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2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(17): 396-401, 2019 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31048675

RESUMO

In 2010, all 53 countries* in the World Health Organization (WHO) European Region (EUR) reconfirmed their commitment to eliminating measles and rubella and congenital rubella syndrome (1); this goal was included as a priority in the European Vaccine Action Plan 2015-2020 (2). The WHO-recommended elimination strategies in EUR include 1) achieving and maintaining ≥95% coverage with 2 doses of measles-containing vaccine (MCV) through routine immunization services; 2) providing measles and rubella vaccination opportunities, including supplementary immunization activities (SIAs), to populations susceptible to measles or rubella; 3) strengthening surveillance by conducting case investigations and confirming suspected cases and outbreaks with laboratory results; and 4) improving the availability and use of evidence for the benefits and risks associated with vaccination (3). This report updates a previous report (4) and describes progress toward measles elimination in EUR during 2009-2018. During 2009-2017, estimated regional coverage with the first MCV dose (MCV1) was 93%-95%, and coverage with the second dose (MCV2) increased from 73% to 90%. In 2017, 30 (57%) countries achieved ≥95% MCV1 coverage, and 15 (28%) achieved ≥95% coverage with both doses. During 2009-2018, >16 million persons were vaccinated during SIAs in 13 (24%) countries. Measles incidence declined to 5.8 per 1 million population in 2016, but increased to 89.5 in 2018, because of large outbreaks in several EUR countries. To achieve measles elimination in EUR, measures are needed to strengthen immunization programs by ensuring ≥95% 2-dose MCV coverage in every district of each country, offering supplemental measles vaccination to susceptible adults, maintaining high-quality surveillance for rapid case detection and confirmation, and ensuring effective outbreak preparedness and response.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Vigilância da População , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Esquemas de Imunização , Incidência , Lactente , Sarampo/virologia , Vacina contra Sarampo/administração & dosagem , Vírus do Sarampo/genética , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos
3.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30887090

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Measles incidence in the 53 Member States of the World Health Organization (WHO) European Region has fallen dramatically in recent decades. The European Regional Verification Commission for Measles and Rubella Elimination (RVC) verified that 43 member states had interrupted endemic measles transmission for ≥12 months by the end of 2017. However, measles incidence in the region increased sharply in 2018 compared to 2017. The purpose of this article is to assess the current status of measles in the Region in relation to its elimination goal. It also discusses challenges and actions needed to reach this goal. METHODS: Measles surveillance data presented for 2017 and 2018 (as of 1 February 2019) were submitted by all 53 member states. The measles elimination status of countries was obtained from the 2018 report of the seventh meeting of the RVC. RESULTS: In 2017, 25,863 measles cases were reported in 44 countries of the WHO European Region. In 2018, 82,596 measles cases were reported in 47 countries. Most cases were reported by Ukraine (64%) and Serbia (6%). Age was known in 82,588 cases: 8% were <1 year old, 17% were 1-4 years old, 38% were 5-19 years old and 37% were ≥20 years old. Data on vaccination status were provided for 76% of the cases, of which 62% were unvaccinated. Seventy-two measles-related deaths were reported from 10 countries. CONCLUSIONS: For the elimination of measles in the European Region, a high population immunity rate and accurate epidemiological surveillance remain essential. Long-term political commitment by all Member States in these areas is crucial to attain the elimination goal.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Vacina contra Sarampo/administração & dosagem , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão) , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Europa (Continente) , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Adulto Jovem
4.
Vaccine ; 36(36): 5408-5415, 2018 08 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28651838

