 11 subjects treated with sedation experienced a good outcome, with a high degree of satisfaction from the medical team. An increase in arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the Janus group (45 [43-62] mmHg vs. 33 [30-35] mmHg in the general anesthesia group, P < 0.001) led to a transient pH decrease 45 min after the beginning of the procedure (7.30 [7.18-7.36] vs. 7.40 [7.39-7.46], P = 0.014). No differences in arterial partial pressure of oxygen, FiO2, and hemodynamic parameters were observed. The subjects' conditions at discharge from the recovery room were comparable. No difference in procedure duration was registered. Conclusions: LAAO procedure under sedation and NIV through the Janus Mask is safe and feasible. This strategy might represent a valuable alternative to manage such a compromised and fragile population.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350149

RESUMO

The search for safe and effective patient management strategies during weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass is ongoing; intravenous calcium is occasionally used as a first-line drug. The physiologic role of calcium suggests that it can support the function of the cardiovascular system during this critical period. Patients may be mildly hypocalcemic after cardiopulmonary bypass; however, this degree of hypocalcemia does not significantly impair the cardiovascular system. The transient beneficial effects of calcium administration (increase in arterial blood pressure, systemic vascular resistance, cardiac index, stroke volume, and coronary perfusion pressure) might be helpful in cases of moderate contractility reduction or vasoplegia. Nonetheless, effects on clinically relevant endpoints are unknown, and possible systemic side effects, such as transient reduction in internal mammary artery graft flow, attenuation of the effects of ß-sympathomimetics, "stone heart" phenomenon, and pancreatic cellular injury, may limit the use of calcium salts. Further studies are needed to expand the understanding of the effects of calcium administration on patient outcomes.

5.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 33(10): 2685-2694, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31064730

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Reducing mortality is a key target in critical care and perioperative medicine. The authors aimed to identify all nonsurgical interventions (drugs, techniques, strategies) shown by randomized trials to increase mortality in these clinical settings. DESIGN: A systematic review of the literature followed by a consensus-based voting process. SETTING: A web-based international consensus conference. PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred fifty-one physicians from 46 countries. INTERVENTIONS: The authors performed a systematic literature search and identified all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) showing a significant increase in unadjusted landmark mortality among surgical or critically ill patients. The authors reviewed such studies during a meeting by a core group of experts. Studies selected after such review advanced to web-based voting by clinicians in relation to agreement, clinical practice, and willingness to include each intervention in international guidelines. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The authors selected 12 RCTs dealing with 12 interventions increasing mortality: diaspirin-crosslinked hemoglobin (92% of agreement among web voters), overfeeding, nitric oxide synthase inhibitor in septic shock, human growth hormone, thyroxin in acute kidney injury, intravenous salbutamol in acute respiratory distress syndrome, plasma-derived protein C concentrate, aprotinin in high-risk cardiac surgery, cysteine prodrug, hypothermia in meningitis, methylprednisolone in traumatic brain injury, and albumin in traumatic brain injury (72% of agreement). Overall, a high consistency (ranging from 80% to 90%) between agreement and clinical practice was observed. CONCLUSION: The authors identified 12 clinical interventions showing increased mortality supported by randomized controlled trials with nonconflicting evidence, and wide agreement upon clinicians on a global scale.

