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1.
Allergy ; 74(9): 1691-1702, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30793327

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary complications are responsible for high morbidity and mortality rates in patients with the rare immunodeficiency disorder STAT3 hyper-IgE syndrome (STAT3-HIES). The aim of this study was to expand knowledge about lung disease in STAT3-HIES. METHODS: The course of pulmonary disease, radiological and histopathological interrelations, therapeutic management, and the outcome of 14 STAT3-HIES patients were assessed. RESULTS: The patients' quality of life was compromised most by pulmonary disease. All 14 patients showed first signs of lung disease at a median onset of 1.5 years of age. Lung function revealed a mixed obstructive-restrictive impairment with reduced FEV1 and FVC in 75% of the patients. The severity of lung function impairment was associated with Aspergillus fumigatus infection and prior lung surgery. Severe lung tissue damage, with reduced numbers of ATP-binding cassette sub-family A member 3 (ABCA3) positive type II pneumocytes, was observed in the histological assessment of two deceased patients. Imaging studies of all patients above 6 years of age showed severe airway and parenchyma destruction. Lung surgeries frequently led to complications, including fistula formation. Long-term antifungal and antibacterial treatment proved to be beneficial, as were inhalation therapy, chest physiotherapy, and exercise. Regular immunoglobulin replacement therapy tended to stabilize lung function. CONCLUSIONS: Due to its severity, pulmonary disease in STAT3-HIES patients requires strict monitoring and intensive therapy.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30391550

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biallelic variations in the DOCK8 gene cause a combined immunodeficiency with eczema, recurrent bacterial and viral infections, and malignancy. Natural disease outcome is dismal, but allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) can cure the disease. OBJECTIVE: To determine outcome of HSCT for DOCK8 deficiency and define possible outcome variables. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of the results of HSCT in a large international cohort of DOCK8 deficient patients. RESULTS: We identified 81 patients from 22 centers transplanted at a median age of 9.7 years (range: 0.7-27.2) between 1995 and 2015. After median follow-up of 26 months (3-135), 68 of 81 patients are alive (84%). Severe acute (III-IV) or chronic graft versus host disease (GVHD) occurred in 11% and 10% respectively. Causes of death wereinfections (n=5), GVHD (5), multi-organ failure (2) and pre-existent lymphoma (1). Survival after matched related (n=40) or unrelated (35) HSCT was 89% and 81%, respectively. Reduced toxicity conditioning based on either treosulfan or reduced-dose busulfan resulted in superior survival compared to fully myeloablative busulfan-based regimens (97% vs. 78%; p=0.049). 96% of patients aged <8 years at HSCT survived, compared to 78% of those ≥8 years (p=0.06). Of 73 patients with chimerism data available, 65 (89%) had >90% donor T-cell chimerism at last follow-up. Not all disease manifestations responded equally well to HSCT: eczema, infections and Mollusca resolved better than food allergies or failure to thrive. CONCLUSION: HSCT is curative in most DOCK8 deficient patients, confirming this approach as the treatment of choice. HSCT using a reduced toxicity regimen may offer the best chance for survival.

3.
Intensive Care Med ; 44(4): 438-448, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29632995

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The CIGMA study investigated a novel human polyclonal antibody preparation (trimodulin) containing ~ 23% immunoglobulin (Ig) M, ~ 21% IgA, and ~ 56% IgG as add-on therapy for patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia (sCAP). METHODS: In this double-blind, phase II study (NCT01420744), 160 patients with sCAP requiring invasive mechanical ventilation were randomized (1:1) to trimodulin (42 mg IgM/kg/day) or placebo for five consecutive days. Primary endpoint was ventilator-free days (VFDs). Secondary endpoints included 28-day all-cause and pneumonia-related mortality. Safety and tolerability were monitored. Exploratory post hoc analyses were performed in subsets stratified by baseline C-reactive protein (CRP; ≥ 70 mg/L) and/or IgM (≤ 0.8 g/L). RESULTS: Overall, there was no statistically significant difference in VFDs between trimodulin (mean 11.0, median 11 [n = 81]) and placebo (mean 9.6; median 8 [n = 79]; p = 0.173). Twenty-eight-day all-cause mortality was 22.2% vs. 27.8%, respectively (p = 0.465). Time to discharge from intensive care unit and mean duration of hospitalization were comparable between groups. Adverse-event incidences were comparable. Post hoc subset analyses, which included the majority of patients (58-78%), showed significant reductions in all-cause mortality (trimodulin vs. placebo) in patients with high CRP, low IgM, and high CRP/low IgM at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: No significant differences were found in VFDs and mortality between trimodulin and placebo groups. Post hoc analyses supported improved outcome regarding mortality with trimodulin in subsets of patients with elevated CRP, reduced IgM, or both. These findings warrant further investigation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01420744.