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Despite availability of safe and cost-effective vaccines to prevent it, measles remains one of the significant causes of death among children under five years of age globally. The World Health Organization (WHO) European Region has seen a drastic decline in measles and rubella cases in recent years, and a few of the once common measles genotypes are no longer detected. Buoyed by this success, all Member States of the Region reconfirmed their commitment in 2010 to eliminating measles and rubella, and made this a central objective of the European Vaccine Action Plan 2015-2020 (EVAP). Nevertheless, sporadic outbreaks continue, recently affecting primarily adolescents and young adults with no vaccination or an incomplete vaccination history. The European Regional Verification Commission for Measles and Rubella Elimination was established in 2011 to evaluate the status of measles and rubella elimination based on documentation submitted annually by each country's national verification committee. DISCUSSION: Each country's commitment to eliminate measles and rubella is influenced by competing health priorities, and in some cases lack of capacity and resources. All countries need to improve case-base surveillance for both measles and rubella, ensure documentation of each outbreak and strengthen the link between epidemiology and laboratory data. Achieving high coverage with measles- and rubella-containing vaccines will require a multisectoral approach to address the root causes of lower uptake in identified communities including service delivery challenges or vaccine safety concerns caused by circulating myths about vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: The WHO European Region has made steady progress towards eliminating measles and rubella and over half of the countries interrupted endemic transmission of both diseases by 2015. The programmatic challenges in disease surveillance, vaccination service delivery and communication in the remaining endemic countries should be addressed through periodic evaluation of the strategies by all stakeholders and exploring additional opportunities to accelerate the ongoing elimination activities.


Assuntos
Sarampo/imunologia , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/imunologia , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Vacina contra Sarampo/uso terapêutico , Vacina contra Rubéola/uso terapêutico , Vacinação/métodos , Organização Mundial da Saúde
5.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 65(17): 438-42, 2016 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27148917

RESUMO

In 2012, the World Health Assembly endorsed the Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP)* with the objective to eliminate measles and rubella in five World Health Organization (WHO) regions by 2020. In September 2013, countries in all six WHO regions had established measles elimination goals, and additional goals for elimination of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome were established in three regions (1). Capacity for surveillance, including laboratory confirmation, is fundamental to monitoring and verifying elimination. The 2012-2020 Global Measles and Rubella Strategic Plan of the Measles and Rubella Initiative(†) calls for effective case-based surveillance with laboratory testing for case confirmation (2). In 2000, the WHO Global Measles and Rubella Laboratory Network (GMRLN) was established to provide high quality laboratory support for surveillance (3). The GMRLN is the largest globally coordinated laboratory network, with 703 laboratories supporting surveillance in 191 countries. During 2010-2015, 742,187 serum specimens were tested, and 27,832 viral sequences were reported globally. Expansion of the capacity of the GMRLN will support measles and rubella elimination efforts as well as surveillance for other vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs), including rotavirus, and for emerging pathogens of public health concern.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças/organização & administração , Saúde Global , Laboratórios/organização & administração , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/prevenção & controle , Metas , Humanos , Organização Mundial da Saúde
6.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 89(4): 345-51, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26580789

RESUMO

The long-standing and widespread use of vaccines against measles has resulted in a dramatic decline in cases and measles mortality worldwide compared with the pre-vaccination era.All regions of the World Health Organization (WHO) have measles elimination goals and the WHO regions of the Americas, Europe and Western Pacific also have rubella elimination goals. This article aims to report on progress toward elimination of measles and rubella in the WHO European Region based on the latest available data. We also discuss current challenges and actions needed to reach this goal in the Region. Despite substantial progress made towards controlling measles and rubella, the countries of the WHO European Region continue to face challenges in interrupting endemic transmission of these diseases. Widespread outbreaks and endemic transmission of measles and rubella persisted in some countries of the Region in 2014 and have continued in 2015. Interrupting endemic transmission in each and every country is necessary to declare elimination for the entire Region. High population immunity and high-quality surveillance are the cornerstones to eliminate measles and rubella. In the absence of sustained political commitment and implementation of the required strategies by all countries, the goal of eliminating these diseases in the WHO European Region is at stake.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/prevenção & controle , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Vacina contra Sarampo/administração & dosagem , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/epidemiologia , Vacinação , Organização Mundial da Saúde
7.
Rev. esp. salud pública ; 89(4): 345-351, jul.-sept. 2015. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-141800

