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1.
Neuromuscul Disord ; 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704158

RESUMO

Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a neurodegenerative disease associated with severe muscle atrophy and weakness in the limbs and trunk. We report interim efficacy and safety outcomes as of March 29, 2019 in 25 children with genetically diagnosed SMA who first received nusinersen in infancy while presymptomatic in the ongoing Phase 2, multisite, open-label, single-arm NURTURE trial. Fifteen children have two SMN2 copies and 10 have three SMN2 copies. At last visit, children were median (range) 34.8 [25.7-45.4] months of age and past the expected age of symptom onset for SMA Types I or II; all were alive and none required tracheostomy or permanent ventilation. Four (16%) participants with two SMN2 copies utilized respiratory support for ≥6 h/day for ≥7 consecutive days that was initiated during acute, reversible illnesses. All 25 participants achieved the ability to sit without support, 23/25 (92%) achieved walking with assistance, and 22/25 (88%) achieved walking independently. Eight infants had adverse events considered possibly related to nusinersen by the study investigators. These results, representing a median 2.9 years of follow up, emphasize the importance of proactive treatment with nusinersen immediately after establishing the genetic diagnosis of SMA in presymptomatic infants and emerging newborn screening efforts.

2.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 14(1): 209, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455396

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hyaline fibromatosis syndrome (HFS) is a rare clinical condition in which bi-allelic variants in ANTXR2 are associated with extracellular hyaline deposits. It manifests as multiple skin nodules, patchy hyperpigmentation, joint contractures and severe pain with movement. HFS shows some clinical overlap to Farber disease (FD), a recessive lysosomal storage disorder. RESULTS: We here present the largest cohort of independent, genetically confirmed HFS cases reported to date: in 19 unrelated index patients, we identified ten distinct homozygous ANTXR2 mutations, three of which are novel frame-shift variants. The associated clinical data are consistent with the previous hypothesis of non-truncating variants in the terminal exons 13-17 to confer rather mild phenotypes. The novel observation of gender-dependent disease manifestation in our cohort received support from a meta-analysis of all previously published cases. Untargeted blood-based metabolomics revealed patient samples to be biochemically distinct from control samples. Numerous potential HFS biomarker metabolites could thus be identified. We also found metabolomics profiles of HFS patients to highly overlap with those from FD patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our study extends the mutational spectrum for HFS, suggests gender-dependency of manifestation, and provides pilot metabolomics data for biomarker identification and a better pathomechanistic understanding of the disorder.

3.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 42(5): 831-838, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31240737

RESUMO

Classical homocystinuria is a recessive inborn error of metabolism caused by mutations in the cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) gene. The highest incidence of CBS deficiency in the world is found in the country of Qatar due to the combination of high rates of consanguinity and the presence of a founder mutation, c.1006C>T (p.R336C). This mutation does not respond to pyridoxine and is considered severe. Here we describe the creation of a mouse that is null for the mouse Cbs gene and expresses human p.R336C CBS from a zinc-inducible transgene (Tg-R336C Cbs -/- ). Zinc-treated Tg-R336C Cbs -/- mice have extreme elevation in both serum total homocysteine (tHcy) and liver tHcy compared with control transgenic mice. Both the steady-state protein levels and CBS enzyme activity levels in liver lysates from Tg-R336C Cbs -/- mice are significantly reduced compared to that found in Tg-hCBS Cbs -/- mice expressing wild-type human CBS. Treatment of Tg-R336C Cbs -/- mice with the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib results in stabilization of liver CBS protein and an increase in activity to levels found in corresponding Tg-hCBS Cbs -/- wild type mice. Surprisingly, serum tHcy did not fully correct even though liver enzyme activity was as high as control animals. This discrepancy is explained by in vitro enzymatic studies of mouse liver extracts showing that p.R336C causes reduced binding affinity for the substrate serine by almost 7-fold and significantly increased dependence on pyridoxal phosphate in the reaction buffer. These studies demonstrate that the p.R336C alteration effects both protein stability and substrate/cofactor binding.