6.
N Engl J Med ; 380(13): 1214-1225, 2019 03 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30888743

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Volatile (inhaled) anesthetic agents have cardioprotective effects, which might improve clinical outcomes in patients undergoing coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG). METHODS: We conducted a pragmatic, multicenter, single-blind, controlled trial at 36 centers in 13 countries. Patients scheduled to undergo elective CABG were randomly assigned to an intraoperative anesthetic regimen that included a volatile anesthetic (desflurane, isoflurane, or sevoflurane) or to total intravenous anesthesia. The primary outcome was death from any cause at 1 year. RESULTS: A total of 5400 patients were randomly assigned: 2709 to the volatile anesthetics group and 2691 to the total intravenous anesthesia group. On-pump CABG was performed in 64% of patients, with a mean duration of cardiopulmonary bypass of 79 minutes. The two groups were similar with respect to demographic and clinical characteristics at baseline, the duration of cardiopulmonary bypass, and the number of grafts. At the time of the second interim analysis, the data and safety monitoring board advised that the trial should be stopped for futility. No significant difference between the groups with respect to deaths from any cause was seen at 1 year (2.8% in the volatile anesthetics group and 3.0% in the total intravenous anesthesia group; relative risk, 0.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.69 to 1.29; P = 0.71), with data available for 5353 patients (99.1%), or at 30 days (1.4% and 1.3%, respectively; relative risk, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.70 to 1.76), with data available for 5398 patients (99.9%). There were no significant differences between the groups in any of the secondary outcomes or in the incidence of prespecified adverse events, including myocardial infarction. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients undergoing elective CABG, anesthesia with a volatile agent did not result in significantly fewer deaths at 1 year than total intravenous anesthesia. (Funded by the Italian Ministry of Health; MYRIAD ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02105610.).


Assuntos
Anestesia Intravenosa , Anestésicos Gerais/farmacologia , Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Administração por Inalação , Idoso , Anestesia Geral , Anestésicos Intravenosos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Método Simples-Cego , Volume Sistólico
7.
N. Engl. j. med. ; 380(13): 1214-1225, Mar. 2019. gráfico, tabela
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1024163

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Volatile (inhaled) anesthetic agents have cardioprotective effects, which might improve clinical outcomes in patients undergoing coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG). METHODS: We conducted a pragmatic, multicenter, single-blind, controlled trial at 36 centers in 13 countries. Patients scheduled to undergo elective CABG were randomly assigned to an intraoperative anesthetic regimen that included a volatile anesthetic (desflurane, isoflurane, or sevoflurane) or to total intravenous anesthesia. The primary outcome was death from any cause at 1 year. RESULTS: A total of 5400 patients were randomly assigned: 2709 to the volatile anesthetics group and 2691 to the total intravenous anesthesia group. On-pump CABG was performed in 64% of patients, with a mean duration of cardiopulmonary bypass of 79 minutes. The two groups were similar with respect to demographic and clinical characteristics at baseline, the duration of cardiopulmonary bypass, and the number of grafts. At the time of the second interim analysis, the data and safety monitoring board advised that the trial should be stopped for futility. No significant difference between the groups with respect to deaths from any cause was seen at 1 year (2.8% in the volatile anesthetics group and 3.0% in the total intravenous anesthesia group; relative risk, 0.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.69 to 1.29; P = 0.71), with data available for 5353 patients (99.1%), or at 30 days (1.4% and 1.3%, respectively; relative risk, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.70 to 1.76), with data available for 5398 patients (99.9%). There were no significant differences between the groups in any of the secondary outcomes or in the incidence of prespecified adverse events, including myocardial infarction. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients undergoing elective CABG, anesthesia with a volatile agent did not result in significantly fewer deaths at 1 year than total intravenous anesthesia. (Funded by the Italian Ministry of Health; MYRIAD ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02105610.). (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Anestésicos Inalatórios , Anestesia Geral , Anestesia Intravenosa
8.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 78: 126-132, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30739002

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Few randomized trials have evaluated the use of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) for early acute respiratory failure (ARF) in non-intensive care unit (ICU) wards. The aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that early NIV for mild-moderate ARF in non-ICU wards can prevent development of severe ARF. DESIGN: Pragmatic, parallel group, randomized, controlled, multicenter trial. SETTING: Non-intensive care wards of tertiary centers. PATIENTS: Non-ICU ward patients with mild to moderate ARF without an established indication for NIV. INTERVENTIONS: Patients will be randomized to receive or not receive NIV in addition to best available care. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We will enroll 520 patients, 260 in each group. The primary endpoint of the study will be the development of severe ARF. Secondary endpoints will be 28-day mortality, length of hospital stay, safety of NIV in non-ICU environments, and a composite endpoint of all in-hospital respiratory complications. CONCLUSIONS: This trial will help determine whether the early use of NIV in non-ICU wards can prevent progression from mild-moderate ARF to severe ARF.

