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1.
J Neurotrauma ; 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32024432

RESUMO

Interventions to optimize spinal cord perfusion via support of mean arterial pressure (MAP) or spinal cord perfusion pressure (SCPP) are thought to play a critical role in the management of patients with acute traumatic spinal cord injuries, but there is ongoing controversy about efficacy and safety. We aimed to determine the effects of optimizing spinal cord perfusion on neurological recovery and risks for adverse events. We searched multiple databases for published and unpublished reports. Two reviewers independently screened articles, extracted data, and evaluated risk of bias. We synthesized data and evaluated confidence in anticipated treatment effects according to the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. We identified 20 eligible observational studies and 1 eligible randomized controlled trial. According to low or very low quality evidence, the effect of MAP support on neurological recovery after acute traumatic spinal cord injury is uncertain, and the use of vasopressors to support MAP may be associated with increased rates of predominantly cardiac adverse events. Increased SCPP appears likely to be associated with improved neurological recovery, but SCPP monitoring via intradural catheters at the anatomical site of injury may involve increased risks of cerebrospinal fluid leakage requiring revision surgery or pseudomeningocele. No study directly compared the effects of specific MAP goal ranges, SCPP ranges, SCPP monitoring techniques, or durations of treatment. Very low quality evidence suggests that norepinephrine may have less risk of adverse events than dopamine. The current literature is insufficient to make strong recommendations about interventions to support spinal cord perfusion via MAP or SCPP goals in patients with acute traumatic spinal cord injuries. Data are compatible with a variety of treatment decisions, and individualized approaches may be optimal. Further investigation to clarify the risks, benefits, and alternatives to MAP or SCPP support in this population is warranted.

2.
Thromb Haemost ; 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940677

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Western guidelines recommend an international normalized ratio (INR) range of 2 to 3 when using warfarin for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation (AF), but lower INR ranges are frequently used in East Asia. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in AF patients comparing the effect of lower versus standard INR targets on thromboembolism, major bleeding, and mortality. METHODS: We searched Western databases including Cochrane CENTRAL, Medline, and Embase as well as Chinese databases including SinoMed, CNKI, and Wanfang Data. We pooled risk ratios (RRs) using random-effects model. We grouped INR targets in two ways: (1) any study-specific lower versus standard targets and (2) INR ranges of approximately 1.5 to 2 versus 2 to 3. RESULTS: Seventy-nine RCTs (n = 12,928) met eligibility criteria: 74 (n = 11,322) from East Asia and 5 (n = 1,606) from Western countries. Compared with standard targets, lower INR ranges were associated with higher rates of thromboembolism (76 RCTs, n = 12,577: 7.1% vs. 4.4%, RR 1.50, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.29-1.74, I 2 = 0%), lower rates of major bleeding (61 RCTs, n = 10,815: 2.2% vs. 4.4%, RR 0.54, 95% CI 0.44-0.67, I 2 = 0%), and similar mortality (32 RCTs, n = 7,327: 4.8% vs. 5.2%, RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.85-1.19, I 2 = 0%). Results were similar when comparing target ranges of approximately 1.5 to 2 versus 2 to 3. CONCLUSION: Moderate quality evidence suggests lower INR targets reduce bleeding but increase thromboembolism in AF. The data are dominated by East-Asian studies, limiting generalizability to Western populations. Until higher quality data demonstrate otherwise, an INR range of 2 to 3 should remain standard for thromboembolic prophylaxis in AF.

