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Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371921


The study of different natural products can provide a wealth of bioactive compounds, and more interestingly, their combination can exert a new strategy for several neurodegenerative diseases with major public health importance, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we investigated the synergistic neuroprotective effects of a mixed extract composed of docosahexaenoic acid, Ginkgo biloba, D-pinitol, and ursolic acid in several transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) and a senescence-accelerated prone mice 8 (SAMP8) model. First, we found a significantly higher survival percentage in the C. elegans group treated with the natural product mixture compared to the single extract-treated groups. Likewise, we found a significantly increased lifespan in group of C. elegans treated with the natural product mixture compared to the other groups, suggesting synergistic effects. Remarkably, we determined a significant reduction in Aß plaque accumulation in the group of C. elegans treated with the natural product mixture compared to the other groups, confirming synergy. Finally, we demonstrated better cognitive performance in the group treated with the natural product mixture in both AD models (neuronal Aß C. elegans strain CL2355 and the SAMP8 mice model), confirming the molecular results and unraveling the synergist effects of this combination. Therefore, our results proved the potential of this new natural product mixture for AD therapeutic strategies.

Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Doença de Alzheimer/psicologia , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Longevidade , Camundongos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Placa Amiloide
Ageing Res Rev ; 67: 101271, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33571701


While the elderly segment of the population continues growing in importance, neurodegenerative diseases increase exponentially. Lifestyle factors such as nutrition, exercise, and education, among others, influence ageing progression, throughout life. Notably, the Central Nervous System (CNS) can benefit from nutritional strategies and dietary interventions that prevent signs of senescence, such as cognitive decline or neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's Disease. The dietary polyphenol Resveratrol (RV) possesses antioxidant and cytoprotective effects, producing neuroprotection in several organisms. The oxidative stress (OS) occurs because of Reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation that has been proposed to explain the cause of the ageing. One of the most harmful effects of ROS in the cell is DNA damage. Nevertheless, there is also evidence demonstrating that OS can produce other molecular changes such as mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammation, apoptosis, and epigenetic modifications, among others. Interestingly, the dietary polyphenol RV is a potent antioxidant and possesses pleiotropic actions, exerting its activity through various molecular pathways. In addition, recent evidence has shown that RV mediates epigenetic changes involved in ageing and the function of the CNS that persists across generations. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that RV interacts with gut microbiota, showing modifications in bacterial composition associated with beneficial effects. In this review, we give a comprehensive overview of the main mechanisms of action of RV in different experimental models, including clinical trials and discuss how the interconnection of these molecular events could explain the neuroprotective effects induced by RV.

Doença de Alzheimer , Disfunção Cognitiva , Fármacos Neuroprotetores , Idoso , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Epigênese Genética , Humanos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Estresse Oxidativo , Resveratrol/farmacologia
Neurobiol Dis ; 152: 105278, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33516872


Machado-Joseph disease (MJD) or Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that affects movement coordination leading to a premature death. Despite several efforts, no disease-modifying treatment is yet available for this disease. Previous studies pinpointed the modulation of serotonergic signaling, through pharmacological inhibition of the serotonin transporter SERT, as a promising therapeutic approach for MJD/SCA3. Here, we describe the 5-HT1A receptor as a novel therapeutic target in MJD, using a C. elegans model of ATXN3 proteotoxicity. Chronic and acute administration of befiradol (also known as NLX-112), a highly specific 5-HT1A agonist, rescued motor function and suppressed mutant ATXN3 aggregation. This action required the 5-HT1A receptor orthologue in the nematode, SER-4. Tandospirone, a clinically tested 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist, showed a limited impact on animals' motor dysfunction on acute administration and a broader receptor activation profile upon chronic treatment, its effect depending on 5-HT1A but also on the 5-HT6/SER-5 and 5-HT7/SER-7 receptors. Our results support high potency and specificity of befiradol for activation of 5-HT1A/SER-4 receptors and highlight the contribution of the auto- and hetero-receptor function to the therapeutic outcome in this MJD model. Our study deepens the understanding of serotonergic signaling modulation in the suppression of ATXN3 proteotoxicity and suggests that a potent and selective 5-HT1A receptor agonist such as befiradol could constitute a promising therapeutic agent for MJD.

Pharmaceutics ; 12(3)2020 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32235699


Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the leading cause of dementia. Non-competitive N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist memantine improved cognition and molecular alterations after preclinical treatment. Nevertheless, clinical results are discouraging. In vivo efficacy of the RL-208, a new NMDA receptor blocker described recently, with favourable pharmacokinetic properties was evaluated in Senescence accelerated mice prone 8 (SAMP8), a mice model of late-onset AD (LOAD). Oral administration of RL-208 improved cognitive performance assessed by using the three chamber test (TCT), novel object recognition test (NORT), and object location test (OLT). Consistent with behavioural results, RL-208 treated-mice groups significantly changed NMDAR2B phosphorylation state levels but not NMDAR2A. Calpain-1 and Caspase-3 activity was reduced, whereas B-cell lymphoma-2 (BCL-2) levels increased, indicating reduced apoptosis in RL-208 treated SAMP8. Superoxide Dismutase 1 (SOD1) and Glutathione Peroxidase 1 (GPX1), as well as a reduction of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), was also determined in RL-208 mice. RL-208 treatment induced an increase in mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor (mBDNF), prevented Tropomyosin-related kinase B full-length (TrkB-FL) cleavage, increased protein levels of Synaptophysin (SYN) and Postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD95). In whole, these results point out to an improvement in synaptic plasticity. Remarkably, RL-208 also decreased the protein levels of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5 (CDK5), as well as p25/p35 ratio, indicating a reduction in kinase activity of CDK5/p25 complex. Consequently, lower levels of hyperphosphorylated Tau (p-Tau) were found. In sum, these results demonstrate the neuroprotectant role of RL-208 through NMDAR blockade.

Aging (Albany NY) ; 11(23): 11591-11608, 2019 12 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31804189


The implication of epigenetic mechanisms in Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been demonstrated in several studies. UNC0642, a specific and potent inhibitor of methyltransferase activity G9a/GLP (G9a-like) complex, was evaluated in the 5XFAD mouse model. UNC0642 treatment rescued 5XFAD cognition impairment, reduced DNA-methylation (5-mC), increased hydroxymethylation (5-hmC), and decreased the di-methylation of lysine 9 of histone H3 (H3K9me2) levels in the hippocampus. Increases in the Nuclear Factor erythroid-2-Related Factor 2 (NRF2), Heme oxygenase decycling 1 (Hmox1) gene expression, and diminution in Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) were also reported. Moreover, neuroinflammatory markers, such as Interleukin 6 (Il-6), Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (Tnf-α) gene expression, and Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunofluorescence were reduced by UNC0642 treatment. An increase in Nerve growth factor (Ngf), Nerve growth factor inducible (Vgf) gene expression, Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and Synaptophysin (SYN) were found after UNC0642 treatment. Importantly, a reduction in ß-amyloid plaques was also observed. In conclusion, our work demonstrates that the inhibition of the G9a/GLP complex by UNC0642 delivered significant neuroprotective effects in 5XFAD mice, point out G9a/GLP as a new target for AD.

Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/antagonistas & inibidores , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/antagonistas & inibidores , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Quinazolinas/uso terapêutico , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Animais , Disfunção Cognitiva/tratamento farmacológico , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo , Histonas/metabolismo , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Camundongos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo