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1.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32194195

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the COAPT trial, transcatheter mitral valve repair (TMVr) with the MitraClip rapidly improved health status and reduced the long-term risks of death and heart failure (HF) hospitalization in patients with HF and severe secondary mitral regurgitation (SMR) who remained symptomatic despite maximally-tolerated guideline directed medical therapy (GDMT). OBJECTIVE: To examine if early health status changes were associated with long-term clinical outcomes in the COAPT population. METHODS: We evaluated the association between change in health status (KCCQ-OS) from baseline to 1 month and the composite rate of death or HF hospitalization between 1 month and 2 years in the COAPT trial and tested whether treatment (TMVr or GDMT alone) modified this association. RESULTS: Among 551 patients with HF and severe SMR who were alive at 1 month, those randomized to TMVr were more likely than GDMT alone to achieve a ≥10-point improvement in KCCQ-OS from baseline to 1 month (TMVr 58%, GDMT alone 26%). Early improvement in KCCQ-OS was inversely associated with the risk of death or HF hospitalization between 1 month and 2 years (p<0.001). When analyzed as a continuous variable, a 10-point increase in KCCQ-OS was associated with a 14% lower risk of death or HF hospitalization (HR 0.86, 95% CI 0.81-0.92, p<0.001), with no significant interaction with treatment group (pinteraction=0.17). After adjusting for demographic and clinical factors, the association between change in KCCQ-OS and outcomes was strengthened (HR 0.79, 95% CI 0.73-0.86, p<0.001). CONCLUSION: In patients with HF and severe SMR, a short-term change in disease-specific health status was strongly associated with the subsequent long-term risk of death or HF hospitalization. These findings reinforce the prognostic utility of serial KCCQ-OS assessments to identify patients at risk for poor long-term clinical outcomes in this population.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32181569

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We compared the effect of bivalirudin or heparin and use or nonuse of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors (GPI) on the outcome of left main coronary artery (LMCA) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the randomized EXCEL trial. BACKGROUND: The optimal antithrombotic regimen to support PCI of the LMCA remains controversial because of low representation of this subset in clinical trials. METHODS: The PCI cohort (n = 928) in EXCEL was divided according to bivalirudin versus heparin antithrombin treatment and compared for the primary composite endpoint of death, myocardial infarction (MI), or stroke at 30 days and 5 years. RESULTS: Bivalirudin was used in 319 patients (34.4%). The composite endpoint at 30 days occurred in 7.2% versus 3.8% bivalirudin and heparin patients, respectively, p = .02; at 5 years, the composite endpoint occurred in 26.3% versus 19.9% bivalirudin and heparin patients, respectively, p = .02. Major bleeding was more frequent in bivalirudin patients (4.1% versus 1.3%, p = .008). There were no differences in stent thrombosis between the groups. Bivalirudin use was an independent predictor of the 30-day composite endpoint (OR 2.88, 95% CI 1.28-6.48, p = .01) but not of the 5-year composite endpoint (OR 1.30, 95% CI 0.84-2.02, p = .23). GPI use was infrequent (n = 67, 7.2%) and was not associated with adverse outcomes. CONCLUSION: Among patients undergoing LMCA PCI in the EXCEL trial, procedural use of bivalirudin was associated with greater rates of periprocedural MI and the 30-day composite endpoint without reducing bleeding complications. Five-year outcomes were similar. GPIs were used infrequently and were not associated with clinical outcomes.

3.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 75(6): 590-604, 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32057373

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The majority of stent-related major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) are believed to occur within the first year. Very-late (>1-year) stent-related MACE have not been well described. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency and predictors of very-late stent-related events or MACE by stent type. METHODS: Individual patient data from 19 prospective, randomized metallic stent trials maintained at a leading academic research organization were pooled. Very-late MACE (a composite of cardiac death, myocardial infarction [MI], or ischemia-driven target lesion revascularization [ID-TLR]), and target lesion failure (cardiac death, target-vessel MI, or ID-TLR) were assessed within year 1 and between 1 and 5 years after PCI with bare-metal stents (BMS), first-generation drug-eluting stents (DES1) and second-generation drug-eluting stents (DES2). A network meta-analysis was performed to evaluate direct and indirect comparisons. RESULTS: Among 25,032 total patients, 3,718, 7,934, and 13,380 were treated with BMS, DES1, and DES2, respectively. MACE rates within 1 year after PCI were progressively lower after treatment with BMS versus DES1 versus DES2 (17.9% vs. 8.2% vs. 5.1%, respectively, p < 0.0001). Between years 1 and 5, very-late MACE occurred in 9.4% of patients (including 2.9% cardiac death, 3.1% MI, and 5.1% ID-TLR). Very-late MACE occurred in 9.7%, 11.0%, and 8.3% of patients treated with BMS, DES1, and DES2, respectively (p < 0.0001), linearly increasing between 1 and 5 years. Similar findings were observed for target lesion failure in 19,578 patients from 12 trials. Findings were confirmed in the network meta-analysis. CONCLUSIONS: In this large-scale, individual patient data pooled study, very-late stent-related events occurred between 1 and 5 years after PCI at a rate of ∼2%/year with all stent types, with no plateau evident. New approaches are required to improve long-term outcomes after PCI.

4.
Am J Cardiol ; 125(5): 685-693, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926634

RESUMO

Elderly patients may have increased platelet reactivity and adverse events after percutaneous coronary intervention. Whether age is an independent predictor of worse outcomes after accounting for platelet reactivity is unknown. We sought to determine the relation between age and platelet reactivity on 2-year outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention with drug-eluting stents (DES). ADAPT-DES was a prospective observational registry comprising 8,582 DES-treated patients. Patients were categorized with an age cutoff of 75 years. On-clopidogrel platelet reactivity was evaluated with VerifyNow P2Y12 testing. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to describe the relation between increasing age and 2-year clinical outcomes. Patients ≥75 old were more likely to be women and had more cardiovascular risk factors and more extensive coronary artery disease than younger patients. Residual platelet reactivity on-clopidogrel increased slightly with age (adjusted r = 0.05, p <0.0001). Age ≥75 years was associated with greater all-cause mortality (adjusted HR 1.64, 95% CI 1.25 to 2.15, p <0.001), myocardial infarction (adjusted HR 1.33, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.74, p = 0.04) and clinically relevant bleeding (adjusted HR 1.33, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.61 p = 0.003). In contrast, the risk of stent thrombosis was independent of age (adjusted HR 0.83, 95% CI 0.46 to 1.52, and p = 0.55). Considered as a continuous variable, age was directly related to clinically relevant bleeding, cardiac and all-cause mortality, was inversely related to stent thrombosis, and was not related to myocardial infarction. There was no significant interaction between age and on-treatment platelet reactivity for the risk of 2-year clinical outcomes. In conclusion, increasing age had a stronger association with the risk of death and bleeding than of thrombotic events. Despite being associated with older age, higher residual platelet reactivity did not modify the adjusted relative risks of ischemic and bleeding events associated with age.

6.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 13(1): 86-93, 2020 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918946

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine clinical outcomes between treatment groups over long-term follow-up. BACKGROUND: The safety and efficacy of a ridaforolimus-eluting stent (RES) was evaluated in the BIONICS (BioNIR Ridaforolimus-Eluting Coronary Stent System in Coronary Stenosis) and NIREUS (BioNIR Ridaforolimus Eluting Coronary Stent System [BioNIR] European Angiography Study) trials, demonstrating noninferiority of RES in comparison with a zotarolimus-eluting stent (ZES) regarding 1-year target lesion failure (TLF) and 6-month angiographic late lumen loss, respectively. METHODS: Patient-level data from the BIONICS (N = 1,919) and NIREUS (N = 302) randomized trials were pooled, and outcomes in patients implanted with RES and ZES compared. Broad inclusion criteria allowed enrollment of patients with acute coronary syndromes and complex lesions. The primary endpoint was the 2-year rate of TLF or clinically driven target lesion revascularization. RESULTS: A total of 2,221 patients (age 63.2 ± 10.3 years; 79.7% men) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention with RES (n = 1,159) or ZES (n = 1,062) were included. Clinical and angiographic characteristics were similar between groups. At 2 years, the primary endpoint of TLF was similar among patients implanted with RES and ZES (7.0% vs. 7.2%; p = 0.94). Rates of target lesion revascularization (4.8% RES vs. 4.1% ZES; p = 0.41) and target vessel-related myocardial infarction (3.1% RES vs. 3.8% ZES; p = 0.52) did not differ between groups. The overall rate of stent thrombosis was also similar (0.5% RES vs. 0.9% ZES; p = 0.39). CONCLUSIONS: In a pooled analysis of 2 randomized trials, 2-year clinical outcomes were similar between patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention with RES and ZES. These results support the long-term safety and efficacy of RES for the treatment of a broad population of patients with coronary artery disease.

7.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 13(3): 375-387, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954680

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence and impact on mortality of repeat revascularization after index percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) for left main coronary artery disease (LMCAD). BACKGROUND: The impact on mortality of the need of repeat revascularization following PCI or CABG in patients with unprotected LMCAD is unknown. METHODS: All patients with LMCAD and site-assessed low or intermediate SYNTAX (Synergy Between PCI With Taxus and Cardiac Surgery) scores randomized to PCI (n = 948) or CABG (n = 957) in the EXCEL (Evaluation of XIENCE Versus Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery for Effectiveness of Left Main Revascularization) trial were included. Repeat revascularization events were adjudicated by an independent clinical events committee. The effect of repeat revascularization on mortality through 3-year follow-up was examined in time-varying Cox regression models. RESULTS: During 3-year follow-up, there were 346 repeat revascularization procedures among 185 patients. PCI was associated with higher rates of any repeat revascularization (12.9% vs. 7.6%; hazard ratio: 1.73; 95% confidence interval: 1.28 to 2.33; p = 0.0003). Need for repeat revascularization was independently associated with increased risk for 3-year all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio: 2.05; 95% confidence interval: 1.13 to 3.70; p = 0.02) and cardiovascular mortality (adjusted hazard ratio: 4.22; 95% confidence interval: 2.10 to 8.48; p < 0.0001) consistently after both PCI and CABG (pint = 0.85 for both endpoints). Although target vessel revascularization and target lesion revascularization were both associated with an increased risk for mortality, target vessel non-target lesion revascularization and non-target vessel revascularization were not. CONCLUSIONS: In the EXCEL trial, repeat revascularization during follow-up was performed less frequently after CABG than PCI and was associated with increased mortality after both procedures. Reducing the need for repeat revascularization may further improve long-term survival after percutaneous or surgical treatment of LMCAD. (EXCEL Clinical Trial; NCT01205776).

8.
Eur Heart J ; 41(8): 943-954, 2020 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711153

RESUMO

AIMS: Left ventricular pressure overload is associated with activation of the cardiac renin-angiotensin system, which may contribute to myocardial fibrosis and worse clinical outcomes. We sought to assess the association between treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) at baseline and clinical outcomes in patients with symptomatic, severe aortic stenosis (AS) undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) in the PARTNER 2 trial and registries. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 3979 intermediate, high, or prohibitive risk patients who underwent TAVR in the PARTNER 2 trial and registries (excluding the valve in valve registry) were included in the study. Clinical outcomes at 2 years were compared according to baseline ACEI/ARB treatment status using Kaplan-Meier event rates and study-stratified multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models. Sensitivity analysis was conducted using propensity score matching. Of 3979 patients who were included in the current analysis, 1736 (43.6%) were treated and 2243 (56.4%) were not treated with ACEI/ARB at baseline. Treatment with ACEI/ARB was associated with lower 2-year all-cause mortality (18.6% vs. 27.5%, P < 0.0001), cardiovascular mortality (12.3% vs. 17.9%, P < 0.0001), and non-cardiovascular mortality (7.2% vs. 11.7%, P < 0.0001). Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/ARB treatment at baseline remained independently associated with a lower hazard of 2-year all-cause and cardiovascular mortality after multivariable adjustment, and propensity score matching. CONCLUSION: In a large cohort of patients with severe symptomatic AS from the PARTNER 2 trial and registries, ACEI/ARB treatment at baseline was independently associated with a lower risk of 2-year all-cause and cardiovascular mortality.