3.
Trials ; 21(1): 92, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31941546

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimal treatment duration for patients with bloodstream infection is understudied. The Bacteremia Antibiotic Length Actually Needed for Clinical Effectiveness (BALANCE) pilot randomized clinical trial (RCT) determined that it was feasible to enroll and randomize intensive care unit (ICU) patients with bloodstream infection to 7 versus 14 days of treatment, and served as the vanguard for the ongoing BALANCE main RCT. We performed this BALANCE-Ward pilot RCT to examine the feasibility and impact of potentially extending the BALANCE main RCT to include patients hospitalized on non-ICU wards. METHODS: We conducted an open pilot RCT among a subset of six sites participating in the ongoing BALANCE RCT, randomizing patients with positive non-Staphylococcus aureus blood cultures on non-ICU wards to 7 versus 14 days of antibiotic treatment. The co-primary feasibility outcomes were recruitment rate and adherence to treatment duration protocol. We compared feasibility outcomes, patient/pathogen characteristics, and overall outcomes among those enrolled in this BALANCE-Ward and prior BALANCE-ICU pilot RCTs. We estimated the sample size and non-inferiority margin impacts of expanding the BALANCE main RCT to include non-ICU patients. RESULTS: A total of 134 patients were recruited over 47 site-months (mean 2.9 patients/site-month, median 1.0, range 0.1-4.4 patients/site-month). The overall recruitment rate exceeded the BALANCE-ICU pilot RCT (mean 1.10 patients/site-month, p < 0.0001). Overall protocol adherence also exceeded the adherence in the BALANCE-ICU pilot RCT (125/134, 93% vs 89/115, 77%, p = 0.0003). BALANCE-Ward patients were older, with lower Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores, and higher proportions of infections caused by Escherichia coli and genito-urinary sources of bloodstream infection. The BALANCE-Ward pilot RCT patients had an overall 90-day mortality rate of 17/133 (12.8%), which was comparable to the 90-day mortality rate in the ICU pilot RCT (17/115, 14.8%) (p = 0.65). Simulation models indicated there would be minimal sample size and non-inferiority margin implications of expanding enrolment to increasing proportions of non-ICU versus ICU patients. CONCLUSION: It is feasible to enroll non-ICU patients in a trial of 7 versus 14 days of antibiotics for bloodstream infection, and expanding the BALANCE RCT hospital-wide has the potential to improve the timeliness and generalizability of trial results. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT02917551. Registered on September 28, 2016.

4.
Can J Anaesth ; 67(3): 369-376, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31797234

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Hemodynamic management of adults with distributive shock often includes the use of catecholamine-based vasoconstricting medications. It is unclear whether adding vasopressin or vasopressin analogues to catecholamine therapy is beneficial in the management of patients with distributive shock. The purpose of this guideline was to develop an evidence-based recommendation regarding the addition of vasopressin to catecholamine vasopressors in the management of adults with distributive shock. METHODS: We summarized the evidence informing this recommendation by updating a recently published meta-analysis. Then, a multidisciplinary panel from the Canadian Critical Care Society developed the recommendation using Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology. RESULTS: The updated systematic review identified 25 randomized controlled trials including a total of 3,737 patients with distributive shock. Compared with catecholamine therapy alone, the addition of vasopressin or its analogues was associated with a reduced risk of mortality (relative risk [RR], 0.91; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.85 to 0.99; low certainty), reduced risk of atrial fibrillation (RR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.67 to 0.88; high certainty), and increased risk of digital ischemia (RR, 2.56; 95% CI, 1.24 to 5.25; moderate certainty). CONCLUSIONS: After considering certainty in the evidence, values and preferences, cost, and other factors, the expert guideline panel suggests using vasopressin or vasopressin analogues in addition to catecholamines over catecholamine vasopressors alone for the management of distributive shock (conditional recommendation, low certainty evidence).

5.
Eur J Cardiothorac Surg ; 57(1): 168-175, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31180497

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Using data from the CORONARY trial (n = 4752), we evaluated the incidence and prognostic significance of myocardial infarction (MI) applying different definitions based on peak postoperative creatine kinase-MB isoenzyme and cardiac troponin levels. We then aimed to identify the peak cardiac troponin during the first 3 postoperative days that was independently associated with a 2-fold increase in 30-day mortality. METHODS: To combine different assays, we analysed cardiac troponins in multiples of their respective upper limit of normal (ULN). We identified the lowest threshold with a hazard ratio (HR) >2 for 30-day mortality independent of EuroSCORE and on- versus off-pump surgery. RESULTS: Depending on the definition used based on creatine kinase-MB, the incidence of MI after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) ranged from 0.6% to 19% and the associated HRs for 30-day mortality ranged from 2.7 to 6.9. Using cardiac troponin (1528 patients), the incidence of MI ranged from 1.7% to 13% depending on the definition used with HRs for 30-day mortality ranging from 5.1 to 7.2. The first cardiac troponin threshold we evaluated, 180xULN, was associated with an adjusted HR for 30-day mortality of 7.6 [95% confidence interval (CI) 3.4-17.1] when compared to <130xULN. The next independent threshold was 130xULN with an adjusted HR for 30-day mortality of 7.8 (95% CI 2.3-26.1). The next cardiac troponin tested threshold (70xULN) did not meet criteria for significance. CONCLUSIONS: Our results illustrate that the incidence and prognosis of a post-CABG MI varies based on the definition used. Validated post-CABG MI diagnostic criteria formulated from their independent association with important clinical outcomes are needed.