9.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 33(5): 1430-1439, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30600204

RESUMO

The authors aimed to identify interventions documented by randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that reduce mortality in adult critically ill and perioperative patients, followed by a survey of clinicians' opinions and routine practices to understand the clinicians' response to such evidence. The authors performed a comprehensive literature review to identify all topics reported to reduce mortality in perioperative and critical care settings according to at least 2 RCTs or to a multicenter RCT or to a single-center RCT plus guidelines. The authors generated position statements that were voted on online by physicians worldwide for agreement, use, and willingness to include in international guidelines. From 262 RCT manuscripts reporting mortality differences in the perioperative and critically ill settings, the authors selected 27 drugs, techniques, and strategies (66 RCTs, most frequently published by the New England Journal of Medicine [13 papers], Lancet [7], and Journal of the American Medical Association [5]) with an agreement ≥67% from over 250 physicians (46 countries). Noninvasive ventilation was the intervention supported by the largest number of RCTs (n = 13). The concordance between agreement and use (a positive answer both to "do you agree" and "do you use") showed differences between Western and other countries and between anesthesiologists and intensive care unit physicians. The authors identified 27 clinical interventions with randomized evidence of survival benefit and strong clinician support in support of their potential life-saving properties in perioperative and critically ill patients with noninvasive ventilation having the highest level of support. However, clinician views appear affected by specialty and geographical location.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Estado Terminal/mortalidade , Internet , Médicos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Cuidados Críticos/tendências , Estado Terminal/terapia , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/tendências , Internet/tendências , Mortalidade/tendências , Médicos/tendências
10.
Ann Intensive Care ; 8(1): 95, 2018 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30264290

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effects of perioperative statin therapy on clinical outcome after cardiac or non-cardiac surgery are controversial. We aimed to assess the association between perioperative statin therapy and postoperative outcome. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched up to May 1, 2018, for randomized controlled trials of perioperative statin therapy versus placebo or no treatment in adult cardiac or non-cardiac surgery. Postoperative outcomes were: myocardial infarction, stroke, acute kidney injury (AKI), and mortality. We calculated risk ratio (RR) or odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) using fixed-effects meta-analyses. We performed meta-regression and subgroup analyses to assess the possible influence of statin therapy regimen on clinical outcomes and trial sequential analysis to evaluate the risk of random errors and futility. RESULTS: We included data from 35 RCTs involving 8200 patients. Perioperative statin therapy was associated with lower incidence of postoperative myocardial infarction in non-cardiac surgery (OR = 0.44 [95% CI 0.30-0.64], p < 0.0001), but not in cardiac surgery (OR = 0.93 [95% CI 0.70-1.24], p = 0.61) (psubgroup = 0.002). Higher incidence of AKI was present in cardiac surgery patients receiving perioperative statins (RR = 1.15 [95% CI 1.00-1.31], p = 0.05), nonetheless not in non-cardiac surgery (RR = 1.52 [95% CI 0.71-3.26], p = 0.28) (psubgroup = 0.47). No difference in postoperative stroke and mortality was present in either cardiac or non-cardiac surgery. However, low risk of bias trials performed in cardiac surgery showed a higher mortality with statins versus placebo (OR = 3.71 [95% CI 1.03-13.34], p = 0.04). Subgroup and meta-regression analyses failed to find possible relationships between length of statin regimens and clinical outcomes. Trial sequential analysis suggested no firm conclusions on the topic. CONCLUSIONS: Perioperative statins appear to be protective against postoperative myocardial infarction in non-cardiac surgery and associated with higher AKI in cardiac surgery. Possible positive or even negative effects on mortality could not be excluded and merits further investigations. Currently, no randomized evidence supports the systematic administration of statins in surgical patients.

