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3.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e050480, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475179

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To identify mental health prospective trajectories before and after a second lockdown during the COVID-19 pandemic and their associations with somatic symptoms. DESIGN: Prospective Study. SETTING: Population-based study drawn from a probability-based internet panel of over 100 000 Israelis. PARTICIPANTS: Adults aged 18 years or more, representative of the adult Israeli population. The participants were measured at two time points (time 1 (T1) pre-second lockdown N=1029; response rate=76.17%; time 2 (T2) post-second lockdown N=764; response rate=74.24%). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Trajectories of anxiety and adjustment disorder based on clinical cut-off score for probable diagnoses across T1-T2, somatic symptoms at T2. The four trajectories: stable-low, (no probable diagnosis), stable-high (stable probable diagnosis), exacerbation (no probable diagnosis at T1, probable diagnosis at T2), recovery (probable diagnosis at T1, no probable diagnosis at T2). RESULTS: Three anxiety trajectories predicted probable somatic symptoms (stable-high OR=6.451; exacerbation OR=5.379; recovery OR=2.025) compared with the stable-low trajectory. The three adjustment disorder trajectories also predicted somatic symptoms (stable-high OR=4.726; exacerbation OR=6.419; recovery OR=4.666) compared with the stable-low trajectory. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show elevated somatic symptoms among those whose mental health trajectories were poor, exacerbated and those who recovered following the second lockdown. The presentation of somatic symptoms may mask psychological vulnerabilities, even among those who appear to have recovered from the stressor. This indicates that lockdown may be a double-edged sword and should be carefully administered given these populations vulnerabilities.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Sintomas Inexplicáveis , Adulto , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
4.
J Psychiatr Res ; 142: 272-274, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34392054

RESUMO

This is the first study to examine COVID-19 vaccine-related stressors in the context of current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms amongst older adults exposed to traumatic events prior to the COVID-19 outbreak, with particular focus on the associations between ageism, vaccine-related stressors and PTSD. Five hundred and sixty-three participants aged 65 and above reported exposure to at least one traumatic event, their current PTSD level, physical and mental health, ageist attitudes, and vaccine related stressors. Univariate logistic regression revealed that depressive symptoms, ageism, vaccine hesitancy and severity of side effects were the main factors associated with clinical levels of current PTSD. These results suggest that older adults were vulnerable to intensified PTSD symptoms, not only as a result of greater depression, but also as a consequence of other factors, including ageism, vaccination hesitancy and vaccination side effects. Practitioners would benefit from awareness to these factors.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Idoso , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia
5.
J Affect Disord ; 294: 60-62, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34274788

RESUMO

Background The mental health toll of a second lockdown during the COVID-19 pandemic has not been yet examined. The purpose of the study was to examine psychological predictors before the second lockdown and their impact on the prediction of ICD-11 probable Adjustment Disorder (AjD) after the second lockdown. Methods Using a longitudinal design we surveyed a national representative sample of the Israeli population before and after the second lockdown. In wave 1, 1029 were surveyed (Response Rate (RR) = 76.17%) and in Wave 2, 764 were surveyed (RR = 74.24%). Participants answer a questionnaire tapping COVID-19 stressful related events, uncertainty, probable depression predicting ICD-11 and probable AjD. Results The main predictors of AjD after the second lockdown were sex (OR = 1.868; p ≤0.01), having a COVID-19 occupational related stressful event (OR = 2.855; p <0.001), probable depression (OR = 2.520; p <0.001) and Uncertainty (OR = 4.485; p <0.001). Limitations We recognise the limitations of response bias. In addition, we did not measure pre COVID-19 mental health. Conclusions The study results show the mental toll of a second lockdown during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202149

RESUMO

Aim: The current study aims to assess levels of knowledge among Israeli dentists about rare diseases with orofacial manifestations, and whether occupational, regional and social factors influence those levels. Materials and Methods: A total of 309 Israeli dentists participated in an online survey that provided basic demographic information pertaining to their knowledge about rare diseases, their clinical experience with rare diseases, what further information they considered necessary, and which sources of information they most frequently utilize. Results: Young age, country of dental education, practicing in both public and private settings, as well as the number of hours allocated to dental studies and the opportunity to acquire information on rare diseases with orofacial manifestations, all seem to affect the level of knowledge. Conclusions: Developments in the field of rare disease are constantly ongoing, and improvements in post-graduate dental studies about them should keep pace. The results of the current study reveal the areas upon which such curricula should focus with respect to dental practitioners.