6.
Circulation ; 140(23): 1933-1942, 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31790297

RESUMO

Managing severe valvular heart disease with mechanical valve replacement necessitates lifelong anticoagulation with a vitamin K antagonist. Optimal anticoagulation intensity for patients with mechanical valves remains uncertain; current recommendations are inconsistent across guideline bodies and largely based on expert opinion. In this review, we outline the history of anticoagulation therapy in patients with mechanical heart valves and critically evaluate current antithrombotic guidelines for these patients. We conclude that randomized trials evaluating optimal anticoagulation intensity in patients with mechanical valves are needed, and that future guidelines must better justify antithrombotic treatment recommendations.

7.
Can J Cardiol ; 35(11): 1596-1599, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679628

RESUMO

Optimal postprocedural antithrombotic regimen is uncertain after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). We developed an online questionnaire on post-TAVR antithrombotic management. After research ethics board approval, we distributed the survey to TAVR implanters across Canada. A total of 24 TAVR implanters from 17 centres responded to the survey for a response rate of 75%. Dual antiplatelet therapy for variable durations was the preferred initial treatment for patients in sinus rhythm after isolated TAVR, TAVR with a recent stent (≤ 1 month), and valve-in-valve procedures (71%, 96%, and 65%, respectively). Most respondents continued patients on acetylsalicylic acid indefinitely after these procedures (100%, 92%, 90%, respectively). In patients with atrial fibrillation, the CHA2DS2-VASC score was the preferred stroke risk score for 57% of respondents, the CHADS2 score was the preferred stroke risk score for 22% of respondents, and the CHADS65 score was the preferred stroke risk score for 17% of respondents. To determine the risk of bleeding, the HASBLED score was most often used (52%), but 48% of respondents indicated that they did not use a bleeding risk score. In the presence of atrial fibrillation, antithrombotic therapy choice varied widely. Our survey shows that dual antiplatelet therapy is the most common discharge regimen after TAVR in current practice. However, the choice and duration of antithrombotic regimen vary in patients requiring anticoagulation.

8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(34): e16880, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441862

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Saphenous vein graft (SVG) is the most common conduit used for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery. Unfortunately, SVG are associated with poor long-term patency rates; a significant predictor of re-operation rates and survival. As such, medical therapy to prevent SVG narrowing or occlusion is of paramount importance. Aspirin (ASA) monotherapy is the standard of care after CABG, to improve long-term major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and graft patency. Benefits of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) have not been well established in all CABG patients. We present a protocol for a network meta-analysis (NMA) comparing the effects of various antiplatelet therapy regimens on SVG patency, mortality, and bleeding among adult patients following CABG. METHODS: We will search CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL ACPJC, and grey literature sources (AHA, ACC, ESC, and CCC conference proceedings, ISRCTN Register, and WHO ICTRP) for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) which fit our criteria. RCTs that evaluate different antiplatelet regimens at least 3-months after CABG and have any of SVG patency, mortality, MACE, and major bleeding as outcomes will be selected. We will perform title and abstract screening, full-text screening, and data extraction independently and in duplicate. Two independent reviewers will also assess risk of bias (ROB) for each study, as well as evaluate quality of evidence using the GRADE framework. We will use R to perform the NMA and use low-dose ASA as reference within our network. We will report results as odds ratios with confidence intervals for direct comparisons, and credible intervals for indirect or mixed comparisons. We will use the surface under the cumulative ranking curve (SUCRA) to estimate the ranking of interventions. DISCUSSION: Given the limited direct comparison of various antiplatelet regimens, a network approach is ideal to clarify the optimum antiplatelet therapy after CABG. We hope that our NMA will be the largest quantitative synthesis evaluating antiplatelet regimens among patients requiring CABG. It should inform clinicians and guideline developers in selecting the most effective and safest antiplatelet regimen.Systematic Review registration: International Prospective Register for Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO)-CRD42019127695.


