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1.
JAMA ; 2020 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32219386

RESUMO

Importance: Additional treatments are needed for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors may be an effective treatment for patients with HFrEF, even those without diabetes. Objective: To evaluate the effects of dapagliflozin in patients with HFrEF with and without diabetes. Design, Setting, and Participants: Exploratory analysis of a phase 3 randomized trial conducted at 410 sites in 20 countries. Patients with New York Heart Association classification II to IV with an ejection fraction less than or equal to 40% and elevated plasma N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide were enrolled between February 15, 2017, and August 17, 2018, with final follow-up on June 6, 2019. Interventions: Addition of once-daily 10 mg of dapagliflozin or placebo to recommended therapy. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the composite of an episode of worsening heart failure or cardiovascular death. This outcome was analyzed by baseline diabetes status and, in patients without diabetes, by glycated hemoglobin level less than 5.7% vs greater than or equal to 5.7%. Results: Among 4744 patients randomized (mean age, 66 years; 1109 [23%] women; 2605 [55%] without diabetes), 4742 completed the trial. Among participants without diabetes, the primary outcome occurred in 171 of 1298 (13.2%) in the dapagliflozin group and 231 of 1307 (17.7%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.73 [95% CI, 0.60-0.88]). In patients with diabetes, the primary outcome occurred in 215 of 1075 (20.0%) in the dapagliflozin group and 271 of 1064 (25.5%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.75 [95% CI, 0.63-0.90]) (P value for interaction = .80). Among patients without diabetes and a glycated hemoglobin level less than 5.7%, the primary outcome occurred in 53 of 438 patients (12.1%) in the dapagliflozin group and 71 of 419 (16.9%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.67 [95% CI, 0.47-0.96]). In patients with a glycated hemoglobin of at least 5.7%, the primary outcome occurred in 118 of 860 patients (13.7%) in the dapagliflozin group and 160 of 888 (18.0%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.74 [95% CI, 0.59-0.94]) (P value for interaction = .72). Volume depletion was reported as an adverse event in 7.3% of patients in the dapagliflozin group and 6.1% in the placebo group among patients without diabetes and in 7.8% of patients in the dapagliflozin group and 7.8% in the placebo group among patients with diabetes. A kidney adverse event was reported in 4.8% of patients in the dapagliflozin group and 6.0% in the placebo group among patients without diabetes and in 8.5% of patients in the dapagliflozin group and 8.7% in the placebo group among patients with diabetes. Conclusions and Relevance: In this exploratory analysis of a randomized trial of patients with HFrEF, dapagliflozin compared with placebo, when added to recommended therapy, significantly reduced the risk of worsening heart failure or cardiovascular death independently of diabetes status. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03036124.

2.
Clin Toxicol (Phila) ; : 1-11, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31913708

RESUMO

Purpose: The effect of acute methanol poisoning on the follow-up quality of life of survivors in mass poisoning outbreaks is not known. The objective of this is to study the impact of visual and central nervous system (CNS) sequelae of methanol poisoning on long-term health-related quality of life (QoL) of survivors, its clinical determinants, and dynamics.Materials and methods: A total of 54 patients with confirmed methanol poisoning (mean age 46.7 ± 13.4 years, 9 females) were examined consequently three times within six-year prospective cohort study and compared to 23 controls with the history of chronic alcohol abuse. The following tests were performed: SF-36 QoL questionnaire, visual evoked potentials (VEP) of optic nerve, ocular examination with retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measurement, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and biochemical and toxicological tests.Results: Acute methanol poisoning led to significant decrease in physical component summary (PCS) compared to PCS of age-adjusted controls (mean score with SD 46.8 ± 11.0 versus 52.3 ± 9.4 points; p = .003). In 17/40 (42.5%) patients with three rounds of examination, signs of severe disability (≤30 points in at least one score) were present six years after discharge, with negative dynamics of PCS score during the observation period. The patients with abnormal RNFL thickness had lower PCS (mean difference 10.5 points; 95%CI 3.5-17.5, p = .004) and mental component summary score (9.5 points; 95%CI 1.9-17.1, p = .015) compared to the patients with normal RNFL. Signs of physical and mental adaptation to long-term visual sequelae were registered with gradual reduction of difference in most of physical and mental components scores compared to the patients with normal RNFL during six years of observation. Signs of hemorrhagic brain lesions were associated with permanent decrease of PCS score (mean difference 7.4 points; 95%CI 0.6-14.0; p = .033), bodily pain (8.7 points; 95%CI 1.6-17.6; p = .018), and social functioning (8.2 points; 95%CI 3.0-17.4; p = .005) six years after discharge. No effect of type of antidote (fomepizole versus ethanol) and extracorporeal enhanced elimination modality (intermittent hemodialysis versus continuous renal replacement therapy) applied in hospital on long-term QoL was found (all p > .05).Conclusion: Acute methanol poisoning was associated with a significant decrease of health-related quality of life of survivors persisting for at least six years after discharge. The more pronounced decrease in QoL scores was observed in the patients with hemorrhagic brain lesions and visual sequelae of poisoning with abnormal RNFL thickness.

3.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 22(2): 303-312, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31820537

RESUMO

AIMS: Sacubitril/valsartan has shown efficacy and tolerability in patients with heart failure (HF) and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) in the ambulatory setting (PARADIGM-HF), and following stabilisation of acutely decompensated HF (ADHF) (PIONEER-HF and TRANSITION). However, data are lacking for the initiation of sacubitril/valsartan in newly diagnosed (de novo) HFrEF. Here, we assess the tolerability of initiating sacubitril/valsartan following ADHF in TRANSITION subgroups of patients with a de novo vs. prior diagnosis of HFrEF. METHODS AND RESULTS: TRANSITION randomised 1002 patients to pre- and post-discharge initiation of sacubitril/valsartan (analysis set n = 991, following exclusions for mis-randomisation). In this post-hoc analysis, tolerability to sacubitril/valsartan [proportion of patients achieving target dose (97/103 mg b.i.d.) at 10 weeks post-randomisation], adverse events (AEs) and serious AEs (SAEs) were compared in de novo (n = 286) and prior HFrEF (n = 705) subgroups. More de novo than prior HFrEF patients achieved target dose at Week 10 (56% vs. 45%; relative risk ratio 1.30, 95% confidence interval 1.12-1.52, P < 0.001), and fewer had SAEs and permanent treatment discontinuations. Initiation of sacubitril/valsartan did not prevent the concomitant initiation and up-titration of guideline-directed HF therapies. De novo patients showed faster and greater decreases in N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide and high-sensitivity troponin-T, and lower rates of HF and all-cause rehospitalisation vs. prior HFrEF. CONCLUSIONS: After ADHF, first-line initiation of sacubitril/valsartan in de novo HFrEF, alongside the initiation of other guideline-directed therapies, is feasible and is associated with a better risk-benefit profile than in patients with prior HFrEF. Early intervention with sacubitril/valsartan may be considered to delay disease progression in patients with de novo HFrEF. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02661217.

4.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0222569, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518367

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Although numerous activity trackers have been validated in healthy populations, validation is lacking in chronic heart failure patients who normally walk at a slower pace, making it difficult for researchers and clinicians to implement activity monitors during physical activity interventions. METHODS: Six consumer-level activity monitors were validated in a 3-day field study in patients with chronic heart failure and healthy individuals under free living conditions. Furthermore, the same devices were evaluated in a lab-based study during treadmill walking at speeds of 2.4, 3.0, 3.6, and 4.2 km·h-1. Concordance correlation coefficients (CCC) were used to evaluate the agreement between the activity monitors and the criterion, and mean absolute percentage errors (MAPE) were calculated to assess differences between each device and the criterion (MAPE <10% was considered as a threshold for validity). RESULTS: In the field study of healthy individuals, all but one of the activity monitors showed a substantial correlation (CCC ≥0.95) with the criterion device and MAPE <10%. In patients with heart failure, the correlation of only two activity monitors (Garmin vívofit 3 and Withings Go) was classified as at least moderate (CCC ≥0.90) and none of the devices had MAPE <10%. In the lab-based study at speeds 4.2 and 3.6 km·h-1, all activity monitors showed substantial to almost perfect correlations (CCC ≥0.95) with the criterion and MAPE in the range 1%-3%. However, at slower speeds of 3.0 and 2.4 km·h-1, the accuracy of all devices substantially deteriorated: their correlation with the criterion decreased below 90% and their MAPE increased to 4-8% and 10-45%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Even though none of the tested activity monitors fall within arbitrary thresholds for validity, most of them perform reasonably well enough to be useful tools that clinicians can use to simply motivate chronic heart failure patients to walk more.

5.
N Engl J Med ; 381(21): 1995-2008, 2019 11 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31535829

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients with type 2 diabetes, inhibitors of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) reduce the risk of a first hospitalization for heart failure, possibly through glucose-independent mechanisms. More data are needed regarding the effects of SGLT2 inhibitors in patients with established heart failure and a reduced ejection fraction, regardless of the presence or absence of type 2 diabetes. METHODS: In this phase 3, placebo-controlled trial, we randomly assigned 4744 patients with New York Heart Association class II, III, or IV heart failure and an ejection fraction of 40% or less to receive either dapagliflozin (at a dose of 10 mg once daily) or placebo, in addition to recommended therapy. The primary outcome was a composite of worsening heart failure (hospitalization or an urgent visit resulting in intravenous therapy for heart failure) or cardiovascular death. RESULTS: Over a median of 18.2 months, the primary outcome occurred in 386 of 2373 patients (16.3%) in the dapagliflozin group and in 502 of 2371 patients (21.2%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.65 to 0.85; P<0.001). A first worsening heart failure event occurred in 237 patients (10.0%) in the dapagliflozin group and in 326 patients (13.7%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.59 to 0.83). Death from cardiovascular causes occurred in 227 patients (9.6%) in the dapagliflozin group and in 273 patients (11.5%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.69 to 0.98); 276 patients (11.6%) and 329 patients (13.9%), respectively, died from any cause (hazard ratio, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.71 to 0.97). Findings in patients with diabetes were similar to those in patients without diabetes. The frequency of adverse events related to volume depletion, renal dysfunction, and hypoglycemia did not differ between treatment groups. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with heart failure and a reduced ejection fraction, the risk of worsening heart failure or death from cardiovascular causes was lower among those who received dapagliflozin than among those who received placebo, regardless of the presence or absence of diabetes. (Funded by AstraZeneca; DAPA-HF ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03036124.).


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/uso terapêutico , Glucosídeos/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Compostos Benzidrílicos/efeitos adversos , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Terapia Combinada , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Glucosídeos/efeitos adversos , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Hospitalização , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/efeitos adversos , Volume Sistólico/efeitos dos fármacos , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/complicações , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/tratamento farmacológico
6.
Am Heart J ; 217: 23-31, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473324

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Less than 500 participants have been included in randomized trials comparing hypothermia with regular care for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients, and many of these trials were small and at a high risk of bias. Consequently, the accrued data on this potentially beneficial intervention resembles that of a drug following small phase II trials. A large confirmatory trial is therefore warranted. METHODS: The TTM2-trial is an international, multicenter, parallel group, investigator-initiated, randomized, superiority trial in which a target temperature of 33°C after cardiac arrest will be compared with a strategy to maintain normothermia and early treatment of fever (≥37.8°C). Participants will be randomized within 3 hours of return of spontaneous circulation with the intervention period lasting 40 hours in both groups. Sedation will be mandatory for all patients throughout the intervention period. The clinical team involved with direct patient care will not be blinded to allocation group due to the inherent difficulty in blinding the intervention. Prognosticators, outcome-assessors, the steering group, the trial coordinating team, and trial statistician will be blinded. The primary outcome will be all-cause mortality at 180 days after randomization. We estimate a 55% mortality in the control group. To detect an absolute risk reduction of 7.5% with an alpha of 0.05 and 90% power, 1900 participants will be enrolled. The main secondary neurological outcome will be poor functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale 4-6) at 180 days after arrest. DISCUSSION: The TTM2-trial will compare hypothermia to 33°C with normothermia and early treatment of fever (≥37.8°C) after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

7.
Perfusion ; 34(8): 714-716, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146629

RESUMO

Targeted temperature management and extracorporeal life support, particularly extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary resuscitation, represent outcome-enhancing strategies for patients following in- and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Although targeted temperature management with hypothermia between 32°C and 34°C and extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation bear separate potentials to improve outcome after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, each is associated with bleeding risk and risk of infection. Whether the combination imposes excessive risk on patients is, however, unknown.