9.
Am J Cardiol ; 125(4): 500-506, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31813531

RESUMO

The incidence, recurrence rate, and prognostic significance of atrial fibrillation or flutter (AF) following hospital discharge after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) for left main coronary artery disease (LMCAD) are unknown. We sought to determine the 3-year incidence and clinical impact of postdischarge AF in patients with LMCAD treated with PCI or CABG. In the EXCEL trial, 1,905 patients with LMCAD were randomized to PCI versus CABG. We analyzed the occurrence of postdischarge AF through 3 years and its time-adjusted association with adverse outcomes. A total of 1,802 patients without AF at baseline comprised the study cohort. Within 3 years, 227 episodes of AF occurred (29 [12.8%] in the PCI arm and 198 [87.2%] in the CABG arm, p <0.0001); of those, 63 (27.7%) occurred following discharge from the index hospitalization in 57 patients. In-hospital AF predicted postdischarge AF (hazard ratio [HR] 2.94, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.42 to 6.10, p = 0.004). By multivariable analysis, time-updated postdischarge AF was an independent predictor of 3-year cardiovascular death (HR 4.91, 95% CI 1.92 to 12.60, p = 0.0009), stroke (HR 4.87, 95% CI 1.12 to 21.12, p = 0.035), and the composite outcome of death, stroke or myocardial infarction (HR 3.09, 95% CI 1.56 to 3.6-6.11, p = 0.001). Among patients with postdischarge AF, the rate of the primary composite outcome did not vary according to presence or absence of in-hospital AF (21.0% vs 23.8%, p = 0.78). In conclusion, postdischarge AF following CABG or PCI for LMCAD is associated with increased mortality and stroke. In-hospital atrial fibrillation is an independent predictor of AF following discharge.

10.
Am J Cardiol ; 125(2): 169-175, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735328

RESUMO

The prognostic impact of resting heart rate (RHR) following revascularization with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in patients with left main coronary artery disease (LMCAD) is unknown. We aimed to assess the effect of RHR at discharge on 3-year cardiovascular outcomes following PCI and CABG for LMCAD. In the EXCEL trial, 1,905 patients with LMCAD were randomized to PCI with everolimus-eluting stents versus CABG. RHR was measured at discharge following the index hospitalization. The principal outcome measure was the composite endpoint of death, myocardial infarction (MI) or stroke at 3 years. Among 1,303 patients in sinus rhythm with available ECGs, the median (IQR) discharge RHR was 72 (62to 81) bpm. Median discharge RHR was higher after CABG versus PCI (78 [IQR 70 to 86] versus 65 [IQR 59 to 74] bpm, p <0.0001). At 3 years, 107 patients (8.2%) had a primary composite endpoint event including 61 patients (4.7%) who died. By multivariable analysis, discharge RHR assessed as a continuous variable (per 5 bpm) was an independent predictor at 3 years of the primary composite endpoint of death, MI, or stroke (hazard ratio [HR] 1.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06 to 1.25, p = 0.0006); the secondary composite endpoint of death, MI, stroke, or ischemia-driven revascularization at 3 years (HR 1.12, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.19, p = 0.0007); all-cause mortality (HR 1.18, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.31, p = 0.002); and cardiovascular death (HR 1.16, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.33, p = 0.046). No significant interactions were present between RHR and treatment with PCI versus CABG for the primary (pint = 0.20) or secondary (pint = 0.47) composite endpoints. In patients with LMCAD undergoing revascularization, an increased RHR at discharge was associated with a higher risk for adverse cardiovascular outcomes at 3 years, irrespective of treatment modality.