Assuntos
Ponte de Artéria Coronária/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/métodos , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/mortalidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Humanos , Meta-Análise em Rede , Veia Safena/transplante , Revisão Sistemática como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Can J Cardiol ; 35(8): 1030-1038, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376904

RESUMO

This review was undertaken to summarize and discuss the current evidence around antiplatelet therapy and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Aspirin (ASA) monotherapy remains the standard of care among patients before and after CABG. The role of more intense antiplatelet therapy-specifically, P2Y12 inhibitors-in improving clinical outcomes and graft patency is becoming increasingly apparent. As such, we provide an overview of a variety of antiplatelet regimens. The review discusses the evidence around preoperative management of antiplatelet therapies, with a particular focus on timing of cessation. It also evaluates the current literature to elucidate the best antiplatelet therapy regimen after CABG, focusing on acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Whenever possible, data are presented from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and meta-analyses. Although guidelines recommend use of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) after CABG for patients with ACS, available evidence is limited to small RCTs, and meta-analyses are of substudies of larger RCTs. There is also considerable heterogeneity in patient population of these studies; a significant number of patients underwent off-pump CABG (OPCAB) in trials that demonstrate graft-patency benefit with DAPT. With this limited evidence, DAPT remains underused in the CABG population, even among patients presenting after ACS.

10.
Europace ; 21(8): 1159-1166, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292622

RESUMO

AIMS: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of vernakalant for the cardioversion of atrial fibrillation (AF). METHODS AND RESULTS: We reviewed the literature for randomized trials that compared vernakalant to another drug or placebo in patients with AF of onset ≤7 days. We used a random-effects model to combine quantitative data and rated the quality of evidence using the GRADE (Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation). From 441 total citations in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL (December 2018), we identified nine trials evaluating 1358 participants. Six trials compared vernakalant to placebo, two trials compared vernakalant to ibutilide, and one trial compared vernakalant to amiodarone. We found significant methodological bias in four trials. For conversion within 90 min, vernakalant was superior to placebo [50% conversion, risk ratio (RR) 5.15; 95% confidence interval (CI); 2.24-11.84, I2 = 91%], whereas we found no significant difference in conversion when vernakalant was compared with an active drug (56% vs. 24% conversion, RR 2.40; 95% CI 0.76-7.58, I2 = 94). Sinus rhythm was maintained at 24 h in 85% (95% CI 80-88%) of patients who converted acutely with vernakalant. Overall, we judged the quality of evidence for efficacy to be low based on inconsistency and suspected publication bias. There was no significant difference in the risk of significant adverse events between vernakalant and comparator (RR 0.95; 95% CI 0.70-1.28, I2 = 0, moderate quality evidence). Vernakalant is safe and effective for rapid and durable restoration of sinus rhythm in patients with recent-onset AF. CONCLUSION: Vernakalant should be a first line option for the pharmacological cardioversion of patients with haemodynamically stable recent-onset AF without severe structural heart disease.

12.
CMAJ ; 191(30): E830-E837, 2019 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358597

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Among adults undergoing contemporary noncardiac surgery, little is known about the frequency and timing of death and the associations between perioperative complications and mortality. We aimed to establish the frequency and timing of death and its association with perioperative complications. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of patients aged 45 years and older who underwent inpatient noncardiac surgery at 28 centres in 14 countries. We monitored patients for complications until 30 days after surgery and determined the relation between these complications and 30-day mortality using a Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS: We included 40 004 patients. Of those, 715 patients (1.8%) died within 30 days of surgery. Five deaths (0.7%) occurred in the operating room, 500 deaths (69.9%) occurred after surgery during the index admission to hospital and 210 deaths (29.4%) occurred after discharge from the hospital. Eight complications were independently associated with 30-day mortality. The 3 complications with the largest attributable fractions (AF; i.e., potential proportion of deaths attributable to these complications) were major bleeding (6238 patients, 15.6%; adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 2.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.2-3.1; AF 17.0%); myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery [MINS] (5191 patients, 13.0%; adjusted HR 2.2, 95% CI 1.9-2.6; AF 15.9%); and sepsis (1783 patients, 4.5%; adjusted HR 5.6, 95% CI 4.6-6.8; AF 12.0%). INTERPRETATION: Among adults undergoing noncardiac surgery, 99.3% of deaths occurred after the procedure and 44.9% of deaths were associated with 3 complications: major bleeding, MINS and sepsis. Given these findings, focusing on the prevention, early identification and management of these 3 complications holds promise for reducing perioperative mortality. Study registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, no. NCT00512109.