4.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 141(1): 322-328.e10, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28392333

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rare DNA breakage repair disorders predispose to infection and lymphoreticular malignancies. Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is curative, but coadministered chemotherapy or radiotherapy is damaging because of systemic radiosensitivity. We collected HCT outcome data for Nijmegen breakage syndrome, DNA ligase IV deficiency, Cernunnos-XRCC4-like factor (Cernunnos-XLF) deficiency, and ataxia-telangiectasia (AT). METHODS: Data from 38 centers worldwide, including indication, donor, conditioning regimen, graft-versus-host disease, and outcome, were analyzed. Conditioning was classified as myeloablative conditioning (MAC) if it contained radiotherapy or alkylators and reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) if no alkylators and/or 150 mg/m2 fludarabine or less and 40 mg/kg cyclophosphamide or less were used. RESULTS: Fifty-five new, 14 updated, and 18 previously published patients were analyzed. Median age at HCT was 48 months (range, 1.5-552 months). Twenty-nine patients underwent transplantation for infection, 21 had malignancy, 13 had bone marrow failure, 13 received pre-emptive transplantation, 5 had multiple indications, and 6 had no information. Twenty-two received MAC, 59 received RIC, and 4 were infused; information was unavailable for 2 patients. Seventy-three of 77 patients with DNA ligase IV deficiency, Cernunnos-XLF deficiency, or Nijmegen breakage syndrome received conditioning. Survival was 53 (69%) of 77 and was worse for those receiving MAC than for those receiving RIC (P = .006). Most deaths occurred early after transplantation, suggesting poor tolerance of conditioning. Survival in patients with AT was 25%. Forty-one (49%) of 83 patients experienced acute GvHD, which was less frequent in those receiving RIC compared with those receiving MAC (26/56 [46%] vs 12/21 [57%], P = .45). Median follow-up was 35 months (range, 2-168 months). No secondary malignancies were reported during 15 years of follow-up. Growth and developmental delay remained after HCT; immune-mediated complications resolved. CONCLUSION: RIC HCT resolves DNA repair disorder-associated immunodeficiency. Long-term follow-up is required for secondary malignancy surveillance. Routine HCT for AT is not recommended.

5.
Eur J Paediatr Neurol ; 22(1): 72-81, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28927886

RESUMO

To investigate frequency and phenotype of TNFRSF1A and MEFV mutations in childhood-onset multiple sclerosis (MS). Twenty-nine clinically well characterized patients were investigated for mutations in exons 2, 3, 4, and 6 of the TNFRSF1A gene and in exons 2, 3, 9, 10 of the MEFV gene. Standardized morbidity ratio (SMR) was used to assess whether the number of observed mutations was higher than expected. Eleven out of 29 patients tested positive for mutations. Heterozygosity for the TNFRSF1A R92Q (rs4149584) variant was found in 6/11 mutation-positive patients. The SMR for R92Q in our pediatric MS population was 4.6 (95% CI 1.7-10.0), 7.0 (95% CI 2.6-15.2), and 13.6 (95% CI 5.0-29.7), depending on reference population. Six patients carried at least one heterozygous MEFV mutation with SMRs of 21.4 (95% CI 7.9-46.6) and 14.6 (95% CI 5.4-31.9). Clinical characteristics of childhood MS patients with or without mutations did not differ significantly. Conclusion One third of our childhood MS patients had a heterozygous mutation in the TNFRSF1A and/or MEFV gene. This proportion by far exceeds the number of mutations expected and was higher than in adult MS patients, suggesting that these mutations might contribute to the pathogenesis of childhood MS.