11.
Eur Heart J ; 41(8): 958-969, 2020 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31883339

RESUMO

AIMS: B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is a cardiac neurohormone that is secreted in response to ventricular volume expansion and pressure overload. There are conflicting data regarding the association between BNP levels and outcomes after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). We therefore sought to assess the association between baseline BNP and adverse outcomes in patients with symptomatic, severe aortic stenosis (AS), and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≥50%, undergoing TAVR in the PARTNER 2 Trial and Registry. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 1782 patients were included in the analysis, and BNP was evaluated both as a continuous log-transformed value and by a priori categories: low (<50 pg/mL), normal (≥50 and <100 pg/mL), moderately elevated (≥100 and <400 pg/mL), or markedly elevated (≥400 pg/mL). Clinical outcomes from discharge to 2 years were compared between patients according to their baseline BNP level, using Kaplan-Meier event rates and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models. After adjustment, spline curves revealed a non-linear association between log-transformed BNP and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in which both the lowest and highest values were associated with increased mortality. Two-year all-cause mortality rates for those with low (n = 86), normal (n = 202), moderately elevated (n = 885), and markedly elevated (n = 609) baseline BNP were 20.0%, 9.8%, 17.7%, and 26.1%, respectively. In adjusted models, compared to a normal baseline BNP, low [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 2.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-5.0, P-value 0.005], moderately elevated (adjusted HR 1.6, 95% CI 1.0-2.6, P-value 0.06), and markedly elevated (adjusted HR 2.1, 95% CI 1.3-3.5, P-value 0.003) BNP were associated with increased all-cause mortality, driven by cardiovascular mortality. CONCLUSIONS: In a large cohort of patients with severe symptomatic AS and preserved LVEF undergoing TAVR, all-cause and cardiovascular mortality rates at 2 years were higher in patients with low and markedly elevated BNP levels. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ unique identifier #NCT01314313, #NCT02184442, #NCT03222128, and #NCT03222141.

12.
Coron Artery Dis ; 31(1): 59-65, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31809479

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: There are limited data on bivalirudin monotherapy in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACS) with positive biomarkers of myocardial necrosis (troponin and/or creatine kinase-myocardial band isoenzyme). We sought to evaluate the safety and efficacy of bivalirudin monotherapy in patients with positive biomarkers from the Acute Catheterization and Urgent Intervention Triage Strategy (ACUITY) trial. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We compared the net adverse clinical events [composite ischemia - (death, myocardial infarction, or unplanned ischemic revascularization) - or noncoronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG)-related major bleeding] among patients with biomarker-positive NSTE-ACS in the ACUITY trial overall and by antithrombotic strategy. RESULTS: Among 13 819 patients with NSTE-ACS enrolled in ACUITY, 4728 patients presented with positive biomarkers and underwent an early invasive strategy. Of those, 1547 were randomized to heparin plus a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor (GPI), 1555 to bivalirudin plus GPI, and 1626 to bivalirudin monotherapy. Compared with biomarker-negative patients, biomarker-positive patients had higher 30-day rates of net adverse clinical events (14.0 vs. 12.4%; P = 0.04), all-cause death (1.3 vs. 0.5%; P = 0.001), cardiac death (1.1 vs. 0.5%; P = 0.005), and non-CABG-related major bleeding (6.5 vs. 5.2%, P = 0.03). At 30 days, bivalirudin monotherapy was associated with significantly less non-CABG-related major bleeding (bivalirudin monotherapy 4.1% vs. bivalirudin plus GPI 8.4% vs. heparin plus GPI 7.1%) with comparable rates of composite ischemia (bivalirudin monotherapy 9.2% vs. bivalirudin plus GPI 9.9% vs. heparin plus GPI 8.4%). In a multivariable model, bivalirudin monotherapy was associated with a significant reduction in non-CABG-related major bleeding but was not associated with an increased risk of death, myocardial infarction, unplanned revascularization or stent thrombosis. CONCLUSION: Compared with heparin plus GPI or bivalirudin plus GPI, bivalirudin monotherapy provides similar protection from ischemic events with less major bleeding at 30 days among patients with NSTE-ACS and positive biomarkers.

13.
Prog Cardiovasc Dis ; 62(6): 479-481, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805295

RESUMO

Tricuspid regurgitation (TR), particularly functional or secondary TR, is increasingly recognized in clinical practice and when at least moderate in severity is associated with significant increase in mortality. In recent years multiple new trans-catheter devices have been developed to treat tricuspid regurgitation and are now undergoing clinical trial evaluations. The choice of appropriate endpoints in TR trials is particularly challenging as the disease is complex, often co-exists with left heart disease and pulmonary hypertension, and has not been extensively studied. Endpoints utilized in left heart disease trials have been applied with success to TR trials, and innovative trial designs will allow the initiation of pivotal randomized trials. Ultimately the development of TR specific endpoints may provide for more specific and robust assessment of these novel therapies.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721430