4.
Adv Ther ; 36(7): 1786-1811, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31102204

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (HoFH) is a rare, autosomal disease affecting the clearance of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) from circulation, and leading to early-onset atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Treatment consists mainly of statins, lipoprotein apheresis (LA) and, more recently, the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein inhibitor lomitapide. Lomitapide is not licensed for use in children, but has been made available through an expanded access programme or on a named patient basis. METHODS: This case series includes 11 HoFH patients in 10 different centres in eight countries, less than 18 years of age (mean 11.6 ± 1.1 years, 64% male), with signs of ASCVD, and who have received treatment with lomitapide (mean dose 24.5 ± 4.3 mg/day; mean exposure 20.0 ± 2.9 months). Background lipid-lowering therapy was given according to local protocols. Lomitapide was commenced with a stepwise dose escalation from 2.5 mg or 5 mg/day; dietary advice and vitamin supplements were provided as per the product label for adults. Laboratory analysis was conducted as part of regular clinical care. RESULTS: In the 11 cases, mean baseline LDL-C was 419 ± 74.6 mg/dL and was markedly reduced by lomitapide to a nadir of 176.7 ± 46.3 mg/dL (58.4 ± 6.8% decrease). Six patients achieved recommended target levels for children below 135 mg/dL, five of whom had LA frequency reduced. In one case, LDL-C levels were close to target when lomitapide was started but remained stable despite 75% reduction in LA frequency (from twice weekly to biweekly). Adverse events were mainly gastrointestinal in nature, occurred early in the treatment course and were well managed. Three patients with excursions in liver function tests were managed chiefly without intervention; two patients had decreases in lomitapide dose. CONCLUSIONS: Lomitapide demonstrated promising effectiveness in paediatric HoFH patients. Adverse events were manageable, and the clinical profile of the drug is apparently similar to that in adult patients. FUNDING: Amryt Pharma.

5.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 42(5): 818-830, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30968424

RESUMO

Classical homocystinuria (HCU) is the most common inborn error of metabolism in Qatar, with an incidence of 1:1800, and is caused by the Qatari founder p.R336C mutation in the CBS gene. This study describes the natural history and clinical manifestations of HCU in the Qatari population. A single center study was performed between 2016 and 2017 in 126 Qatari patients, from 82 families. Detailed clinical and biochemical data were collected, and Stanford-Binet intelligence, quality of life and adherence to treatment assessments were conducted prospectively. Patients were assigned to one of three groups, according to the mode of diagnosis: (a) late diagnosis group (LDG), (b) family screening group (FSG), and (c) newborn screening group (NSG). Of the 126 patients, 69 (55%) were in the LDG, 44 (35%) in the NSG, and 13 (10%) in the FSG. The leading factors for diagnosis in the LDG were ocular manifestations (49%), neurological manifestations (45%), thromboembolic events (4%), and hyperactivity and behavioral changes (1%). Both FSG and NSG groups were asymptomatic at time of diagnosis. NSG had significantly higher intelligence quotient, quality of life, and adherence values compared with the LDG. The LDG and FSG had significantly higher methionine levels than the NSG. The LDG also had significantly higher total homocysteine levels than the NSG and FSG. Regression analysis confirmed these results even when adjusting for age at diagnosis, current age, or adherence. These findings increase the understanding of the natural history of HCU and highlight the importance of early diagnosis and treatment. SYNOPSIS: A study in 126 Qatari patients with HCU, including biochemical, clinical, and other key assessments, reveals that patients with a late clinical diagnosis have a poorer outcome, hereby highlighting the importance of early diagnosis and treatment.