14.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 14(1): 85, 2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31046806

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Single centre studies support No Touch (NT) saphenous vein graft (SVG) harvesting technique. The primary objective of the SUPERIOR SVG study was to determine whether NT versus conventional (CON) SVG harvesting was associated with improved SVG patency 1 year after coronary artery bypass grafting surgery (CABG). METHODS: Adults undergoing isolated CABG with at least 1 SVG were eligible. CT angiography was performed 1-year post CABG. Leg adverse events were assessed with a questionnaire. A systematic review was performed for published NT graft patency studies and results aggregated including the SUPERIOR study results. RESULTS: Two hundred and-fifty patients were randomized across 12-centres (NT 127 versus CON 123 patients). The primary outcome (study SVG occlusion or cardiovascular (CV) death) was not significantly different in NT versus CON (NT: 7/127 (5.5%), CON 13/123 (10.6%), p = 0.15). Similarly, the proportion of study SVGs with significant stenosis or total occlusion was not significantly different between groups (NT: 8/102 (7.8%), CON: 16/107 (15.0%), p = 0.11). Vein harvest site infection was more common in the NT patients 1 month postoperatively (23.3% vs 9.5%, p < 0.01). Including this study's results, in a meta-analysis, NT was associated with a significant reduction in SVG occlusion, Odds Ratio 0.49, 95% Confidence Interval 0.29-0.82, p = 0.007 in 3 randomized and 1 observational study at 1 year postoperatively. CONCLUSIONS: The NT technique was not associated with improved patency of SVGs at 1-year following CABG while early vein harvest infection was increased. The aggregated data is supportive of an important reduction of SVG occlusion at 1 year with NT harvesting. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01047449 .


Assuntos
Ponte de Artéria Coronária/métodos , Veia Safena/transplante , Coleta de Tecidos e Órgãos/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Grau de Desobstrução Vascular
15.
Can J Anaesth ; 66(6): 648-657, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31037586

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Elevated cardiac troponin concentrations in people with critical illness are associated with an increased risk of death. We aimed to assess the feasibility of a larger study to ascertain the utility of cardiac troponin as a prognostic tool for mortality in critically ill patients. METHODS: Patients admitted to participating intensive care units during the one-month enrolment period were eligible. We excluded cardiac surgical patients and patients who were admitted and either died or were discharged within 12 hr. In enrolled patients, we measured high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) and obtained electrocardiograms to ascertain the incidence of myocardial infarction (MI) and isolated troponin elevation. Our feasibility objectives were to measure recruitment rate, the proportion of patients who consented under a deferred consent model, and time required for data collection and study procedures. RESULTS: Over a four-week enrolment period, 280 patients were enrolled using a deferred consent model. We obtained subsequent consent from 81% of patients. Study procedures and data collection required 1.7 hr per participant. Overall, 86 (38%) suffered a MI, 23 (10%) had an isolated hs-cTnI elevation, and 117 (52%) had no hs-cTnI elevation. The crude hospital mortality rate was 10% without an hs-cTnI elevation, 29% with an isolated hs-cTnl elevation (relative risk [RR]) 2.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0 to 6.0) and 29% with an MI (RR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.4 to 5.1). CONCLUSION: Myocardial injury with elevated hs-cTnI concentrations and MIs occur frequently during critical illness. This pilot study has established the feasibility of conducting a large-scale investigation addressing this issue.

16.
Intensive Care Med ; 45(7): 928-938, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31089761

RESUMO

PURPOSE: New-onset atrial fibrillation (NOAF) is common and associated with increased morbidity and mortality. However, its clinical importance and management in critically ill patients are not well described. The aim of this scoping review is to assess the epidemiology and management strategies of NOAF during critical illness. METHOD: The review was conducted in accordance with the PRISMA extension for scoping reviews. We searched PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library for studies assessing the incidence, outcome and management strategies of NOAF in adult critically ill patients. The quality of evidence was evaluated using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. RESULTS: A total of 99 studies were included, of which 79 were observational and 20 were interventional. The incidence of NOAF varied from 1.7% to 43.9% with considerable inter-population variation (very low quality of evidence). Commonly identified risk factors for NOAF included higher age, cardiovascular comorbidities and sepsis. The occurrence of NOAF was associated with adverse outcomes, including stroke, prolonged length of stay and mortality (very low quality of evidence). We found limited data on the optimal management strategy with no evidence for firm benefit or harm for any intervention (very low/low quality of evidence). CONCLUSIONS: The definition and incidence of NOAF in critically ill patients varied considerably and many risk factors were identified. NOAF seemed to be associated with adverse outcomes, but data were very limited and current management strategies are not evidence-based.