8.
Clin Cardiol ; 42(8): 720-727, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31119751

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hyperuricemia is associated with a poorer prognosis in heart failure (HF) patients. Benefits of hyperuricemia treatment with allopurinol have not yet been confirmed in clinical practice. The aim of our work was to assess the benefit of allopurinol treatment in a large cohort of HF patients. METHODS: The prospective acute heart failure registry (AHEAD) was used to select 3160 hospitalized patients with a known level of uric acid (UA) who were discharged in a stable condition. Hyperuricemia was defined as UA ≥500 µmoL/L and/or allopurinol treatment at admission. The patients were classified into three groups: without hyperuricemia, with treated hyperuricemia, and with untreated hyperuricemia at discharge. Two- and five-year all-cause mortality were defined as endpoints. Patients without hyperuricemia, unlike those with hyperuricemia, had a higher left ventricular ejection fraction, a better renal function, and higher hemoglobin levels, had less frequently diabetes mellitus and atrial fibrillation, and showed better tolerance to treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers and/or beta-blockers. RESULTS: In a primary analysis, the patients without hyperuricemia had the highest survival rate. After using the propensity score to set up comparable groups, the patients without hyperuricemia had a similar 5-year survival rate as those with untreated hyperuricemia (42.0% vs 39.7%, P = 0.362) whereas those with treated hyperuricemia had a poorer prognosis (32.4% survival rate, P = 0.006 vs non-hyperuricemia group and P = 0.073 vs untreated group). CONCLUSION: Hyperuricemia was associated with an unfavorable cardiovascular risk profile in HF patients. Treatment with low doses of allopurinol did not improve the prognosis of HF patients.

9.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(8): 998-1007, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31134724

RESUMO

AIMS: To assess tolerability and optimal time point for initiation of sacubitril/valsartan in patients stabilised after acute heart failure (AHF). METHODS AND RESULTS: TRANSITION was a randomised, multicentre, open-label study comparing two treatment initiation modalities of sacubitril/valsartan. Patients aged ≥ 18 years, hospitalised for AHF were stratified according to pre-admission use of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors and randomised (n = 1002) after stabilisation to initiate sacubitril/valsartan either ≥ 12-h pre-discharge or between Days 1-14 post-discharge. Starting dose (as per label) was 24/26 mg or 49/51 mg bid with up- or down-titration based on tolerability. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients attaining 97/103 mg bid target dose after 10 weeks. Median time of first dose of sacubitril/valsartan from the day of discharge was Day -1 and Day +1 in the pre-discharge group and the post-discharge group, respectively. Comparable proportions of patients in the pre- and post-discharge initiation groups met the primary endpoint [45.4% vs. 50.7%; risk ratio (RR) 0.90; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.79-1.02]. The proportion of patients who achieved and maintained for ≥ 2 weeks leading to Week 10, either 49/51 or 97/103 mg bid was 62.1% vs. 68.5% (RR 0.91; 95% CI 0.83-0.99); or any dose was 86.0% vs. 89.6% (RR 0.96; 95% CI 0.92-1.01). Discontinuation due to adverse events occurred in 7.3% vs. 4.9% of patients (RR 1.49; 95% CI 0.90-2.46). CONCLUSIONS: Initiation of sacubitril/valsartan in a wide range of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction patients stabilised after an AHF event, either in hospital or shortly after discharge, is feasible with about half of the patients achieving target dose within 10 weeks. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT02661217.