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We sought to compare clinical outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients on versus not on hemodialysis (HD) and examine whether high on-treatment platelet reactivity (HPR) further impacts outcomes among patients on HD. BACKGROUND: Both chronic kidney disease (CKD) and HPR are predictors of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) after PCI. METHODS: Two-year outcomes of patients from the prospective, multicenter ADAPT-DES study (N = 8,582) were analyzed according to HD status at enrollment. All patients underwent platelet function testing with the VerifyNow assay; HPR on clopidogrel was defined as P2Y12 reaction units (PRU) >208. RESULTS: Compared with non-HD patients, patients on HD (n = 85) had significantly higher baseline PRU (median 254 vs. 188, p = .001) and more frequently had HPR (61.7% vs. 42.5%, p < .001). HD was associated with increased 2-year rates of MACE (death, myocardial infarction (MI) or definite stent thrombosis (ST); 23.4% vs. 10.7%, p < .001). HD was also strongly associated with 2-year overall mortality, cardiac death, MI, target vessel revascularization, major bleeding, stroke and ST. Following adjustment for HPR and other covariates, HD was independently associated with overall mortality, MI, ST, and major bleeding at 2 years. The relationship between HD status and 2-year MACE was consistent in patients with and without HPR (Pinteraction = .78). CONCLUSIONS: Nearly two-thirds of patients on HD exhibited HPR on clopidogrel, and both HD and HPR were independently associated with 2-year adverse outcomes after DES implantation. However, the deleterious impact of HD on clinical outcomes was present in both patients with and without HPR.

15.
Circ Cardiovasc Interv ; 12(11): e007982, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672031

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Smoking is a potent risk factor for coronary artery disease; however, prior studies describe increased platelet inhibition with clopidogrel among smokers, and some studies report improved outcomes among smokers, a finding described as the smoker's paradox. This study assessed the relationship between platelet reactivity and clinical outcomes after percutaneous coronary interventions among current smokers and nonsmokers. METHODS: ADAPT-DES (Assessment of Dual Antiplatelet Therapy With Drug-Eluting Stents) was a prospective, multicenter registry of patients treated with coronary drug-eluting stents. Platelet reactivity was assessed by the VerifyNow point-of-care assay; high on-treatment platelet reactivity (HPR) was defined as P2Y12 reaction units >208. A propensity-adjusted multivariable analysis was performed to determine the relationship between current smoking, platelet reactivity, and subsequent adverse events. RESULTS: Among 8582 patients, 22.6% were active smokers at the time of their percutaneous coronary intervention procedure. Current smokers were younger and had fewer comorbidities compared with nonsmokers. Current smokers had lower mean P2Y12 reaction units and lower rates of HPR compared with nonsmokers. Current smokers had similar rates of adverse events compared with nonsmokers. HPR was associated with higher rates of adverse events for both smokers and nonsmokers; however, there was evidence of interaction between smoking status and the effect of HPR. Smokers with HPR had significantly higher rates of stent thrombosis. Adverse event rates were highest among current smokers with HPR. CONCLUSIONS: Current smoking was associated with lower P2Y12 reaction units and lower rates of HPR on average; however, the combination of current smoking and HPR was associated with high rates of stent thrombosis. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00638794.

16.
Am J Nephrol ; 50(6): 465-472, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31655801

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with an increased risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes, in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, most studies used bare-metal stents or first-generation drug-eluting stents, and less guideline-directed therapy to reduce cardiovascular risk was reported in CKD patients. This study investigates the impact of moderate-CKD on patients undergoing PCI in the current era. METHODS: Patient level data were pooled from 2 multicenter randomized trials (BIONICS and NIREUS trials) with a near "all-comers" design, comparing PCI with ridaforolimus-eluting stents vs. zotarolimus-eluting stents in patients with CAD. Patients were classified according to the presence or absence of moderate-CKD, defined as creatinine clearance (CrCl) <60 mL/min. We compared baseline characteristics, angiographic findings, and clinical outcomes 1-year post-PCI. RESULTS: 236/2,201 (10.7%) patients had CKD, mean CrCl of 50.3 + 7.8 mL/min. These patients were generally older and more often with hypertension than non-CKD patients, but the use of guideline-directed therapy was similar between the groups. CKD was associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular death (hazard ratio [HR] 6.08; 95% CI 2.11-17.51; p < 0.001), but with a reduced occurrence of repeated revascularization, including ischemia-driven revascularization (HR 0.47; 95% CI 0.24-0.92; p < 0.05). The rate of repeated angiography per severe cardiovascular adverse event was significantly lower in the CKD than the non-CKD group (23/38 [61%] vs. 253/334 [76%], p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Moderate-CKD in patients with CAD was associated with higher rates of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, yet with a lower risk of revascularization 1-year following PCI. Lack of guideline-directed medical therapy does not explain the adverse outcome of CKD patients.