6.
Pediatr Neurol ; 96: 40-47, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30926181

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tetrahydrobiopterin is an essential cofactor for the hydroxylation of aromatic amino acids phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan. Therefore, tetrahydrobiopterin deficiency results in hyperphenylalaninemia as well as dopamine and serotonin depletion in the central nervous system. The enzyme 6-pyruvoyltetrahydropterin synthase catalyzes the second step of de novo synthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin, and its deficiency is the most frequent cause of tetrahydrobiopterin metabolism disorders. METHOD: We conducted a retrospective chart review of 28 subjects from 24 families with molecularly confirmed 6-pyruvoyltetrahydropterin synthase deficiency from six centers in three Arab countries. We reviewed clinical, biochemical, and molecular data. We also reviewed previously published cohorts of subjects with 6-pyruvoyltetrahydropterin synthase deficiency. RESULTS: Similar to previous observations, we show that early treatment (less than two months) is associated with better outcome. We identify eight PTS variants in 24 independent families. The most common variant is (c.238A>G; p.M80V) with an allele count of 33%. We also identify one novel variant (c.2T>G; p.?). CONCLUSION: The deficiency of 6-pyruvoyltetrahydropterin synthase is relatively common in the Arab population and should be considered in individuals with hyperphenylalaninemia. More natural history studies with comprehensive biochemical and molecular genetics data are needed for a robust base for the development of future therapy.

7.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(6): 927-935, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30919572

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical exome sequencing (CES) is rapidly becoming the diagnostic test of choice in patients with suspected Mendelian diseases especially those that are heterogeneous in etiology and clinical presentation. Reporting large CES series can inform guidelines on best practices for test utilization, and improves accuracy of variant interpretation through clinically-oriented data sharing. METHODS: This is a retrospective series of 509 probands from Qatar who underwent singleton or trio CES either as a reflex or naïve (first-tier) test from April 2014 to December 2016 for various clinical indications. RESULTS: The CES diagnostic yield for the overall cohort was 48.3% (n = 246). Dual molecular diagnoses were observed in 2.1% of cases; nearly all of whom (91%) were consanguineous. We report compelling variants in 11 genes with no established Mendelian phenotypes. Unlike reflex-WES, naïve WES was associated with a significantly shorter diagnostic time (3 months vs. 18 months, p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Middle Eastern patients tend to have a higher yield from CES than outbred populations, which has important implications in test choice especially early in the diagnostic process. The relatively high diagnostic rate is likely related to the predominance of recessive diagnoses (60%) since consanguinity and positive family history were strong predictors of a positive CES.

8.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 707, 2019 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30755602

RESUMO

Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (ARSs) function to transfer amino acids to cognate tRNA molecules, which are required for protein translation. To date, biallelic mutations in 31 ARS genes are known to cause recessive, early-onset severe multi-organ diseases. VARS encodes the only known valine cytoplasmic-localized aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase. Here, we report seven patients from five unrelated families with five different biallelic missense variants in VARS. Subjects present with a range of global developmental delay, epileptic encephalopathy and primary or progressive microcephaly. Longitudinal assessment demonstrates progressive cortical atrophy and white matter volume loss. Variants map to the VARS tRNA binding domain and adjacent to the anticodon domain, and disrupt highly conserved residues. Patient primary cells show intact VARS protein but reduced enzymatic activity, suggesting partial loss of function. The implication of VARS in pediatric neurodegeneration broadens the spectrum of human diseases due to mutations in tRNA synthetase genes.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/genética , Mutação , Valina-tRNA Ligase/genética , Alelos , Anticódon , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Progressão da Doença , Epilepsia/enzimologia , Epilepsia/patologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Mutação com Perda de Função , Masculino , Microcefalia/enzimologia , Microcefalia/genética , Modelos Moleculares , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/enzimologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/patologia , Linhagem , Biossíntese de Proteínas , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , RNA de Transferência/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
9.
Genet Med ; 21(9): 2025-2035, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30723320

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Lanosterol synthase (LSS) gene was initially described in families with extensive congenital cataracts. Recently, a study has highlighted LSS associated with hypotrichosis simplex. We expanded the phenotypic spectrum of LSS to a recessive neuroectodermal syndrome formerly named alopecia with mental retardation (APMR) syndrome. It is a rare autosomal recessive condition characterized by hypotrichosis and intellectual disability (ID) or developmental delay (DD), frequently associated with early-onset epilepsy and other dermatological features. METHODS: Through a multicenter international collaborative study, we identified LSS pathogenic variants in APMR individuals either by exome sequencing or LSS Sanger sequencing. Splicing defects were assessed by transcript analysis and minigene assay. RESULTS: We reported ten APMR individuals from six unrelated families with biallelic variants in LSS. We additionally identified one affected individual with a single rare variant in LSS and an allelic imbalance suggesting a second event. Among the identified variants, two were truncating, seven were missense, and two were splicing variants. Quantification of cholesterol and its precursors did not reveal noticeable imbalance. CONCLUSION: In the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway, lanosterol synthase leads to the cyclization of (S)-2,3-oxidosqualene into lanosterol. Our data suggest LSS as a major gene causing a rare recessive neuroectodermal syndrome.