Assuntos
Esclerose Múltipla/genética , Pirina/genética , Receptores Tipo I de Fatores de Necrose Tumoral/genética , Adolescente , Idade de Início , Criança , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação
6.
Blood Cells Mol Dis ; 66: 50-57, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28886419

RESUMO

In a male patient suffering from X-linked chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) we found a c.389G>T mutation in exon 5 of the CYBB gene. We have analyzed why 95% of the transcripts of this gene lacked exon 5, leading to a frameshift and premature termination codon. The mutation was located in a region comprising three putative exonic splicing enhancer binding sites, for SRSF1, SRFS2 and SRFS6, according to the ESEfinder Tool (http://rulai.cshl.edu/cgi-bin/tools/ESE3/esefinder.cgi). With the Analyser Splice Tool we calculated the probability of skipping of exon 5 in CYBB mRNA, and by means of Sroogle the number of putative binding motifs for splicing enhancer and splicing silencer proteins (http://astlab.tau.ac.il/index.php). These analyses clarify why this exon was skipped in the majority of the mRNA. The normally spliced transcript contains an amino acid change p.Arg130Leu. This poorly expressed transcript gives rise to a protein with low expression but presumably normal activity, leading to a respiratory burst activity in the patient's neutrophils of about 15% of normal.


Assuntos
Doença Granulomatosa Crônica/genética , Mutação , NADPH Oxidase 2/genética , Processamento de RNA/genética , Códon sem Sentido , Éxons , Humanos , Masculino , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Fosfoproteínas/genética , Explosão Respiratória , Fatores de Processamento de Serina-Arginina/genética
7.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 139(1): 212-219.e3, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27458052

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most common enzymatic disorder of red blood cells in human subjects, causing hemolytic anemia linked to impaired nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) production and imbalanced redox homeostasis in erythrocytes. Because G6PD is expressed by a variety of hematologic and nonhematologic cells, a broader clinical phenotype could be postulated in G6PD-deficient patients. We describe 3 brothers with severe G6PD deficiency and susceptibility to bacterial infection. OBJECTIVE: We sought to study the molecular pathophysiology leading to susceptibility to infection in 3 siblings with severe G6PD deficiency. METHODS: Blood samples of 3 patients with severe G6PD deficiency were analyzed for G6PD enzyme activity, cellular oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate/NADPH levels, phagocytic reactive oxygen species production, neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation, and neutrophil elastase translocation. RESULTS: In these 3 brothers strongly reduced NADPH oxidase function was found in granulocytes, leading to impaired NET formation. Defective NET formation has thus far been only observed in patients with the NADPH oxidase deficiency chronic granulomatous disease, who require antibiotic and antimycotic prophylaxis to prevent life-threatening bacterial and fungal infections. CONCLUSION: Because severe G6PD deficiency can be a phenocopy of chronic granulomatous disease with regard to the cellular and clinical phenotype, careful evaluation of neutrophil function seems mandatory in these patients to decide on appropriate anti-infective preventive measures. Determining the level of G6PD enzyme activity should be followed by analysis of reactive oxygen species production and NET formation to decide on required antibiotic and antimycotic prophylaxis.


Assuntos
Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Armadilhas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Deficiência de Glucosefosfato Desidrogenase , Infecções Bacterianas , Criança , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Glucosefosfato Desidrogenase/genética , Glucosefosfato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Deficiência de Glucosefosfato Desidrogenase/diagnóstico , Deficiência de Glucosefosfato Desidrogenase/genética , Deficiência de Glucosefosfato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Granulócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Lactente , Elastase de Leucócito/metabolismo , Masculino , NADP/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
8.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 137(1): 223-230, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26768763

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: LPS-responsive beige-like anchor protein (LRBA) deficiency is a primary immunodeficiency caused by biallelic mutations in LRBA that abolish LRBA protein expression. OBJECTIVE: We sought to report the extended phenotype of LRBA deficiency in a cohort of 22 LRBA-deficient patients. METHODS: Clinical criteria, protein detection, and genetic sequencing were applied to diagnose LRBA deficiency. RESULTS: Ninety-three patients met the inclusion criteria and were considered to have possible LRBA deficiency. Twenty-four patients did not express LRBA protein and were labeled as having probable LRBA deficiency, whereas 22 were genetically confirmed as having definitive LRBA deficiency, with biallelic mutations in LRBA. Seventeen of these were novel and included homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations. Immune dysregulation (95%), organomegaly (86%), recurrent infections (71%), and hypogammaglobulinemia (57%) were the main clinical complications observed in LRBA-deficient patients. Although 81% of LRBA-deficient patients had normal T-cell counts, 73% had reduced regulatory T (Treg) cell numbers. Most LRBA-deficient patients had low B-cell subset counts, mainly in switched memory B cells (80%) and plasmablasts (92%), with a defective specific antibody response in 67%. Of the 22 patients, 3 are deceased, 2 were treated successfully with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, 7 are receiving immunoglobulin replacement, and 15 are receiving immunosuppressive treatment with systemic corticosteroids alone or in combination with steroid-sparing agents. CONCLUSION: This report describes the largest cohort of patients with LRBA deficiency and offers guidelines for physicians to identify LRBA deficiency, supporting appropriate clinical management.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/deficiência , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Adolescente , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/tratamento farmacológico , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/imunologia , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/metabolismo , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/terapia , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Lactente , Masculino , Mutação , Fenótipo , Linfócitos T/imunologia
9.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 27(2): 177-84, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26592211