RESUMO

El largo y generalizado uso de las vacunas contra el sarampión se ha traducido en un drástico descenso en los casos y la mortalidad por sarampión en todo el mundo en comparación con la época anterior a la vacunación. Todas las regiones de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) tienen el objetivo de conseguir su eliminación. Las regiones de la OMS de las Américas, Europa y el Pacífico Occidental tienen, así mismo, la meta de eliminar la rubéola. Este artículo tiene como objetivo informar sobre el progreso hacia la eliminación del sarampión y la rubéola en la Región Europea de la OMS sobre la base de los últimos datos disponibles. También se discuten los retos actuales y las acciones necesarias para alcanzarlo. A pesar de los importantes avances alcanzados hacia el control de sarampión y la rubéola, los países de la Región Europea de la OMS siguen enfrentando desafíos en la interrupción de la transmisión endémica de estas enfermedades. Algunos brotes epidémicos y la transmisión endémica del sarampión y la rubéola persistían en algunos países de la Región en 2014 y han continuado en 2015. La interrupción de la transmisión endémica en todos y cada uno de ellos es necesaria para declarar la eliminación en toda la Región. La alta inmunidad de la población y la vigilancia de alta calidad son los pilares para eliminar el sarampión y la rubéola. Sin la existencia de un compromiso político sostenido y de la aplicación de las estrategias requeridas por parte de todos los países, el objetivo de la eliminación de estas dos enfermedades en la Región Europea de la OMS está en juego (AU)


The long-standing and widespread use of vaccines against measles has resulted in a dramatic decline in cases and measles mortality worldwide compared with the pre-vaccination era. All regions of the World Health Organization (WHO) have measles elimination goals and the WHO regions of the Americas, Europe and Western Pacific also have rubella elimination goals. This article aims to report on progress toward elimination of measles and rubella in the WHO European Region based on the latest available data. We also discuss current challenges and actions needed to reach this goal in the Region. Despite substantial progress made towards controlling measles and rubella, the countries of the WHO European Region continue to face challenges in interrupting endemic transmission of these diseases. Widespread outbreaks and endemic transmission of measles and rubella persisted in some countries of the Region in 2014 and have continued in 2015. Interrupting endemic transmission in each and every country is necessary to declare elimination for the entire Region. High population immunity and high-quality surveillance are the cornerstones to eliminate measles and rubella. In the absence of sustained political commitment and implementation of the required strategies by all countries, the goal of eliminating these diseases in the WHO European Region is at stake (AU)


Assuntos
Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/epidemiologia , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/prevenção & controle , Vírus da Rubéola/imunologia , Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde/organização & administração , Erradicação de Doenças/organização & administração , Monitoramento Epidemiológico/organização & administração , Monitoramento Epidemiológico/normas , Vacinação/métodos , Vacina contra Sarampo-Caxumba-Rubéola/imunologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Erradicação de Doenças/instrumentação , Erradicação de Doenças/métodos , Erradicação de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Saúde Pública/métodos
8.
J Med Virol ; 79(8): 1089-94, 2007 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17597483

RESUMO

Hepatitis C virus infection is a significant problem in hemodialysis units. HCV is very variable genetically with six genotypes. Clinical and epidemiological investigation of a new infection requires the determination of both the genotype and the strain of the HCV involved. A prospective, epidemiologic study of 395 dialysis patients in Tunisia was conducted from November 2001 to November 2003 to identify the source of nosocomial transmission using phylogenetic analysis of NS5b and E2 sequences. Hepatitis C infection was diagnosed by screening for anti-HCV antibodies and HCV RNA in sera using third generation ELISA and a qualitative RT-PCR assay. HCV strains were genotyped by sequencing the NS5b region. The genetic relatedness of the HCV strains was studied by sequencing the NS5b and the HVR-1 regions of the HCV genome. Two de novo cases of HCV infection were detected during the follow-up. One of them has been described previously. The case described in this study occurred in a center in which 12 patients were already infected with HCV strains belonging to genotypes 1b (n = 8) and 1a (n = 4). Phylogenetic analysis of the NS5b region from the HCV strains circulating in this center disclosed four clusters, confirmed by analysis of the HVR-1 region, providing strong evidence for nosocomial infection. Epidemiological data showed that these patients were dialyzed during the same shift and in the same area. Phylogenetic analysis of NS5b sequences is useful for determining the HCV genotype and providing evidence of nosocomial transmission.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/transmissão , Unidades Hospitalares de Hemodiálise/normas , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C/transmissão , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/genética , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Hepatite C/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Tunísia/epidemiologia
9.
Tunis Med ; 84(7): 395-402, 2006 Jul.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17039728