11.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 32(4): 1955-1970, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29709436

RESUMO

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is used with increasing frequency to treat severe cardiac or respiratory failure as it can provide respiratory only or combined circulatory and respiratory support. Despite efforts aimed at increasing its diffusion however, ECMO is currently reserved, usually as last resort, in very severe cases, which are managed almost exclusively in the intensive care unit (ICU). Recent improvements in both technology and patients' management is leading to constant improvement in patients' outcome, especially in centers with a high caseload volume and after ensuring careful patients' selection. Moreover, since short ECMO runs are associated with limited complications, there are now several potential situations outside the ICU and outside the cardiac surgery setting where ECMO is being (or could be) successfully employed to provide cardio-respiratory support, including: high-risk structural heart interventions, ventricular tachycardia ablation, cesarean section, trauma, and, most interestingly, non-cardiac elective procedures in patients at high risk for perioperative cardiac or respiratory complications. Given the increased availability and the good outcomes of ECMO, when carefully employed, we are thus moving towards a future in which no patient should be denied diagnostic or therapeutic procedure exclusively due to high cardiorespiratory risk.

12.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 18(1): 49, 2018 05 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29743022

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients undergoing abdominal surgery for solid tumours frequently develop major postoperative complications, which negatively affect quality of life, costs of care and survival. Few studies have identified the determinants of perioperative complications in this group. METHODS: We performed a prospective observational study including all patients (age > 18) undergoing abdominal surgery for cancer at a single institution between June 2011 and August 2013. Patients undergoing emergency surgery, palliative procedures, or participating in other studies were excluded. Primary outcome was a composite of 30-day all-cause mortality and infectious, cardiovascular, respiratory, neurologic, renal and surgical complications. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to identify predictive factors for major perioperative adverse events. RESULTS: Of a total 308 included patients, 106 (34.4%) developed a major complication during the 30-day follow-up period. Independent predictors of postoperative major complications were: age (odds ratio [OR] 1.03 [95% CI 1.01-1.06], p = 0.012 per year), ASA (American Society of Anesthesiologists) physical status greater than or equal to 3 (OR 2.61 [95% CI 1.33-5.17], p = 0.003), a preoperative haemoglobin level lower than 12 g/dL (OR 2.13 [95% CI 1.21-4.07], p = 0.014), intraoperative use of colloids (OR 1.89, [95% CI 1.03-4.07], p = 0.047), total amount of intravenous fluids (OR 1.22 [95% CI 0.98-1.59], p = 0.106 per litre), intraoperative blood losses greater than 500 mL (2.07 [95% CI 1.00-4.31], p = 0.043), and hypotension needing vasopressor support (OR 4.68 [95% CI 1.55-27.72], p = 0.004). The model had good discrimination with the area under the ROC curve being 0.80 (95% CI 0.75-0.84, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that a perioperative strategy aimed at reducing perioperative complications in cancer surgery should include treatment of preoperative anaemia and an optimal fluid strategy, avoiding fluid overload and intraoperative use of colloids.

13.
PLoS One ; 13(4): e0196088, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29689116

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Furosemide is the most common loop diuretic used worldwide. The off-label administration of furosemide bolus(es) for the prevention or to reverse acute kidney injury (AKI) is widespread but not supported by available evidence. We conducted a meta-analysis of randomized trials (RCTs) to investigate whether bolus furosemide to prevent or treat AKI is detrimental on patients' survival. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched through October 2017 for RCTs comparing bolus furosemide administration versus any comparator in patients with or at risk for AKI. The primary endpoint was all-cause longest follow-up mortality. Secondary endpoints included new or worsening AKI, receipt of renal replacement therapy, length of hospital stay, and peak serum creatinine after randomization. RESULTS: A total of 28 studies randomizing 3,228 patients were included in the analysis. We found no difference in mortality between the two groups (143/892 [16%] in the furosemide group versus 141/881 [16%] in the control group; odds ratio [OR], 0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.63 to 1.13; p = 0.25). No significant differences in secondary outcomes were found. A significant improvement in survival was found in the subgroup of patients receiving furosemide bolus(es) as a preventive measure (43/613 [7.0%] versus 67/619 [10.8%], OR 0.62; 95% CI, 0.41 to 0.94; p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Intermittent furosemide administration is not associated with an increased mortality in patients with or at risk for AKI, although it may reduce mortality when used as a preventive measure. Future high-quality RCTs are needed to define the role of loop diuretics in AKI prevention and management. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study protocol was registered on PROSPERO database for systematic reviews (Registration no. CRD42017078607 - http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/display_record.php?ID=CRD42017078607).