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hyper-IgE syndromes (HIES) are primary immunodeficiency disorders characterized by elevated serum IgE, eczema, and recurrent infections. Despite the availability of confirmatory molecular diagnosis of several distinct HIES entities, the differentiation of HIES particularly from severe forms of atopic dermatitis remains a challenge. The two most common forms of HIES are caused by mutations in the genes STAT3 and DOCK8. METHODS: Here, we assess the clinical and immunologic phenotype of DOCK8- and STAT3-HIES patients including the cell activation, proliferation, and cytokine release after stimulation. RESULTS: Existing HIES scoring systems are helpful to identify HIES patients. However, those scores may fail in infants and young children due to the age-related lack of clinical symptoms. Furthermore, our long-term observations showed a striking variation of laboratory results over time in the individual patient. Reduced memory B-cell counts in concert with low specific antibody production are the most consistent findings likely contributing to the high susceptibility to bacterial and fungal infection. In DOCK8-HIES, T-cell lymphopenia and low IFN-gamma secretion after stimulation were common, likely promoting viral infections. In contrast to STAT3-HIES, DOCK8-HIES patients showed more severe inflammation with regard to allergic manifestations, elevated activation markers (HLA-DR, CD69, CD86, and CD154), and significantly increased inflammatory cytokines (IL1-beta, IL4, IL6, and IFN-gamma). CONCLUSION: Differentiating HIES from other diseases such as atopic dermatitis early in life is essential for patients because treatment modalities differ. To expedite the diagnosis process, we propose here a diagnostic workflow.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica/diagnóstico , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/genética , Síndrome de Job/diagnóstico , Mutação/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/genética , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Células Cultivadas , Pré-Escolar , Citocinas/metabolismo , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Memória Imunológica , Lactente , Síndrome de Job/genética , Ativação Linfocitária/genética , Masculino , Linfócitos T/imunologia
10.
J Crohns Colitis ; 10(1): 112-5, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26464403

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: X-linked chronic granulomatous disease [X-CGD] due to hemizygous mutations in CYBB is characterised by invasive bacterial and fungal infections and granulomatous inflammation. Inflammatory bowel disease [IBD] is an additional or isolated manifestation. Allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation [alloHSCT] is the standard curative treatment. X-CGD carriers are usually healthy but those with non-random X-chromosome inactivation [XCI] may develop infectious or autoinflammatory manifestations. METHODS AND RESULTS: We report on two female patients with severe treatment-refractory Crohn-like IBD manifesting at age 23 and 8 years, respectively. NADPH-oxidase activity testing and molecular genetics proved X-CGD carrier status with non-random XCI. As in CGD, histopathology from colonic biopsies disclosed pigment-laden macrophages and reduced CD68(+) macrophages. Following submyelo-ablative conditioning, the younger patient was treated with alloHSCT at age 20 years. She came into remission within 3 months after transplantation and shows complete mucosal healing after 16 months off all medications. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that children and young adults with refractory IBD should mandatorily be tested for CGD. AlloHSCT should be considered as curative therapy in severely diseased female carriers of X-CGD with non-random XCI.