10.
Perfusion ; 34(1_suppl): 74-81, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30966899

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Data on management of severe accidental hypothermia published from an established high-volume extracorporeal membrane oxygenation centre are scarce. METHODS: A total of 28 patients with intravesical temperature lower than 28°C on admission were either treated with veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation or rewarmed conservatively. RESULTS: A total of 10 patients rewarmed on veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (age: 37 ± 12.6 years) and 18 conservatively (age: 55.2 ± 11.2 years) were collected over a course of 5 years. The dominant cause was alcohol intoxication with exposure to cold (39%), 12 patients were resuscitated prior to admission. The admission temperature in the extracorporeal membrane oxygenation group (23.8 ± 2.6°C) was lower than in the non-extracorporeal membrane oxygenation group (26.0 ± 1.5°C, p = 0.01). The peripheral percutaneous veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was always cannulated in malignant arrhythmias causing refractory cardiac arrest. The typical extracorporeal membrane oxygenation blood flow was 3-4 L/minute and sweep gas flow 2 L/minute, the median extracorporeal membrane oxygenation duration was 48.3 (28.1-86.7) hours. The median rates of rewarming did not differ (0.41 (0.35-0.7)°C/hour in extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and 0.77 (0.54-0.98)°C/hour in non-extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, p = 0.46) as well as the admission arterial lactate, pH and potassium. Their development was not different between the groups except for higher pH between the third and ninth hour of rewarming in the extracorporeal membrane oxygenation group. The hospital mortality was 10% in the extracorporeal membrane oxygenation group and 11.1% in the non-extracorporeal membrane oxygenation group with the median last Glasgow Coma Scale 15 and Cerebral Performance Score 1. CONCLUSION: Veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for severe hypothermia shows promising outcome data collected in an extracorporeal membrane oxygenation/extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation centre located in a European urban area. Except for presence of refractory cardiac arrest, the established hypothermia-related prognostic indicators did not differ between patients in need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and those rewarmed without extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.


Assuntos
Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/efeitos adversos , Hipotermia/etiologia , Adulto , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Hipotermia/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
11.
Perfusion ; 34(1_suppl): 65-73, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30966909

RESUMO

The use of extracorporeal life support devices such as extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in adults requires cannulation of the patient's vessels with comparatively large diameter cannulae to allow circulation of large volumes of blood (>5 L/min). The cannula diameter and length are the major determinants for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation flow. Manufacturing companies present pressure-flow charts for the cannulae; however, these tests are performed with water. Aims of this study were 1. to investigate the specified pressure-flow charts obtained when using human blood as the circulating medium and 2. to support extracorporeal membrane oxygenation providers with pressure-flow data for correct choice of the cannula to reach an optimal flow with optimal hydrodynamic performance. Eighteen extracorporeal membrane oxygenation drainage cannulae, donated by the manufacturers (n = 6), were studied in a centrifugal pump driven mock loop. Pressure-flow properties and cannula features were described. The results showed that when blood with a hematocrit of 27% was used, the drainage pressure was consistently higher for a given flow (range 10%-350%) than when water was used (data from each respective manufacturer's product information). It is concluded that the information provided by manufacturers in line with regulatory guidelines does not correspond to clinical performance and therefore may not provide the best guidance for clinicians.


Assuntos
Cânula , Cateterismo/métodos , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/instrumentação , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Veias
12.
Perfusion ; 34(1_suppl): 58-64, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30966910

RESUMO

Adequate extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support in the adult requires cannulae permitting blood flows up to 6-8 L/minute. In accordance with Poiseuille's law, flow is proportional to the fourth power of cannula inner diameter and inversely proportional to its length. Poiseuille's law can be applied to obtain the pressure drop of an incompressible, Newtonian fluid (such as water) flowing in a cylindrical tube. However, as blood is a pseudoplastic non-Newtonian fluid, the validity of Poiseuille's law is questionable for prediction of cannula properties in clinical practice. Pressure-flow charts with non-Newtonian fluids, such as blood, are typically not provided by the manufacturers. A standardized laboratory test of return (arterial) cannulae for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was performed. The aim was to determine pressure-flow data with human whole blood in addition to manufacturers' water tests to facilitate an appropriate choice of cannula for the desired flow range. In total, 14 cannulae from three manufacturers were tested. Data concerning design, characteristics, and performance were graphically presented for each tested cannula. Measured blood flows were in most cases 3-21% lower than those provided by manufacturers. This was most pronounced in the narrow cannulae (15-17 Fr) where the reduction ranged from 27% to 40% at low flows and 5-15% in the upper flow range. These differences were less apparent with increasing cannula diameter. There was a marked disparity between manufacturers. Based on the measured results, testing of cannulae including whole blood flows in a standardized bench test would be recommended.