Assuntos
Odontólogos , Doenças Raras , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia , Papel Profissional , Doenças Raras/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Br J Clin Psychol ; 2021 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34273110

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The new International Classification of Diseases was published in 2018 (ICD-11; World Health Organization, 2018) and now includes 'Mixed depressive and anxiety disorder' (6A73: MDAD) designated as a mood disorder. This disorder is defined by symptoms of both anxiety and depression occurring more days than not, for a period of two weeks, and neither set of symptoms considered separately reaches a diagnostic threshold for either disorder. However, to date no study has examined the validity of these guidelines in a general population sample. METHODS: Using Goldberg et al.'s (2017) guidelines regarding measurement of depression and anxiety, this study used factor mixture modelling (FMM) to examine the validity of the ICD-11 criteria of MDAD. Symptom endorsement rates are provided as well as demographic predictors and somatization outcomes. RESULTS: Fit indices suggested the two-factor four-class solution was the best balance between model complexity and model fit. The results did not support a class that is subsyndromal to both anxiety and depression. On the contrary, we suggest that there exists a 'Comorbid' class that represents endorsement of both anxiety and depression symptoms at a higher level when compared to both 'anxiety' and 'depression' groups. Demographic predictors, as well as somatization and functional impairment outcomes, provided support for this FMM solution. CONCLUSIONS: The 'Comorbid' group was the largest symptomatic group and had the highest levels of both anxiety and depression symptoms. Importantly, this group was larger than either the 'anxiety' or 'depression' group and was associated with high levels of functional impairment and somatization.

8.
Int J Psychol ; 2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34169522

RESUMO

Mobile phone addiction is a robust phenomenon observed throughout the world. The social aspect of mobile phone use is crucial; therefore, phubbing is a part of the mobile phone addiction phenomenon. Phubbing is defined as ignoring an interlocutor by glancing at one's mobile phone during a face-to-face conversation. The main aim of this study was to investigate how the Phubbing Scale (containing 10 items) might vary across countries, and between genders. Data were collected in 20 countries: Belarus, Brazil, China, Croatia, Ecuador, India, Israel, Italy, Netherlands, Pakistan, Poland, Portugal, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Turkey, UK, Ukraine and USA. The mean age across the sample (N = 7696, 65.8% women, 34.2% men) was 25.32 years (SD = 9.50). The cross-cultural invariance of the scale was investigated using multigroup confirmatory factor analyses (MGCFA) as well as the invariance analyses. Additionally, data from each country were assessed individually via confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs). We obtained two factors, based on only eight of the items: (a) communication disturbances and (b) phone obsession. The 8 items Phubbing Scale.

9.
J Anxiety Disord ; 81: 102406, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33932632

RESUMO

The Adjustment Disorder New Module (ADNM) is a self-report instrument for assessing Adjustment disorder (AjD), but uncertainties remain in evaluating factor structure and psychometric properties of ADNM in previous studies. Three studies were conducted to examine the factor structure, psychometrics properties, and clinical utility of the 20-item version of ADNM (ADNM-20) and 4-item version (ADNM-4) among samples of Hong Kong Chinese (N = 1,415). Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated good model fitness with a bifactor model. Statistical indices indicated unidimensionality of AjD. The model-based reliability showed that the total score of ADNM-20 should be used in scoring and interpretation for capturing the construct of AjD. ADNM-4 model demonstrated full invariance between women and men and partial invariance between age groups. Receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed a cutoff score of 10 for probable AjD. The prevalence of probable AjD was 20.5 % excluding cases with probable depression among a population-representative sample of Hong Kong Chinese amid civil unrest in Hong Kong in July 2019. Cutoff scores of ADNM-20 (49) and ADNM-4 (9) were established for clinically significant common psychiatric conditions, namely PTSD, depression, and anxiety. Both ADNM-20 and ADNM-4 were reliable and valid to assess probable AjD. Implications for clinical research and practice are discussed.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Adaptação , Ansiedade , Transtornos de Adaptação/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Adaptação/epidemiologia , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33917327