Assuntos
Doença de Crohn/genética , Doença de Crohn/terapia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Doença Granulomatosa Crônica/genética , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , NADPH Oxidases/genética , Adulto , Aloenxertos , Biópsia por Agulha , Doença de Crohn/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , NADPH Oxidase 2 , Medição de Risco , Amostragem , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento , Inativação do Cromossomo X/genética , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Clin Immunol ; 35(6): 538-49, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26271390

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome (NBS) is a rare inherited condition, characterized by microcephaly, chromosomal instability, immunodeficiency, and predisposition to malignancy. This retrospective study, characterizing the clinical and immunological status of patients with NBS at time of diagnosis, was designed to assess whether any parameters were useful in disease prognosis, and could help determine patients qualified for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. METHODS: The clinical and immunological characteristics of 149 NBS patients registered in the online database of the European Society for Immune Deficiencies were analyzed. RESULTS: Of the 149 NBS patients, 91 (61%), of median age 14.3 years, remained alive at the time of analysis. These patients were clinically heterogeneous, with variable immune defects, ranging from negligible to severe dysfunction. Humoral deficiencies predisposed NBS patients to recurrent/chronic respiratory tract infections and worsened long-term clinical prognosis. Eighty malignancies, most of lymphoid origin (especially non-Hodgkin's lymphomas), were diagnosed in 42% of patients, with malignancy being the leading cause of death in this cohort. Survival probabilities at 5, 10, 20 and 30 years of age were 95, 85, 50 and 35%, respectively, and were significantly lower in patients with than without malignancies. CONCLUSIONS: The extremely high incidence of malignancies, mostly non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, was the main risk factor affecting survival probability in NBS patients. Because treatment of NBS is very difficult and frequently unsuccessful, the search for an alternative medical intervention such as hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is of great clinical importance.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Síndrome de Quebra de Nijmegen/diagnóstico , Fatores de Tempo , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Instabilidade Cromossômica , Feminino , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência , Lactente , Linfoma não Hodgkin , Masculino , Microcefalia , Síndrome de Quebra de Nijmegen/genética , Síndrome de Quebra de Nijmegen/terapia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 134(1): 116-26, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24582312

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is an antibody deficiency with an equal sex distribution and a high variability in clinical presentation. The main features include respiratory tract infections and their associated complications, enteropathy, autoimmunity, and lymphoproliferative disorders. OBJECTIVE: This study analyzes the clinical presentation, association between clinical features, and differences and effects of immunoglobulin treatment in Europe. METHODS: Data on 2212 patients with CVID from 28 medical centers contributing to the European Society for Immunodeficiencies Database were analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS: Early disease onset (<10 years) was very frequent in our cohort (33.7%), especially in male subjects (39.8%). Male subjects with early-onset CVID were more prone to pneumonia and less prone to other complications suggesting a distinct disease entity. The diagnostic delay of CVID ranges between 4 and 5 years in many countries and is particularly high in subjects with early-onset CVID. Enteropathy, autoimmunity, granulomas, and splenomegaly formed a set of interrelated features, whereas bronchiectasis was not associated with any other clinical feature. Patient survival in this cohort was associated with age at onset and age at diagnosis only. There were different treatment strategies in Europe, with considerable differences in immunoglobulin dosing, ranging from 130 up to 750 mg/kg/mo. Patients with very low trough levels of less than 4 g/L had poor clinical outcomes, whereas higher trough levels were associated with a reduced frequency of serious bacterial infections. CONCLUSION: Patients with CVID are being managed differently throughout Europe, affecting various outcome measures. Clinically, CVID is a truly variable antibody deficiency syndrome.


Assuntos
Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/complicações , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/complicações , Pneumonia/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Idade de Início , Autoimunidade , Bronquiectasia/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/tratamento farmacológico , Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/imunologia , Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/mortalidade , Diagnóstico Tardio , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/imunologia , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/mortalidade , Masculino , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia/imunologia , Pneumonia/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Esplenomegalia/patologia , Análise de Sobrevida
13.
J Clin Immunol ; 34(3): 331-9, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24519095

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Loss-of-function mutations in IL10 and IL10R cause very early onset inflammatory bowel disease (VEO-IBD). Here, we investigated the molecular pathomechanism of a novel intronic IL10RA mutation and describe a new therapeutic approach of T cell replete haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). METHODS: Clinical data were collected by chart review. Genotypes of IL10 and IL10R genes were determined by Sanger sequencing. Expression and function of mutated IL-10R1 were assessed by quantitative PCR, Western blot analysis, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, confocal microscopy, and flow cytometry. RESULTS: We identified a novel homozygous point mutation in intron 3 of the IL10RA (c.368-10C > G) in three related children with VEO-IBD. Bioinformatical analysis predicted an additional 3' splice site created by the mutation. Quantitative PCR analysis showed normal mRNA expression of mutated IL10RA. Sequencing of the patient's cDNA revealed an insertion of the last nine nucleotides of intron 3 as a result of aberrant splicing. Structure-based modeling suggested misfolding of mutated IL-10R1. Western blot analysis demonstrated a different N-linked glycosylation pattern of mutated protein. Immunofluorescence and FACS analysis revealed impaired expression of mutated IL-10R1 at the plasma membrane. In the absence of HLA-identical donors, T cell replete haploidentical HSCT was successfully performed in two patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings expand the spectrum of IL10R mutations in VEO-IBD and emphasize the need for genetic diagnosis of mutations in conserved non-coding sequences of candidate genes. Transplantation of haploidentical stem cells represents a curative therapy in IL-10R-deficient patients, but may be complicated by non-engraftment.