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Lesão Renal Aguda/prevenção & controle , Diuréticos/administração & dosagem , Furosemida/administração & dosagem , Lesão Renal Aguda/sangue , Creatinina/sangue , Diuréticos/uso terapêutico , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Furosemida/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Terapia de Substituição Renal , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Crit Care Med ; 46(5): e443-e451, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29652719

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Several randomized controlled trials have compared adrenaline (epinephrine) with alternative therapies in patients with cardiac arrest with conflicting results. Recent observational studies suggest that adrenaline might increase return of spontaneous circulation but worsen neurologic outcome. We systematically compared all the vasopressors tested in randomized controlled trials in adult cardiac arrest patients in order to identify the treatment associated with the highest rate of return of spontaneous circulation, survival, and good neurologic outcome. DESIGN: Network meta-analysis. PATIENTS: Adult patients undergoing cardiopulmonary resuscitation. INTERVENTIONS: PubMed, Embase, BioMed Central, and the Cochrane Central register were searched (up to April 1, 2017). We included all the randomized controlled trials comparing a vasopressor with any other therapy. A network meta-analysis with a frequentist approach was performed to identify the treatment associated with the highest likelihood of survival. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Twenty-eight studies randomizing 14,848 patients in 12 treatment groups were included. Only a combined treatment with adrenaline, vasopressin, and methylprednisolone was associated with increased likelihood of return of spontaneous circulation and survival with a good neurologic outcome compared with several other comparators, including adrenaline. Adrenaline alone was not associated with any significant difference in mortality and good neurologic outcome compared with any other comparator. CONCLUSIONS: In randomized controlled trials assessing vasopressors in adults with cardiac arrest, only a combination of adrenaline, vasopressin, and methylprednisolone was associated with improved survival with a good neurologic outcome compared with any other drug or placebo, particularly in in-hospital cardiac arrest. There was no significant randomized evidence to support neither discourage the use of adrenaline during cardiac arrest.

16.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 32(5): 2152-2159, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29580796

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Acute kidney injury (AKI) occurs frequently after cardiac surgery. Levosimendan might reduce the incidence of AKI in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. The authors investigated whether levosimendan administration could reduce AKI incidence in a high-risk cardiac surgical population. DESIGN: Post hoc analysis of a multicenter randomized trial. SETTING: Cardiac surgery operating rooms and intensive care units of 14 centers in 3 countries. PARTICIPANTS: The study comprised 90 patients who underwent mitral valve surgery with an estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and perioperative myocardial dysfunction. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were assigned randomly to receive levosimendan (0.025-0.2 µg/kg/min) or placebo in addition to standard inotropic treatment. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Forty-six patients were assigned to receive levosimendan and 44 to receive placebo. Postoperative AKI occurred in 14 (30%) patients in the levosimendan group versus 23 (52%) in the placebo group (absolute difference -21.8; 95% confidence interval -41.7 to -1.97; p = 0.035). The incidence of major complications also was lower (18 [39%]) in the levosimendan group versus that in the placebo group (29 [66%]) (absolute difference -26.8 [-46.7 to -6.90]; p = 0.011). A trend toward lower serum creatinine at intensive care unit discharge was observed in the levosimendan group (1.18 [0.99-1.49] mg/dL) versus that in the placebo group (1.39 [1.05-1.76] mg/dL) (95% confidence interval -0.23 [-0.49 to 0.01]; p = 0.07). CONCLUSIONS: Levosimendan may improve renal outcome in cardiac surgery patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing mitral valve surgery who develop perioperative myocardial dysfunction. Results of this exploratory analysis should be investigated in future properly designed randomized controlled trials.