RESUMO

In January 2021, Israel started vaccinating healthcare workers (HCWs) and individuals older than 65 years with COVID-19 vaccines. Scientific literature points to vaccine hesitancy as being a major health concern. During time of pandemics, increased consciousness of health behaviors may be encountered. The current study aimed to assess attitudes to general vaccines and to COVID-19 vaccines in particular among adult (>18) Israeli general public, and among Israeli dentists and dental hygienists. Cross-sectional surveys were filled out by a total of 501 participants (361 Israeli adults >18 years, 73 dental hygienists, and 67 dentists). Along with basic demographics, participants responded to the Hebrew VAX, COVID-VAX and HCS scales. Group comparisons were analyzed using t tests and ANOVAs with Scheffe's test used for post hoc comparisons. Dental hygienists demonstrated significantly higher anti-vaccinations approaches than both dentists (p < 0.01) and the general public (p < 0.05). In all groups, attitudes towards the COVID-19 vaccines were more negative compared to attitudes towards general vaccines, with hygienists demonstrating significant negative attitudes compared to dentists (p < 0.05). The general public (p = 0.56) and hygienists demonstrated increased health awareness compared to dentists (p < 0.05). As health awareness has increased during the COVID-19 pandemic primary strategies to combat vaccine hesitancy should be implemented in the general public, and in particular, an dental teams.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Israel , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vacinação
12.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 174, 2021 03 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33731687

RESUMO

This study examined prevalences of anxiety and depression and their correlations with daily routines among Hong Kong Chinese during the COVID-19 pandemic. Random digit dialing recruited two population-representative samples of 6029 residents during a period of low infection and limited intervention (survey 1: n = 4021) and high incidence and intensive measures (survey 2: n = 2008). Prevalence of anxiety for survey 1 and survey 2 were 14.9% and 14% and depression were 19.6% and 15.3%, respectively. Increased odds of anxiety and depression were associated with disrupted routines and lower socioeconomic status in both surveys, whereas depression was inversely related to the novel preventive routine of avoiding going to crowded places in survey 1. The prevalences of anxiety and depression were higher than preceding public health/social crises. A heavier burden of psychiatric conditions was evidenced amongst people experiencing disrupted daily routines across different phases of the pandemic and without novel preventive routines in the early phase.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Depressão/epidemiologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Adaptação Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Estudos de Coortes , Desinfecção , Feminino , Desinfecção das Mãos , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Máscaras , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distanciamento Físico , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Psychiatr Res ; 136: 80-86, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33578110

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Symptom network analysis has become an essential tool for researchers and clinicians investigating the structure of mental disorders. Two methods have been used; one relies on partial correlations, and the second relies on zero order correlations with forced-directed algorithm. This combination was used to examine symptom connections for ICD-11 Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Complex PTSD (CPTSD) as the symptoms for these disorders have been known to be organized in a multi-dimensional and hierarchical fashion. We aimed to examine whether networks of ICD-11 CPTSD symptoms reproduced across samples from three African countries. METHODS: We produced network models based on data from 2524 participants in Nigeria (n = 1018), Kenya (n = 1006), and Ghana (n = 500). PTSD and CPTSD symptoms were measured using the International Trauma Questionnaire (Cloitre et al., 2018). RESULTS: The CPTSD network analysis using force-directed method alongside partial correlations based on Gaussian Graphical Models (GGM) revealed the multidimensional-hierarchal structure of CPTSD. The within-cluster symptoms of Disturbances in Self Organization (DSO) and PTSD were strongly correlated with each other in all networks, and the cross-cluster symptoms were lower. The most central symptom was 'feelings of worthlessness', a symptom of Negative Self-Concept that is part of the CPTSD cluster. The networks were very similar across the three countries. CONCLUSIONS: Findings support the ICD-11 model of PTSD and CPTSD in three African countries.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Humanos , Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Personalidade , Autoimagem , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Br J Psychiatry ; 218(3): 172-173, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33622452
15.
J Psychiatr Res ; 135: 212-217, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33497875