Assuntos
Transplante de Medula Óssea , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/metabolismo , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/terapia , Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Idade de Início , Processamento Alternativo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Linhagem Celular , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Consanguinidade , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Genótipo , Glicosilação , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/genética , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/imunologia , Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-10/química , Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-10/genética , Íntrons , Masculino , Modelos Moleculares , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Mutação , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Conformação Proteica , Transporte Proteico , Alinhamento de Sequência , Transdução de Sinais , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Lancet ; 383(9915): 436-48, 2014 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24161820

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In chronic granulomatous disease allogeneic haemopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) in adolescents and young adults and patients with high-risk disease is complicated by graft-failure, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and transplant-related mortality. We examined the effect of a reduced-intensity conditioning regimen designed to enhance myeloid engraftment and reduce organ toxicity in these patients. METHODS: This prospective study was done at 16 centres in ten countries worldwide. Patients aged 0-40 years with chronic granulomatous disease were assessed and enrolled at the discretion of individual centres. Reduced-intensity conditioning consisted of high-dose fludarabine (30 mg/m(2) [infants <9 kg 1·2 mg/kg]; one dose per day on days -8 to -3), serotherapy (anti-thymocyte globulin [10 mg/kg, one dose per day on days -4 to -1; or thymoglobuline 2·5 mg/kg, one dose per day on days -5 to -3]; or low-dose alemtuzumab [<1 mg/kg on days -8 to -6]), and low-dose (50-72% of myeloablative dose) or targeted busulfan administration (recommended cumulative area under the curve: 45-65 mg/L × h). Busulfan was administered mainly intravenously and exceptionally orally from days -5 to -3. Intravenous busulfan was dosed according to weight-based recommendations and was administered in most centres (ten) twice daily over 4 h. Unmanipulated bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cells from HLA-matched related-donors or HLA-9/10 or HLA-10/10 matched unrelated-donors were infused. The primary endpoints were overall survival and event-free survival (EFS), probabilities of overall survival and EFS at 2 years, incidence of acute and chronic GVHD, achievement of at least 90% myeloid donor chimerism, and incidence of graft failure after at least 6 months of follow-up. FINDINGS: 56 patients (median age 12·7 years; IQR 6·8-17·3) with chronic granulomatous disease were enrolled from June 15, 2003, to Dec 15, 2012. 42 patients (75%) had high-risk features (ie, intractable infections and autoinflammation), 25 (45%) were adolescents and young adults (age 14-39 years). 21 HLA-matched related-donor and 35 HLA-matched unrelated-donor transplants were done. Median time to engraftment was 19 days (IQR 16-22) for neutrophils and 21 days (IQR 16-25) for platelets. At median follow-up of 21 months (IQR 13-35) overall survival was 93% (52 of 56) and EFS was 89% (50 of 56). The 2-year probability of overall survival was 96% (95% CI 86·46-99·09) and of EFS was 91% (79·78-96·17). Graft-failure occurred in 5% (three of 56) of patients. The cumulative incidence of acute GVHD of grade III-IV was 4% (two of 56) and of chronic graft-versus-host disease was 7% (four of 56). Stable (≥90%) myeloid donor chimerism was documented in 52 (93%) surviving patients. INTERPRETATION: This reduced-intensity conditioning regimen is safe and efficacious in high-risk patients with chronic granulomatous disease. FUNDING: None.