11.
Gene ; 689: 34-42, 2019 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30553997

RESUMO

Clinical Exome Sequencing (CES) has increasingly become a popular diagnostic tool in patients suffering from genetic disorders that are clinically and genetically complicated. Myeloproliferative Neoplasms (MPNs) is an example of a heterogeneous disorder. In Qatar, familial cases of MPNs are more frequently seen than described in the literature. In this study, we aimed to use CES to classify six Qatari subjects that were suspected of clinical diagnosis of MPNs, according to the WHO 2008 diagnostic criteria for hematologic malignancies, and identify variants that can potentially explain the phenotypic diversity of MPNs. We sequenced six Qatari subjects using CES, of whom, three probands were unrelated families and three members were from the same family, all probands come from consanguineous families, and had a positive family history of MPNs. CES identified 61 variants in 50 genes; of which, 13 were recurrently mutated in our patients. Ten novel variants were identified in ten known genes related to MPNs and seven variants were identified in seven novel candidate genes. The genotype of the six subjects was due to a combination of different variants in different genes. This study serves as a pilot study to investigate the complexity of the genotype of patients with MPNS in Qatar, and serves as a guide for further well-controlled genetic epidemiological studies for patients with MPNs. CES is a powerful tool to be used in the genetic clinics for differential and definitive diagnosis of patients with MPNs.


Assuntos
Análise Mutacional de DNA/métodos , Neoplasias Hematológicas/etiologia , Transtornos Mieloproliferativos/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Neoplasias Hematológicas/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Transtornos Mieloproliferativos/epidemiologia , Projetos Piloto , Catar/epidemiologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
12.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 6(6): 865-872, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30556325

RESUMO

This article presents an overview of the cancer genetics program in Qatar. In addition to summarizing clinical, research, educational, and other aspects, data related to testing outcomes (over the course of approximately 5.5 years) are presented.


Assuntos
Utilização de Instalações e Serviços , Testes Genéticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Genética Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Oncologia/métodos , Genética Médica/educação , Genética Médica/organização & administração , Humanos , Oncologia/organização & administração , Catar
13.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(6): 948-967, 2018 12 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30526868

RESUMO

Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD) are genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous conditions due to defects in genes involved in development and function of the nervous system. Individuals with NDD, in addition to their primary neurodevelopmental phenotype, may also have accompanying syndromic features that can be very helpful diagnostically especially those with recognizable facial appearance. In this study, we describe ten similarly affected individuals from six unrelated families of different ethnic origins having bi-allelic truncating variants in TMEM94, which encodes for an uncharacterized transmembrane nuclear protein that is highly conserved across mammals. The affected individuals manifested with global developmental delay/intellectual disability, and dysmorphic facial features including triangular face, deep set eyes, broad nasal root and tip and anteverted nostrils, thick arched eye brows, hypertrichosis, pointed chin, and hypertelorism. Birthweight in the upper normal range was observed in most, and all but one had congenital heart defects (CHD). Gene expression analysis in available cells from affected individuals showed reduced expression of TMEM94. Global transcriptome profiling using microarray and RNA sequencing revealed several dysregulated genes essential for cell growth, proliferation and survival that are predicted to have an impact on cardiotoxicity hematological system and neurodevelopment. Loss of Tmem94 in mouse model generated by CRISPR/Cas9 was embryonic lethal and led to craniofacial and cardiac abnormalities and abnormal neuronal migration pattern, suggesting that this gene is important in craniofacial, cardiovascular, and nervous system development. Our study suggests the genetic etiology of a recognizable dysmorphic syndrome with NDD and CHD and highlights the role of TMEM94 in early development.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Adolescente , Alelos , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Facies , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertelorismo/genética , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Malformações do Sistema Nervoso/genética , Fenótipo , Transcriptoma/genética
14.
J Clin Invest ; 128(12): 5489-5504, 2018 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30395541