RESUMO

Anxiety, perceived control and trust in information sources have all been shown to significantly influence health and social behaviours during pandemics. We measured these factors in a nationally representative on-street survey collected across five regions of Thailand (N = 1000, May 2020, response rate 82.6%). Anxiety was positively associated with stocking up on food (OR 2.62 (95% CI 1.88-3.66)) and taking vitamins (OR 2.37 (1.59-3.54)); perceived control with (recommended) coughing into an elbow (OR 2.42 (1.80-3.26)), checking on others (OR 1.52 (1.00-2.31)), and negatively with stockpiling (OR 0.72 (0.55-0.96)). Those relying on family/friends, doctors online or foreign sources were more likely to take vitamins (ORs 4.11, 2.88. 2.82), respondents using TV news less likely to stock up on food (OR 0.57 (0.37-0.86)) and to wear a mask for self-protection (OR 0.27 (0.10-0.73)). Comparing findings with analogous cross-sectional data on anxiety collected at the start of the pandemic (Feb 2020, Goodwin et al., 2020) there was no significant difference between personal anxiety in the two surveys (F (1, 1197) = 0.72, p = .40)) but perceived control was lower in the later survey (F (1, 1197) = 6.72 p = .01)). Findings suggest reduced perceived control as the pandemic developed and illuminate possible negative impacts of anxiety and low sense of control on pandemic behaviours.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , COVID-19 , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Controle Interno-Externo , Angústia Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tailândia , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Psychosom Res ; 142: 110358, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33508705

RESUMO

The ICD-11 reconceptualized Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) as a narrowly defined fear-based disorder, and introduced Complex PTSD (CPTSD) as a new diagnosis comprised of PTSD symptoms and symptoms of 'Disturbances in Self-Organization' (DSO) that are more reflective of general dysphoria. Previous research suggests that PTSD symptoms mediate the association between childhood trauma and physical health problems, including cardiovascular disease. No study has yet assessed how posttraumatic stress symptoms, as outlined in the ICD-11, influence the association between childhood trauma and somatic problems in adulthood. OBJECTIVE: This cross-sectional descriptive study examined whether PTSD and DSO symptoms mediated the associations between childhood physical and sexual abuse and childhood emotional abuse and neglect and somatic problems and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) load in adulthood. METHODS: General adult population samples from Ireland (N = 1020) and the United Kingdom (N = 1051) completed self-report questionnaires online. RESULTS: Structural equation modelling results indicated that PTSD and DSO symptoms fully mediated the association between both forms of childhood trauma and somatic problems, and that PTSD symptoms but not DSO symptoms fully mediated the association between childhood trauma and CVD load. CONCLUSION: Psychological interventions that effectively treat CPTSD symptoms may have the added benefit of reducing risk of physical health problems.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Doença/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Affect Disord ; 282: 594-601, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33445081

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study examined the associations between components of psychological resilience and mental health at different levels of exposure to COVID-19 stressors. METHODS: A population-representative sample of 4,021 respondents were recruited and assessed between February 25th and March 19th, 2020. Respondents reported current anxiety symptoms (7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale [GAD-7]), cognitive components (perceived ability to adapt to change, tendency to bounce back after adversities) and behavioral components (regularity of primary and secondary daily routines) of resilience, worry about COVID-19 infection, and sociodemographics. RESULTS: Logistic regression revealed that cognitive and behavioral components of resilience were not correlated with probable anxiety (GAD-7≥10) among those reporting no worry. Among respondents who were worried, all resilient components were inversely associated with probable anxiety. Specifically, propensity to bounce back and regular primary routines were more strongly related to lower odds of probable anxiety among those reporting lower levels of worry. LIMITATIONS: The cross-sectional design limits causal inference. Second, other resilient components and some key daily routines that could be related to better mental health were not assessed. Third, generalizability of the findings to other similar major cities is uncertain because cases and deaths due to COVID-19 in Hong Kong have been comparatively lower. CONCLUSIONS: To foster mental health, cultivation of confidence in one's ability to adapt to change and a propensity to bounce back from hardship should be coupled with sustainment of regular daily routines. Such assessment and intervention protocols could be more relevant to those who suffer heightened levels of exposure to COVID-19 stressors.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Resiliência Psicológica , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Hong Kong , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Anxiety Stress Coping ; 34(2): 191-202, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32744873