Assuntos
Doença Granulomatosa Crônica/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Alemtuzumab , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Soro Antilinfocitário/administração & dosagem , Bussulfano/administração & dosagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Quimioterapia Combinada , Sobrevivência de Enxerto/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/prevenção & controle , Antígenos HLA , Humanos , Imunossupressores/administração & dosagem , Lactente , Estudos Prospectivos , Quimeras de Transplante/fisiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Vidarabina/administração & dosagem , Vidarabina/análogos & derivados , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Clin Immunol ; 33(6): 1088-99, 2013 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23708964

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study reports the identification of a novel heterozygous IKBA missense mutation (p.M37K) in a boy presenting with ectodermal dysplasia with immunodeficiency (EDA-ID) who had wild type IKBKG gene encoding NEMO. Our aim was to characterize the clinical course of this IκB-α gain-of-function mutant and to investigate if the p.M37K substitution affects NF-κB activation by interfering with IκB-α degradation, thus impairing NF-κB signaling and causing the EDA-ID phenotype. METHODS: NF-κB signaling was evaluated by measuring IκB-α degradation in patient fibroblasts. In addition, transiently transfected HeLa cells expressing either the M37K-mutant IκB-α allele, the previously characterized S36A-mutant IκB-α allele, or wild type IκB-α were evaluated for IκB-α degradation and NF-κB nuclear translocation following stimulation with TNF-α. RESULTS: Clinical findings revealed a classical ectodermal dysplasia phenotype complicated by recurrent mucocutaneous candidiasis, hypothyroidism, hypopituitarism, and profound combined immunodeficiency with decreased numbers of IL-17 T cells. IκB-α degradation after TNF-α and TLR agonist stimulation was abolished in patient fibroblasts as well as in HeLa cells expressing M37K-IκB-α similar to cells expressing S36A-IκB-α resulting in impaired nuclear translocation of NF-κB and reduced NF-κB dependent luciferase activity compared to cells expressing wild type IκB-α. Patient whole blood cells failed to secrete IL-6 in response to IL-1ß, Pam2CSK4, showed reduced responses to LPS and PMA/Ionomycin, and lacked IL-10 production in response to TNF-α. CONCLUSION: The novel heterozygous mutation p.M37K in IκB-α impairs NF-κB activation causing autosomal dominant EDA-ID with an expanded clinical phenotype.


Assuntos
Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Displasia Ectodérmica/imunologia , Fibroblastos/imunologia , Quinase I-kappa B/metabolismo , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/imunologia , Poliendocrinopatias Autoimunes/imunologia , Transporte Ativo do Núcleo Celular/genética , Pré-Escolar , Citocinas/imunologia , Células HeLa , Humanos , Quinase I-kappa B/genética , Lactente , Ativação Linfocitária/genética , Masculino , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Proteólise , Células Th17/imunologia , Transgenes/genética
16.
J Clin Immunol ; 33(5): 896-902, 2013 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23584561

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Autosomal dominant hyper-IgE syndrome (AD-HIES) due to heterozygous STAT3 mutation is a primary immunodeficiency characterized by eczema, elevated serum IgE, recurrent infections, and connective tissue and skeletal findings. Healing of pneumonias is often abnormal with formation of pneumatoceles and bronchiectasis. We aimed to explore whether healing after lung surgery is also aberrant. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 32 patients with AD-HIES who received lung surgery for the management of pulmonary infections from 1960 to 2011. We collected information including patient demographics, STAT3 mutation status, clinical history, surgical and medical procedures performed, complications, related medical treatments, and outcomes. RESULTS: More than 50% of lung surgeries had associated complications, with the majority being prolonged bronchopleural fistulae. These fistulae often led to empyemas that necessitated additional interventions including prolonged antibiotics, prolonged thoracostomy tube drainage and re-operations. CONCLUSION: Lung surgery in AD-HIES patients is associated with high complication rates. STAT3 mutations likely lead to abnormalities in tissue remodelling that are further exacerbated by infection.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Job/imunologia , Síndrome de Job/fisiopatologia , Pneumopatias/fisiopatologia , Pneumopatias/cirurgia , Cicatrização/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Pulmão/cirurgia , Pneumopatias/genética , Pneumopatias/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/genética , Cicatrização/genética , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 131(3): 840-8, 2013 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23380217