RESUMO

We report the molecular, cellular, and clinical features of 5 patients from 3 kindreds with biallelic mutations in the autosomal LIG1 gene encoding DNA ligase 1. The patients exhibited hypogammaglobulinemia, lymphopenia, increased proportions of circulating γδT cells, and erythrocyte macrocytosis. Clinical severity ranged from a mild antibody deficiency to a combined immunodeficiency requiring hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Using engineered LIG1-deficient cell lines, we demonstrated chemical and radiation defects associated with the mutant alleles, which variably impaired the DNA repair pathway. We further showed that these LIG1 mutant alleles are amorphic or hypomorphic, and exhibited variably decreased enzymatic activities, which lead to premature release of unligated adenylated DNA. The variability of the LIG1 genotypes in the patients was consistent with that of their immunological and clinical phenotypes. These data suggest that different forms of autosomal recessive, partial DNA ligase 1 deficiency underlie an immunodeficiency of variable severity.

15.
Hum Mutat ; 2018 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30408270

RESUMO

Homocystinuria is a rare inborn error of methionine metabolism caused by cystathionine ß-synthase (CBS) deficiency. The prevalence of homocystinuria in Qatar is 1:1,800 births, mainly due to a founder Qatari missense mutation, c.1006C>T; p.R336C (p.Arg336Cys). We characterized the structure-function relationship of the p.R336C-mutant protein and investigated the effect of different chemical chaperones to restore p.R336C-CBS activity using three models: in silico, ΔCBS yeast, and CRISPR/Cas9 p.R336C knock-in HEK293T and HepG2 cell lines. Protein modeling suggested that the p.R336C induces severe conformational and structural changes, perhaps influencing CBS activity. Wild-type CBS, but not the p.R336C mutant, was able to restore the yeast growth in ΔCBS-deficient yeast in a complementation assay. The p.R336C knock-in HEK293T and HepG2 cells decreased the level of CBS expression and reduced its structural stability; however, treatment of the p.R336C knock-in HEK293T cells with betaine, a chemical chaperone, restored the stability and tetrameric conformation of CBS, but not its activity. Collectively, these results indicate that the p.R336C mutation has a deleterious effect on CBS structure, stability, and activity, and using the chemical chaperones approach for treatment could be ineffective in restoring p.R336C CBS activity.

16.
Am J Med Genet A ; 2018 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30345601

RESUMO

Hyperphosphatasia with mental retardation syndrome 4 (HPMRS4) is a rare autosomal recessive condition caused by an impairment of glycosylphophatidylinositol biosynthesis. The cardinal features of HPMRS4 include; characteristic facial features, severe intellectual disability and various neurologic abnormalities. We report here detailed clinical, biochemical, and molecular findings of 14 patients clinically suspected to have HPMRS4, from three Middle-Eastern Countries; Saudi Arabia, Qatar, and Oman. All patients in our series presented with the cardinal features pointing to HPMRS4 and with an elevated alkaline phosphatase level. Five patients had megalocornea, which have been reported recently in an Arab patient. Additionally, fracture, bilateral coxa valga, camptodactyly, truncal obesity, and hyperpigmented macules of the upper thigh, each was seen once and was not described before with HPMRS4. Additional clinical and radiological findings are described, supporting the novel clinical and radiological findings recently described in Egyptian patients. The utilization of homozygosity mapping coupled with PGAP3 sequencing and whole exome sequencing facilitated the mutation detection in these patients. These missense mutations include c.320C > T (p.S107 L), c.850C > T (p.H284Y), and c.851A > G (p.H284R) in the PGAP3 gene. We believe that the recurrent mutations identified in our cohort may represent founder mutations in big tribes from a certain geographical region of Saudi Arabia, Qatar, and Oman. Therefore, in case of a clinical suspicion of HPMRS4 in these populations, targeted genetic testing for the identified mutations should be performed first to expedite the genetic diagnosis.