RESUMO

Background: Although ICD-11 adjustment (AjD), posttraumatic stress (PTSD) and complex posttraumatic stress (CPTSD) are commonly diagnosed disorders following exposure to stressful or traumatic life events, their dimensional structure and co-occurrence has never been tested in a single study. The present study explored the latent structure of AjD, PTSD, and CPTSD symptoms and their relationship to stressful and traumatic life events to determine the degree of distinctiveness between these constructs.Methods: Participants were clinical patients (N = 331) who completed self-report measures of stressful and traumatic life events, AjD (The Adjustment Disorder - New Module 8 (ADNM-8)) and PTSD / CPTSD (The International Trauma Questionnaire - ITQ).Results: Using confirmatory factor analysis, a second-order model comprised of correlated latent variables of AjD, PTSD, and CPTSD provided the best fit of the data. It was also found that stressors and traumatic life events were positively associated with all of these conditions although childhood trauma was only associated with CPTSD.Conclusions: The current findings support the ICD-11 model of related-but-distinct stress-related disorders. We discuss the existence of a stress-response continuum and how the current findings impact the development of clinical interventions that may be shared across, or unique to, each stress-related disorder.

19.
Psychol Trauma ; 13(2): 142-148, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32940522

RESUMO

Background: The primary aim of the current study was to establish the cutoffs scores for the Subjective Traumatic Outlook (STO), a relatively new tool that examines the introspective worldview of those exposed to traumatic events. This tool was developed as a complementary scale to be used in conjunction with the observed-phenomenological measures of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) complex PTSD (CPTSD). The present study examines the predictive power of STO for distinguishing between PTSD and CPTSD in African countries. Method: A national representative (based on age and gender) sample of 2,554 participants was drawn from 3 African countries (Nigeria, Kenya, and Ghana) who completed the International Trauma Questionnaire (ITQ) and the STO. We conducted a set of analyses examining that alignment of ITQ probable PTSD and CPTSD and different STO cutoff scores. Results: Results suggest that the STO single-factor structure was stable across countries, had a strong association with PTSD and CPTSD levels, and had predictive utility in differentiating between PTSD and CPTSD. Moreover, we found that there are different cutoffs for the STO in the different countries. Conclusion: There is a strong but distinctive association between the introspective and the observed-phenomenological approaches of PTSD and CPTSD. Our findings call for more integrative approaches for the assessment of PTSD and CPTSD and suggest that there are cultural differences in STO. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).

20.
J Epidemiol Community Health ; 75(2): 189-192, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32967892

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Despite the burgeoning literature on COVID-19, there has been little cross-national work on the correlates of mental health or its association with pandemic behaviours. We considered psychological distress, quarantine status, social distancing and self-medication in China and the UK. METHODS: We conducted online surveys in China (N=1135) and the UK (N=1293), beginning in March 2020. Participants indicated demographics, whether they were in quarantine, relationship status, social distancing, use of vitamins/traditional medicines and completed the K6 scale of psychological distress. RESULTS: 19.1% of the respondents in China were at risk of severe mental illness (SMI: 95% CI 16.9% to 21.6%) and 16.6% (95% CI 14.6% to 18.8%) in the UK. Risk of SMI was among those in quarantine (OR 11.18 (95% CI 4.08 to 30.62); p=0.001) and in younger respondents (OR 2.61 (95% CI 1.01 to 6.79); p=0.048) although the latter effect was significant only in the UK. Risk of SMI was positively associated with self-medication (ßs=0.17, p=0.001) and negatively with social distancing in China (country×SMI ß=0.51, p=0.001), with further interactions for age and sex (social distancing), age, marital status and quarantine (self-medication). DISCUSSION: Across the countries, quarantine was associated with poorer mental health, while greater psychological distress was associated with greater self-medication rate. Future work should explore further cross-national variations in psychological health and behaviours during pandemics.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Angústia Psicológica , Quarentena/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Distanciamento Físico , SARS-CoV-2 , Automedicação , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
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