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dedicator of cytokinesis 8 (DOCK8) mutations are responsible for a rare primary combined immunodeficiency syndrome associated with severe cutaneous viral infections, increased IgE levels, autoimmunity, and malignancy. Natural killer (NK) cells are essential for tumor surveillance and defense against virally infected cells. NK cell function relies on Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein for filamentous actin (F-actin) accumulation at the lytic NK cell immunologic synapse. DOCK8 activates cell division cycle 42, which, together with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein, coordinates F-actin reorganization. Although abnormalities in T- and B-cell function have been described in DOCK8-deficient patients, the role of NK cells in this disease is unclear. OBJECTIVES: We sought to understand the role of DOCK8 in NK cell function to determine whether NK cell abnormalities explain the pathogenesis of the clinical syndrome of DOCK8 deficiency. METHODS: A cohort of DOCK8-deficient patients was assembled, and patients' NK cells, as well as NK cell lines with stably reduced DOCK8 expression, were studied. NK cell cytotoxicity, F-actin content, and lytic immunologic synapse formation were measured. RESULTS: DOCK8-deficient patients' NK cells and DOCK8 knockdown cell lines all had decreased NK cell cytotoxicity, which could not be restored after IL-2 stimulation. Importantly, DOCK8 deficiency impaired F-actin accumulation at the lytic immunologic synapse without affecting overall NK cell F-actin content. CONCLUSIONS: DOCK8 deficiency results in severely impaired NK cell function because of an inability to form a mature lytic immunologic synapse through targeted synaptic F-actin accumulation. This defect might underlie and explain important attributes of the DOCK8 deficiency clinical syndrome, including the unusual susceptibility to viral infection and malignancy.


Assuntos
Actinas/imunologia , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/deficiência , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/imunologia , Humanos , Lactente , Células K562 , Masculino
18.
Platelets ; 24(7): 538-43, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23215637

RESUMO

Patients with Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome type 2 (HPS2) present with oculocutaneous albinism, nystagmus, prolonged bleeding time, and increased susceptibility to infections. Twelve HPS2 patients with mutations in the ß3A-subunit of the cytosolic adaptor-related protein complex 3 (AP3B1, also called HPS2) have been described so far. Here, we report on a patient with oculocutaneous albinism who developed a life-threatening bleeding after tonsillectomy. She presented with moderate neutropenia and reduced granulopoiesis. Analyzing patient's impaired platelet function using electron microscopy and flow cytometry led to the diagnosis of HPS2. Flow cytometric analysis of the patient's platelets showed already elevated CD63 expression on resting platelets with no further increase after thrombin stimulation. Natural killer (NK) cell degranulation was partially impaired but target cell lysis of NK cells and cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs) were normal and the patient did not develop signs of hemophagocytic syndrome. Molecular genetic analyses revealed a novel 2 bp-deletion (c.3222_3223delTG) in the last exon of AP3B1 causing a frameshift and a prolonged altered protein. The location of the deletion at the very C-terminal end may prevent a complete loss of the HPS2 protein leading to a less pronounced severity of immunodeficiency than in other HPS2 patients.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Hermanski-Pudlak/genética , Síndrome de Hermanski-Pudlak/imunologia , Mutação , Plaquetas/fisiologia , Criança , Feminino , Genótipo , Síndrome de Hermanski-Pudlak/sangue , Humanos , Fenótipo
20.
Pediatr Hematol Oncol ; 29(7): 585-94, 2012 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22897717

RESUMO

Dedicator of cytokinesis 8 protein (DOCK8) deficiency is a combined immunodeficiency disorder characterized by an expanding clinical picture with typical features of recurrent respiratory or gastrointestinal tract infections, atopic eczema, food allergies, chronic viral infections of the skin, and blood eosinophilia often accompanied by elevated serum IgE levels. The only definitive treatment option is allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We report a patient with early severe manifestation of DOCK8 deficiency, who underwent unrelated allogeneic HSCT at the age of 3 years following a reduced toxicity conditioning regimen. The transplant course was complicated by pulmonary aspergilloma pretransplantation, adenovirus (ADV) reactivation, and cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonitis 4 weeks after transplantation. With antifungal and antiviral treatment the patient recovered. Seven months after transplantation the patient is in excellent clinical condition. Eczematous rash, chronic viral skin infections, and food allergies have subsided, associated with normalization of IgE levels and absolute numbers of eosinophils. Chimerism analysis shows stable full donor chimerism. DOCK8 deficiency can be successfully cured by allogeneic HSCT. This treatment option should be considered early after diagnosis, as opportunistic infections and malignancies that occur more frequently during the natural course of the disease are associated with higher morbidity and mortality.


Assuntos
Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/deficiência , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/terapia , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante , Pré-Escolar , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/genética , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/imunologia , Mutação , Linhagem , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/efeitos adversos , Transplante Homólogo
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