17.
Cardiovasc Drugs Ther ; 33(3): 339-352, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31011880

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical guidelines recommend peri-cardioversion anticoagulation in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the safety and efficacy of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) versus vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) in patients with AF undergoing cardioversion. METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and EMBASE for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies comparing DOACs to VKAs in patients undergoing cardioversion for AF. We performed title, abstract, and full-text screening, data extraction, and risk of bias evaluation independently and in duplicate. We pooled data using a random effects model and evaluated the overall quality of evidence using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation. RESULTS: We identified three eligible RCTs (n = 5203) and 21 observational studies (n = 11,855). The three RCTs and four observational studies were at low risk of bias. In RCTs (mean follow-up, 30 days), thromboembolic events occurred in 0.18% of patients receiving DOACs, as compared with 0.55% receiving VKAs (relative risk [RR] 0.40, 95% CI [0.13, 1.24], moderate quality). Major bleeding occurred in 0.42% of patients receiving DOACs as compared with 0.64% receiving VKAs (RR 0.62, 95% CI [0.28, 1.35], moderate quality), and death occurred in 0.28% of patients receiving DOACs as compared with 0.38% receiving VKAs (RR 0.70, 95% CI [0.23, 2.10], low quality). Confidence in the estimates of effect for observational studies was very low. CONCLUSION: DOACs peri-cardioversion in patients with AF appears safe from both a bleeding and thromboembolic risk perspective. Available evidence supports the use of DOACs as standard of care peri-cardioversion in patients with AF.

18.
Eur J Surg Oncol ; 45(8): 1341-1348, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30928334

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Positron emission tomography (PET), alone or combined with computed tomography (CT), potentially enhances detection of occult metastatic colorectal cancer. METHODS: We compared the impact of PET/PET-CT with conventional imaging, versus conventional imaging alone, in patients with potentially resectable colorectal cancer liver metastases. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL were searched for studies investigating PET/PET-CT to determine resectability. Outcomes included overall (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), change in surgical management, and futile laparotomy. Evidence quality was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) framework. A pre-specified protocol was registered in PROSPERO. RESULTS: Of 4034 articles, two randomized trials (n = 554), and 11 non-randomized studies (n = 2251) were included. PET/PET-CT did not improve OS (hazard ratio [HR] 0.94, 95% CI 0.69-1.26, moderate quality) or DFS (HR 1.01, 95% CI 0.82-1.26, moderate quality). In the two trials, PET/PET-CT changed surgical management in 8% of cases (95% CI 5-11%, high quality), and did not significantly reduce futile laparotomies (risk ratio 0.59, 95% CI 0.24-1.47, low quality). Among non-randomized studies, PET/PET-CT changed surgical management in 20% of cases (95% CI 17-22%, very low quality) and reduced futile laparotomies (odds ratio 0.51, 95% CI 0.32-0.81, very low quality). CONCLUSIONS: Moderate-quality evidence suggests that preoperative PET/PET-CT does not improve OS or DFS in patients with colorectal cancer liver metastases. These results do not support routine use of PET/PET-CT in patients with potentially resectable disease. The main limitation of this study was the lack of randomized studies.

20.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 33(6): 1753-1765, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30857852

RESUMO

Left atrial appendage occlusion (LAAO) is a proposed alternative to oral anticoagulation in reducing stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation. It is suggested that LAAO is most suitable in patients at increased risk of stroke or bleeding or with contraindication to pharmacologic intervention. Despite the increase in evidence evaluating LAAO, the relative safety and efficacy of the procedure remains uncertain. Presently, several ongoing randomized trials are comparing various devices to each other and to pharmacologic anticoagulation. The objectives of this narrative review were to present the evidence on percutaneous and surgical LAAO devices, review current guidelines, and summarize landmark trials.

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