RESUMO

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus infecting approximatively 40 million people worldwide. HIV is characterized by a great variability with epidemiological, diagnostic and therapeutic implications. The course of infection goes through three stages (acute infection, clinical latency and AIDS) with the evolution of virological markers (anti-HIV antibodies, p24 antigenemia, plasma RNA and proviral DNA). Direct virological diagnosis is mainly based on molecular tools allowing viral genome detection and amplification with specific primers and nucleic probes besides p24 antigenemia detection, and more rarely viral culture. Antigenic properties of viral proteins elicit in infected patients antibody synthesis, which is detected using serology (ELISA and Western blot tests). The follow-up of infected patients is carried out with plasma HIV-1 RNA quantitation and phenotypic or genotypic characterization of variant isolates. Virological tests are prescribed according to clinical presentation (screening, acute infection, newborn from HIV-infected mother). Most of these virological tools are available in Tunisia, allowing both diagnosis of HIV infection and monitoring of infected individuals. Regarding diagnostic tests indication and interpretation, multidisciplinary concertation is hopeful in order to optimize patient management.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , HIV-1/isolamento & purificação , Western Blotting , DNA Viral/sangue , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/sangue , Proteína do Núcleo p24 do HIV/sangue , Infecções por HIV/sangue , HIV-1/genética , HIV-1/imunologia , Humanos , RNA Viral/sangue , Fatores de Tempo , Tunísia
10.
J Med Virol ; 78(2): 185-91, 2006 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16372289

RESUMO

In order to study the incidence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Tunisian haemodialysis patients and detect its nosocomial transmission, 395 patients were enrolled in a prospective study (November 2001-2003). HCV serological and virological status was determined initially using, respectively a third generation ELISA and an RT-PCR qualitative assay. The genotype of the HCV isolates was determined by sequencing NS5B region. The issue of nosocomial transmission was addressed by sequencing the HVR-1 region of the E2 gene. About 20% of the patients had anti-HCV antibodies and HCV-RNA was detected in 73% of the anti-HCV positive patients. Two cases of de novo HCV infection were identified in two dialysis centers, during virological follow-up of patients susceptible to HCV infection. The incidence of de novo HCV infection was 0.5%. Determining the genotypes in the first center disclosed that all HCV-positive patients were infected with genotype 1b; sequencing of the HVR-1 region of the E2 gene provided strong evidence that the isolate from the newly infected patient and another infected dialysis patient were closely related, confirming nosocomial contamination. The investigation of the second center is pending. Besides, one patient with negative HCV serology had detectable HCV-RNA at the beginning of the study. This case had HCV genotype 1b, two other infected dialysis patients in the same unit had HCV genotypes 4k and 3a; thus precluding nosocomial transmission. Thanks to molecular and phylogenetic methods, one case of nosocomial HCV transmission in haemodialysis was confirmed. Epidemiological investigation suggested nosocomial transmission via the medical and/or nursing staff.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/transmissão , Hepatite C , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecção Hospitalar/virologia , Feminino , Hepacivirus/classificação , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepacivirus/imunologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/etiologia , Hepatite C/transmissão , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite C , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Especificidade da Espécie , Tunísia/epidemiologia , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/genética , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética
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