17.
Genet Med ; 2018 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30237576

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Establishing links between Mendelian phenotypes and genes enables the proper interpretation of variants therein. Autozygome, a rich source of homozygous variants, has been successfully utilized for the high throughput identification of novel autosomal recessive disease genes. Here, we highlight the utility of the autozygome for the high throughput confirmation of previously published tentative links to diseases. METHODS: Autozygome and exome analysis of patients with suspected Mendelian phenotypes. All variants were classified according to the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics guidelines. RESULTS: We highlight 30 published candidate genes (ACTL6B, ADAM22, AGTPBP1, APC, C12orf4, C3orf17 (NEPRO), CENPF, CNPY3, COL27A1, DMBX1, FUT8, GOLGA2, KIAA0556, LENG8, MCIDAS, MTMR9, MYH11, QRSL1, RUBCN, SLC25A42, SLC9A1, TBXT, TFG, THUMPD1, TRAF3IP2, UFC1, UFM1, WDR81, XRCC2, ZAK) in which we identified homozygous likely deleterious variants in patients with compatible phenotypes. We also identified homozygous likely deleterious variants in 18 published candidate genes (ABCA2, ARL6IP1, ATP8A2, CDK9, CNKSR1, DGAT1, DMXL2, GEMIN4, HCN2, HCRT, MYO9A, PARS2, PLOD3, PREPL, SCLT1, STX3, TXNRD2, WIPI2) although the associated phenotypes are sufficiently different from the original reports that they represent phenotypic expansion or potentially distinct allelic disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Our results should facilitate the timely relabeling of these candidate disease genes in relevant databases to improve the yield of clinical genomic sequencing.

19.
Nat Genet ; 50(8): 1093-1101, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30013181

RESUMO

Neuronal migration defects, including pachygyria, are among the most severe developmental brain defects in humans. Here, we identify biallelic truncating mutations in CTNNA2, encoding αN-catenin, in patients with a distinct recessive form of pachygyria. CTNNA2 was expressed in human cerebral cortex, and its loss in neurons led to defects in neurite stability and migration. The αN-catenin paralog, αE-catenin, acts as a switch regulating the balance between ß-catenin and Arp2/3 actin filament activities1. Loss of αN-catenin did not affect ß-catenin signaling, but recombinant αN-catenin interacted with purified actin and repressed ARP2/3 actin-branching activity. The actin-binding domain of αN-catenin or ARP2/3 inhibitors rescued the neuronal phenotype associated with CTNNA2 loss, suggesting ARP2/3 de-repression as a potential disease mechanism. Our findings identify CTNNA2 as the first catenin family member with biallelic mutations in humans, causing a new pachygyria syndrome linked to actin regulation, and uncover a key factor involved in ARP2/3 repression in neurons.

20.
JIMD Rep ; 2018 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29721912

RESUMO

MICU1 encodes a Ca2+ sensing, regulatory subunit of the mitochondrial uniporter, a selective calcium channel within the organelle's inner membrane. Ca2+ entry into mitochondria helps to buffer cytosolic Ca2+ transients and also activates ATP production within the organelle. Mutations in MICU1 have previously been reported in 17 children from nine families with muscle weakness, fatigue, normal lactate, and persistently elevated creatine kinase, as well as variable features that include progressive extrapyramidal signs, learning disabilities, nystagmus, and cataracts. In this study, we report the clinical features of an additional 13 patients from consanguineous Middle Eastern families with recessive mutations in MICU1. Of these patients, 12/13 are homozygous for a novel founder mutation c.553C>T (p.Q185*) that is predicted to lead to a complete loss of function of MICU1, while one patient is compound heterozygous for this mutation and an intragenic duplication of exons 9 and 10. The founder mutation occurs with a minor allele frequency of 1:60,000 in the ExAC database, but in ~1:500 individual in the Middle East. All 13 of these patients presented with developmental delay, learning disability, muscle weakness and easy fatigability, and failure to thrive, as well as additional variable features we tabulate. Consistent with previous cases, all of these patients had persistently elevated serum creatine kinase with normal lactate levels, but they also exhibited elevated transaminase enzymes. Our work helps to better define the clinical sequelae of MICU1 deficiency. Furthermore, our work suggests that targeted analysis of the MICU1 founder mutation in Middle Eastern patients may be warranted.

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