Assuntos
Cânula , Cateterismo/métodos , Desenho de Equipamento/instrumentação , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/instrumentação , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Humanos
13.
Resuscitation ; 133: 108-117, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30336233

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) describes the use of blood perfusion devices to provide advanced cardiac or respiratory support. Advances in percutaneous vascular cannula insertion, centrifugal pump technologies, and the miniaturization of extracorporeal devices have simplified ECLS. The intention of this discussion is to review the role of ECLS as a potential rescue method for emergency department (ED) clinicians in critical clinical scenarios and to focus on the prerequisites for managing an ECLS program in an ED setting. DISCUSSION: Possible indications for ECLS cannulation in the ED include ongoing circulatory arrest, shock or refractory hypoxemia and pulmonary embolism with refractory shock. Severe trauma, foreign body obstruction, hypothermia and near drowning are situations in which patients may potentially benefit from ECLS. Early stabilization in the ED can provide a time window for a diagnostic workup and/or urgent procedures, including percutaneous coronary intervention, rewarming or damage control surgery in trauma. The use of ECLS is resource intensive and can be associated with a high risk of complications, especially when performed without previous training. Therefore, ECLS should only be used when the underlying problem is potentially reversible, and the resources are available to address the etiology of organ dysfunction. CONCLUSION: Emergent ECLS has a role in the ED for selected indications in the face of life-threatening conditions. ECLS provides a bridge to recovery, definitive therapy, intervention or surgery. ECLS program requires an appropriately trained staff (physicians, nurses and ECLS specialists), equipment resources and logistical planning.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/métodos , Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/efeitos adversos , Heparina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Tromboembolia/etiologia , Tromboembolia/prevenção & controle
14.
Eur Heart J Suppl ; 20(Suppl A): A19-A24, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30188957

RESUMO

Atrial fibrillation (AFib) is frequently associated with heart failure. Guidelines for AFib management have been recently updated and include an algorithm for acute heart rate control based on left ventricular ejection fraction and haemodynamics. Landiolol is an injectable ultra-short beta-blocker with very high beta-1 selectivity, listed in Japanese Guidelines for AFib management as potential option for rate control of patient with heart failure. Landiolol is now available in Europe with indication of controlling heart rate in AFib and supraventricular tachycardia. This review discusses existing clinical data in Japan and perspectives of landiolol use for acute rate control of AFib patients with cardiac dysfunction.

15.
Intensive Care Med Exp ; 6(1): 36, 2018 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30251225

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We studied a novel approach for the evaluation and management of volemia: minimally invasive monitoring of respiratory blood flow variations in the superior vena cava (SVC). We performed an experiment with 10 crossbred (Landrace × large white) female pigs (Sus scrofa domestica). METHODS: Hypovolemia was induced by bleeding from a femoral artery, in six stages. This was followed by blood return and then an infusion of 1000 ml saline, resulting in hypervolemia. Flow in the SVC was measured by Flowire (Volcano corp., USA), located in a distal channel of a triple-lumen central venous catheter. The key parameters measured were venous return variation index (VRV)-a new index for fluid responsiveness, calculated from the maximal and minimal velocity time intervals during controlled ventilation-and systolic peak velocity (defined as peak velocity of a systolic wave using the final end-expiratory beat). A Swan-Ganz catheter (Edwards Lifesciences, USA) was introduced into the pulmonary artery to measure pulmonary arterial pressure, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, and continuous cardiac output measurements, using the Vigilance monitor (Edwards Lifesciences, USA). RESULTS: We analyzed 44 VRV index measurements during defined hemodynamic status events. The curves of VRV indexes for volume responders and volume non-responders intersected at a VRV value of 27, with 10% false negativity and 2% false positivity. We compared the accuracy of VRV and pulse pressure variations (PPV) for separation of fluid responders and fluid non-responders using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. VRV was better (AUCROC 0.96) than PPV (AUCROC 0.85) for identification of fluid responders. The VRV index exhibited the highest relative change during both hypovolemia and hypervolemia, compared to standard hemodynamic measurement. CONCLUSIONS: The VRV index provides a real-time method for continuous assessment of fluid responsiveness. It combines the advantages of echocardiography-based methods with a direct and continuous assessment of right ventricular filling during mechanical ventilation.

16.
Perfusion ; 33(1_suppl): 31-41, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29788834

RESUMO

Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) is a mainstay of current practice in severe respiratory, circulatory or cardiac failure refractory to conventional management. The inherent complexity of different ECLS modes and their influence on the native pulmonary and cardiovascular system require patient-specific tailoring to optimize outcome. Echocardiography plays a key role throughout the ECLS care, including patient selection, adequate placement of cannulas, monitoring, weaning and follow-up after decannulation. For this purpose, echocardiographers require specific ECLS-related knowledge and skills, which are outlined here.