17.
Circ Heart Fail ; 12(8): e005809, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525069

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Impaired left ventricular function is associated with worse prognosis among patients with aortic stenosis treated medically or with surgical aortic valve replacement. It is unclear whether reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) is an independent predictor of adverse outcomes after transcatheter aortic valve replacement. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients who underwent transcatheter aortic valve replacement in the PARTNER 2 trials (Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valves) and registries were stratified according to presence of reduced LVEF (<50%) at baseline, and 2-year risk of cardiovascular mortality was compared using Kaplan-Meier methods and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression. Of 2991 patients, 839 (28%) had reduced LVEF. These patients were younger, more often males, and were more likely to have comorbidities, such as coronary disease, diabetes mellitus, and renal insufficiency. Compared with patients with normal LVEF, patients with low LVEF had higher crude rates of 2-year cardiovascular mortality (19.8% versus 12.0%, P<0.0001) and all-cause mortality (27.4% versus 19.2%, P<0.0001). Mean aortic valve gradient was not associated with clinical outcomes other than heart failure hospitalizations (hazard ratio [HR], 0.99; CI, 0.99-1.00; P=0.03). After multivariable adjustment, patients with reduced versus normal LVEF had significantly higher adjusted risk of cardiovascular death (adjusted HR, 1.42, 95% CI, 1.11-1.81; P=0.005), but not all-cause death (adjusted HR, 1.20; 95% CI, 0.99-1.47; P=0.07). When LVEF was treated as continuous variable, it was associated with increased 2-year risk of both cardiovascular mortality (adjusted HR per 10% decrease in LVEF, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.07-1.27; P=0.0006) and all-cause mortality (adjusted HR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.01-1.16; P=0.02). CONCLUSIONS: In this patient-level pooled analysis of PARTNER 2 patients who underwent transcatheter aortic valve replacement, baseline LVEF was an independent predictor of 2-year cardiovascular mortality. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifiers: NCT01314313, NCT02184442, NCT03222128, and NCT02184441.

18.
Am J Cardiol ; 124(9): 1380-1388, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477234

RESUMO

Hypertension is associated with vascular and endothelial dysfunction that may result in a greater propensity for reactive platelets to cause thrombosis. We sought to assess whether the risk of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with on-clopidogrel residual high platelet reactivity (HPR) varies in patients with versus without hypertension. Assessment of dual antiplatelet therapy with drug eluting stents (ADAPT-DES) was a prospective, multicenter registry of patients successfully treated with coronary drug-eluting stents (DES). HPR was defined as P2Y12 reaction units (PRU) >208, as assessed by the VerifyNow point-of-care assay. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression was used to assess whether the adjusted association between HPR and 2-year risk of MACE (cardiac death, myocardial infarction [MI], or stent thrombosis) was different in patients with versus without hypertension. A total of 6833 of 8582 patients (79.6%) had a history of hypertension. Patients with compared with those without hypertension were older, more likely to have other cardiovascular risk factors, and had higher PRU (190.1 ± 97.3 vs 179.5 ± 94.3; p <0.0001). Patients with hypertension had significantly higher 2-year rates of MACE (7.0% vs 4.4%, p <0.001), all-cause death (4.2% vs 2.5%, p = 0.001), and MI (5.2% vs 3.2%, p <0.001), and had nominally higher rates of stent thrombosis (1.0% vs 0.5%, p = 0.059). A significant interaction was present between hypertension and HPR regarding 2-year MACE risk (adjusted hazard ratio for HPR vs no HPR 1.38, 95% confidence interval 1.14 to 1.68 for patients with hypertension vs 0.81, 95% confidence interval 0.50 to 1.33 for patients without hypertension, p = 0.046). In conclusion, following successful PCI with DES, 2-year MACE rates are increased in patients with both hypertension and residual HPR on clopidogrel. HPR had a greater effect on the risk of adverse events among patients with versus without hypertension.