19.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 32(6): 2528-2536, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29338996

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Patients with infective endocarditis undergoing cardiac surgery are a high-risk population. Few data on incidence and predictors of need for high-dose inotropic support in this setting are currently available. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Tertiary-care hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Ninety consecutive patients undergoing cardiac surgery for infective endocarditis. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Baseline, intraoperative and outcome data were collected. Stepwise multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify preoperative predictors of postoperative hemodynamic support. High-dose postoperative inotropic support was defined as inotropic score >10 (calculated as dobutamine dose (in µg/kg/min) + dopamine dose (in µg/kg/min) + (epinephrine dose [in µg/kg/min] × 100) + (norepinephrine dose [in µg/kg/min] × 100) + (milrinone dose [in µg/kg/min] × 10) + (vasopressin dose [in U/kg/min] × 10 000) + (levosimendan dose [in µg/kg/min] × 50) or need for mechanical circulatory support at intensive care unit admission. Postoperative high-dose inotropic or mechanical circulatory support was required in 57 cases (61%). Stepwise multiple logistic regression identified 5 variables independently associated with need for postoperative circulatory support: male sex (odds ratio [OR] = 10.9), surgery duration (OR for every minute increase = 1.01), impairment of kidney function (eGFR <60 mL/min/m2 - OR = 19), preoperative new-onset heart failure (defined by clinical, imaging and laboratory parameters - OR = 5.30), and low preoperative platelet count (for every 1×103/µl increase - OR = 0.99). CONCLUSIONS: Patients undergoing cardiac surgery for infective endocarditis are at high risk for postoperative hemodynamic instability. Preoperative organ failure is an important determinant for postoperative hemodynamic instability.

20.
Int J Cardiol ; 251: 22-31, 2018 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29126653

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several studies suggested beneficial effects of perioperative levosimendan on postoperative outcome after cardiac surgery. However, three large randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have been recently published and presented neutral results. We performed a systematic review with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis (TSA) to assess benefits and harms of perioperative levosimendan therapy in cardiac surgery. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched up to September 2017 for RCTs on preoperative levosimendan versus any type of control. The Cochrane methodology was employed. We calculated odds ratio (OR) or Risk Ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) using fixed-effects meta-analyses and we further performed TSA. RESULTS: We included data from 40 RCTs and 4246 patients. Pooled analysis of 5 low risk of bias trials (1910 patients) showed no association between levosimendan and mortality (OR 0.86 [95% CI, 0.62, 1.18], p=0.34, TSA inconclusive), acute kidney injury, need of renal replacement therapy, myocardial infarction, ventricular arrhythmias, and serious adverse events, but an association with higher incidence of supraventricular arrhythmias (RR 1.11 [95% CI, 1.00, 1.24], p=0.05, TSA inconclusive) and hypotension (RR 1.15 [95% CI, 1.01, 1.30], p=0.04, TSA inconclusive). Analysis including all 40 trials found that levosimendan was associated with lower postoperative mortality (OR 0.56 [95% CI, 0.44, 0.71], p<0.00001, TSA conclusive), acute kidney injury, and renal replacement therapy, and higher incidence of hypotension. CONCLUSIONS: There is not enough high-quality evidence to neither support nor discourage the systematic use of levosimendan in cardiac surgery.


Assuntos
Antiarrítmicos/administração & dosagem , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/métodos , Hidrazonas/administração & dosagem , Assistência Perioperatória/métodos , Piridazinas/administração & dosagem , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Simendana
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