Assuntos
Ecocardiografia/métodos , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/métodos , Cuidados para Prolongar a Vida/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
17.
Perfusion ; 33(1_suppl): 65-70, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29788845

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Relationship between regional tissue oxygenation (rSO2) and microcirculatory changes during cardiac arrest (CA) are still unclear. Therefore, we designed an experimental study to correlate rSO2, microcirculation and systemic hemodynamic parameters in a porcine model of CA. METHODS: Ventricular fibrillation was induced in 24 female pigs (50±3kg) and left for three minutes untreated followed by five minutes of mechanical CPR. Regional and peripheral saturations were assessed by near-infrared spectroscopy, sublingual microcirculation by Sidestream Dark Field technology and continuous hemodynamic parameters, including systemic blood pressure (MAP) and carotid blood flow (CF), during baseline, CA and CPR periods. The Wilcoxon Signed-Rank test, the Friedman test and the partial correlation method were used to compare these parameters. RESULTS: Brain and peripheral rSO2 showed a gradual decrease during CA and only an increase of brain rSO2 during mechanical CPR (34.5 to 42.5; p=0.0001), reflected by a rapid decrease of microcirculatory and hemodynamic parameters during CA and a slight increase during CPR. Peripheral rSO2 was not changed significantly during CPR (38 to 38.5; p=0.09). We only found a moderate correlation of cerebral/peripheral rSO2 to microcirculatory parameters (PVD: r=0.53/0.46; PPV: r=0.6/0.5 and MFI: r=0.64/0.52) and hemodynamic parameters (MAP: r=0.64/0.71 and CF: 0.71/0.67). CONCLUSIONS: Our experimental study confirmed that monitoring brain and peripheral rSO2 is an easy-to-use method, well reflecting the hemodynamics during CA. However, only brain rSO2 reflects the CPR efforts and might be used as a potential quality indicator for CPR.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Oximetria/métodos , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Animais , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Feminino , Parada Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Suínos
18.
Perfusion ; 33(7): 553-561, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29792775

RESUMO

This review summarizes the European rules to control the market when introducing new products. In particular, it shows all the steps to achieve the European Conformity (CE Mark), a certification that all new medical products must achieve before being used in Europe. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) devices are exposed to the same procedures. Hereby, we present some regulatory issues regarding pumps and oxygenators, providing technical details as released by the manufacturers on their websites and information charts.


Assuntos
Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/métodos , Coração Auxiliar/normas , Europa (Continente) , Humanos
19.
Perfusion ; 33(7): 599-601, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29658403

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Lung agenesis is a rare disorder with a variable, but potentially very bad clinical course. It necessitates complex clinical management, especially in life-threatening situations. CASE REPORT: We describe a case of a 6-month-old girl with right lung agenesis who required venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO) due to pneumonia complicated by exacerbated previously diagnosed left main bronchus stenosis. The stenosis was resolved by endobronchial intervention and X-ray-guided stent insertion, which enabled weaning from ECMO and was aimed at preventing such a life-threatening respiratory failure in the future. Unfortunately, even with the functional stent, the baby died 2 months post-procedure due to unresolvable bronchial spasms. DISCUSSION: Despite high endobronchial stenting-related mortality in children, in cases where no effective pharmacological or surgical alternatives exist, stenting may be safely performed during VV-ECMO support and be a viable option to overcome critical respiratory failure caused by bronchial stenosis.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/cirurgia , Brônquios/anormalidades , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/métodos , Pneumopatias/cirurgia , Pulmão/anormalidades , Insuficiência Respiratória/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Pulmão/cirurgia , Insuficiência Respiratória/patologia
20.
Case Rep Med ; 2018: 5686790, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29560009

RESUMO

Introduction: Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) is a challenging approach for treating refractory out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Case Presentation: The authors describe a case of a 40-year-old Caucasian female who suffered from refractory OHCA, was admitted to a hospital while receiving ongoing cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and was connected to venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation 73 minutes after collapse. Ventricular tachyarrhythmias alternating with pulseless electrical activity resolved after eight hours. Following complete cardiac and neurological recovery, only adenoviral genome was found in myocardial biopsy. After 11 months, another episode of identical arrhythmias was rescued by an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. Conclusion: Adequate prehospital and early hospital logistics is a prerequisite for successfully implementing extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation for refractory OHCA.

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