19.
Am J Cardiol ; 124(9): 1363-1371, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493829

RESUMO

Small vessel diameter and residual platelet reactivity are independent predictors of thrombotic events after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We sought to determine whether an interaction exists between residual platelet reactivity and stent diameter regarding the occurrence of stent thrombosis and other adverse events after PCI. We stratified patients in the prospective ADAPT-DES registry who underwent single-lesion PCI according to if they received a small diameter stent (SDS, defined as a stent with a diameter of 2.25 mm). Patients receiving an SDS were compared with patients receiving a stent ≥2.5 mm using Kaplan-Meier rates and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression. We defined major adverse cardiac events (MACE) as the composite of cardiac death, myocardial infarction, and stent thrombosis (ST). Among 5,608 patients who underwent single-lesion PCI in ADAPT-DES, 222 (4.0%) patients received an SDS. Patients with an SDS were more likely than patients without an SDS to have 3-vessel disease but received, on average, fewer stents and were less likely to present with a thrombotic lesion. Receiving versus not receiving an SDS was associated with increased risk of ST (adjusted hazard ratio 4.35, 95% confidence interval 1.95 to 9.73, p <0.001) as well as MACE (adjusted hazard ratio 1.75, 95% confidence interval 1.11 to 2.75, p = 0.02). There was no statistical interaction between platelet reactivity and SDS regarding ST (p = 0.12) or MACE (p = 0.51). In conclusion, PCI with small drug-eluting stents is associated with a high risk of thrombotic events, including ST. Further studies should explore whether alternative treatment strategies are appropriate in small vessels.

20.
Circ Cardiovasc Interv ; 12(9): e008007, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495220

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The SYNTAX (Synergy Between Percutaneous Coronary Intervention With Taxus and Cardiac Surgery) score (SS), a measure of anatomic coronary artery disease (CAD) extent and complexity, has proven useful in past studies to determine the absolute and relative prognosis after revascularization with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) versus coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). We sought to assess contemporary outcomes after PCI and CABG in patients with left main CAD according to SS and revascularization type from a large randomized trial. METHODS: The EXCEL trial (Evaluation of XIENCE Versus Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery for Effectiveness of Left Main Revascularization) randomized patients with left main CAD and site-assessed SS≤32 to PCI with everolimus-eluting stents or CABG. Four-year outcomes were examined according to angiographic core laboratory-assessed SS using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: A total of 1840 patients with left main CAD randomized to PCI (n=914) versus CABG (n=926) had angiographic core laboratory SS assessment. The mean SS was 26.5±9.3 (range 5-74); 24.1% of patients had angiographic core laboratory-assessed SS ≥33. The 4-year rate of the primary major adverse cardiac event end point of death, stroke, or myocardial infarction was similar between PCI and CABG (18.6% versus 16.7%, respectively; P=0.40) and did not vary according to SS (Pinteraction=0.33). Rates of ischemia-driven revascularization rose with increasing SS after PCI, but not after CABG. As a result, the major secondary composite end point of major adverse cardiac or cerebrovascular events (major adverse cardiac event or ischemia-driven revascularization) occurred more frequently with PCI than CABG (28.0% versus 22.0%, P=0.01), a difference which rose progressively with increasing SS (Pinteraction=0.03). CONCLUSIONS: In the EXCEL trial, the 4-year primary composite major adverse cardiac event end point of death, myocardial infarction, or stroke was similar after PCI with everolimus-eluting stents and CABG and was independent of the baseline anatomic complexity and extent of CAD. In contrast, the relative and absolute hazard of major adverse cardiac or cerebrovascular events with PCI compared with CABG rose progressively with the SS. These data should be considered by the heart team when deciding between PCI versus CABG for revascularization in patients with left main CAD. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier NCT01205776.

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